List of countries by public debt

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General government debt in OECD (% of GDP)

Below is a list of countries and territories by public debt (also called government debt or sovereign debt[1]). Gross government debt is government financial liabilities that are debt instruments.[2]: 81  A debt instrument is a financial claim that requires payment of interest and/or principal by the debtor to the creditor in the future. Examples include debt securities (such as bonds and bills), loans, and government employee pension obligations.[2]: 207  Net debt equals gross debt minus financial assets that are debt instruments.[2]: 208, s7.243  Net debt estimates are not always available since some government assets are difficult to value, such as loans made at concessional rates.[2]: 208–209, s7.246 

Changes in government debt over time reflect primarily borrowing due to past government deficits.[3] A deficit occurs when a government's expenditures exceed revenues.[4] [2]: 79–82 

In the list below, government debt is measured for the general government sector because the level of government responsible for programs (for example, health care) differs across countries, and the general government comprises central, state, provincial, regional, and local governments, and social security funds.[2]: 18, s2.58, s2.59 

To make the numbers comparable across countries of different size, government debt is measured as a percentage of a country's gross domestic product (GDP). For context on the magnitude of the debt numbers, European Union member countries have an agreement, the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), to maintain a general government gross debt of no more than 60% of GDP.[5] The aim of the SGP is to prevent excessive debt burdens.[6]

Government Debt as a Percentage of GDP in 2021[edit]

Source: International Monetary Fund: World Economic Outlook Database[7]
(When data for 2021 is not available, numbers are IMF staff estimates)

Country General government gross debt
(Percent of GDP)
General government net debt
(Percent of GDP)
Afghanistan n/a
Albania 73.9 64.1
Algeria 63.0 51.9
Andorra 48.5
Angola 86.4
Antigua and Barbuda 101.4
Argentina 80.9
Armenia 60.2
Aruba 101.8
Australia 58.4 34.6
Austria 82.9 60.6
Azerbaijan 26.4
Bahamas 103.3
Bahrain 128.5
Bangladesh 35.5
Barbados 135.4 134.3
Belarus 41.2
Belgium 108.4 93.7
Belize 82.2
Benin 49.9
Bhutan 132.4
Bolivia 80.5 70.6
Bosnia and Herzegovina 35.4 22.0
Botswana 19.5 14.2
Brazil 93.0 57.2
Brunei Darussalam 2.5
Bulgaria 23.8 13.7
Burkina Faso 52.4
Burundi 66.6
Cabo Verde (Cape Verde) 142.3 130.5
Cambodia 36.3
Cameroon 45.5 44.1
Canada 112.9 31.6
Central African Republic 47.6
Chad 56.0
Chile 36.3 20.1
China 71.5
Colombia 64.6 56.8
Comoros 26.0
Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 16.1
Congo (Republic of Congo) 103.6
Costa Rica 68.2
Côte d'Ivoire 52.1
Croatia 79.8
Cuba
Cyprus 103.6 51.0
Czech Republic 42.0 26.4
Denmark 36.6 11.0
Djibouti 46.0 45.8
Dominica 102.7
Dominican Republic 63.1 49.3
Ecuador 62.2
Egypt 89.2 84.5
El Salvador 82.4
Equatorial Guinea 42.8 29.7
Eritrea 176.3
Estonia 17.6 4.4
Eswatini 45.0 38.0
Ethiopia 53.0 49.6
Fiji 83.0 82.2
Finland 66.2 34.1
France 112.6 101.1
Gabon 65.8
Gambia 83.8
Georgia 49.5
Germany 69.6 47.0
Ghana 82.1 77.3
Greece 199.4
Grenada 70.3
Guatemala 30.8
Guinea 42.5
Guinea-Bissau 78.5
Guyana 42.9 38.4
Haiti 24.2
Honduras 50.2
Hong Kong SAR 2.1
Hungary 76.8 69.8
Iceland 74.6 59.5
India 84.2
Indonesia 41.2 37.9
Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran) 42.4 36.1
Iraq 59.1
Ireland 55.3 50.4
Israel 68.0 65.1
Italy 150.9 138.3
Jamaica 92.3
Japan 262.5 168.1
Jordan 91.9 91.8
Kazakhstan 25.1 -3.3
Kenya 67.8 62.6
Kiribati 17.6
Korea 51.3 20.9
Korea (North Korea)
Kosovo 22.4
Kuwait 8.7
Kyrgyz Republic 61.1
Lao P.D.R. 93.5
Latvia 45.7 34.5
Lebanon
Lesotho 53.5 17.5
Liberia 53.2 48.6
Libya
Lithuania 44.7 39.8
Luxembourg 24.3 -10.8
Macao SAR 0.0
Madagascar 53.1
Malawi 63.9
Malaysia 69.0
Maldives 124.8
Mali 51.9 44.8
Malta 56.4 46.2
Marshall Islands 19.8
Mauritania 51.7 48.6
Mauritius 93.6
Mexico 57.6 49.9
Micronesia 15.0
Moldova 33.1
Mongolia 79.8
Montenegro 86.6
Morocco 68.9 68.4
Mozambique 106.4
Myanmar 62.3
Namibia 72.0 70.8
Nauru 27.1
Nepal 45.8
Netherlands 52.3 42.8
New Zealand 50.8 14.5
Nicaragua 49.4
Niger 51.2 45.0
Nigeria 36.6 36.2
North Macedonia 53.2 52.3
Norway 43.4 -86.7
Oman 62.9 25.5
Pakistan 74.9 67.4
Palau
Panama 58.4 40.8
Papua New Guinea 50.9
Paraguay 37.7 33.4
Peru 36.4 19.2
Philippines 57.0
Poland 53.8 40.8
Portugal 127.4 120.1
Puerto Rico 47.9
Qatar 58.4
Romania 51.4 42.3
Russia 17.0
Rwanda 66.6
Saint Kitts and Nevis 63.4
Saint Lucia 92.2
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 88.4
Samoa 46.3
San Marino 89.2
São Tomé and Príncipe 72.4
Saudi Arabia 30.0 17.7
Senegal 73.2
Serbia 57.9 52.6
Seychelles 72.9 62.4
Sierra Leone 79.3
Singapore 159.9
Slovak Republic 63.1 51.3
Slovenia 74.4 49.5
Solomon Islands 16.5 7.3
Somalia
South Africa 69.0 63.2
South Sudan 64.7 64.6
Spain 118.6 102.8
Sri Lanka 103.1
Sudan 182.0
Suriname 125.7
Sweden 36.8 8.5
Switzerland 42.1 21.6
Syria n/a n/a
Taiwan 28.4 26.5
Tajikistan 44.4
Tanzania 40.7
Thailand 58.4
Timor-Leste 10.0
Togo 63.7
Tonga 47.5
Trinidad and Tobago 60.6 11.5
Tunisia 81.8
Turkey 41.8 33.8
Turkmenistan 11.1
Tuvalu 6.0
Uganda 51.8
Ukraine 47.6
United Arab Emirates 34.7
United Kingdom 95.3 84.3
United States 128.1 99.6
Uruguay 65.1 54.7
Uzbekistan 35.8
Vanuatu 48.2
Venezuela 240.5
Vietnam 39.7
West Bank and Gaza 50.4
Yemen 69.7 69.3
Zambia 119.1 117.5
Zimbabwe 66.9

Public debt per capita[edit]

The figures here are represented per capita.
* indicates "Public debt of COUNTRY or TERRITORY" or "Economy of COUNTRY or TERRITORY" links.

Public debt per capita by country, in USD
Country (PPP) [8][9][10] (Forex) [8][9][11] Year
 Japan * $102,503 $91,768 2017
 Singapore * $97,852 $60,016 2017
 Qatar * $77,278 $37,990 2017
 Greece * $50,562 $33,905 2017
 Italy * $49,060 $41,056 2017
 Ireland * $47,822 $44,871 2017
 Belgium * $47,291 $44,119 2017
 United States * $46,645 $46,645 2017
 Canada * $44,348 $41,323 2017
 Bahrain * $43,659 $21,673 2017
 France * $41,040 $37,189 2017
 Austria * $39,419 $37,310 2017
 United Kingdom * $39,311 $35,320 2017
 Portugal * $38,127 $26,462 2017
 Bermuda * $37,015 $37,015 2016
 Spain * $35,466 $26,210 2017
 Germany * $33,349 $29,394 2017
 Aruba * $30,674 $19,918 2016
 Netherlands * $30,452 $27,415 2017
 Barbados * $28,001 $26,777 2017
 Finland * $27,111 $27,986 2017
 Switzerland * $26,367 $34,225 2017
 Norway * $25,900 $27,095 2017
 Cyprus * $25,047 $17,103 2017
 Slovenia * $24,939 $17,110 2017
 Luxembourg * $23,582 $23,742 2017
 Israel * $22,922 $25,351 2017
 Malta * $21,746 $14,204 2017
 Antigua and Barbuda * $21,709 $13,796 2017
 Australia * $21,695 $23,990 2017
 Hungary * $21,693 $10,427 2017
 Lebanon * $21,238 $13,039 2017
 Iceland * $21,169 $28,505 2017
 Sweden * $21,048 $21,763 2017
 Kuwait * $20,462 $8,525 2017
 Puerto Rico * $20,360 $16,320 2017
 Bahamas * $19,796 $19,960 2017
 Oman * $19,326 $7,196 2017
 U.S. Virgin Islands * $19,292 $25,819 2017
 Croatia * $18,601 $9,976 2017
 Seychelles * $18,482 $10,068 2017
 Saint Kitts and Nevis * $18,363 $11,420 2017
 Taiwan * $18,027 $8,682 2017
 Denmark * $17,487 $19,784 2017
 Slovakia * $16,798 $8,970 2017
 Andorra * $15,915 $12,973 2016
 Malaysia * $15,873 $5,313 2017
 South Korea * $15,633 $11,830 2017
 Uruguay * $15,241 $11,540 2017
 Poland * $14,829 $6,912 2017
 Equatorial Guinea * $14,783 $5,858 2017
 Trinidad and Tobago * $14,735 $7,834 2017
 San Marino * $14,726 $11,722 2017
 United Arab Emirates * $14,133 $7,769 2017
 Faroe Islands * $13,728 $18,969 2015
 Mauritius * $13,262 $6,253 2017
 New Zealand * $13,180 $14,045 2017
 Brazil * $13,064 $8,265 2017
 Lithuania * $13,000 $6,717 2017
 Egypt * $12,474 $2,450 2017
 Czech Republic * $12,206 $7,007 2017
 Montenegro * $12,122 $5,234 2017
 Argentina * $11,884 $8,217 2017
 Mongolia * $11,701 $3,281 2017
 Maldives * $11,236 $7,335 2017
 Saint Lucia * $10,859 $7,202 2017
 Gabon * $10,847 $4,418 2017
 Mexico * $10,618 $4,962 2017
 Panama * $10,353 $6,150 2017
 Grenada * $10,252 $7,021 2017
 Nauru * $10,235 $7,293 2017
 Latvia * $10,194 $5,724 2017
 Suriname * $10,069 $3,963 2017
 Belarus * $10,055 $3,051 2017
 Bhutan * $9,993 $3,336 2017
 Sri Lanka * $9,663 $3,060 2017
 Iraq * $9,644 $2,858 2017
 Jamaica * $9,360 $5,305 2017
 Serbia * $9,333 $3,658 2017
 Azerbaijan * $9,273 $2,190 2017
 Saudi Arabia * $9,226 $3,569 2017
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * $9,167 $5,688 2017
 Dominica * $8,747 $6,223 2017
 Albania * $8,457 $3,070 2017
 Tunisia * $8,406 $2,439 2017
 Cape Verde * $8,360 $3,931 2017
 Romania * $8,291 $3,634 2017
 Belize * $8,257 $4,757 2017
 Costa Rica * $8,230 $5,713 2017
 Jordan * $8,161 $3,680 2017
 China * $7,878 $4,077 2017
 Iran * $7,802 $2,049 2017
 Guam * $7,631 $7,631 2017
 Turkey * $7,613 $2,966 2017
 Congo * $7,594 $2,253 2017
 Thailand * $7,548 $2,781 2017
 South Africa * $7,342 $3,343 2017
 Colombia * $7,298 $3,225 2017
 Curaçao * $6,912 $12,375 2014
 Dominican Republic * $6,249 $2,748 2017
 Ukraine * $5,970 $1,811 2017
 Chile * $5,952 $3,647 2017
 Cuba * $5,879 $4,024 2017
 North Macedonia * $5,755 $2,109 2017
 Morocco * $5,665 $2,074 2017
 El Salvador * $5,615 $2,723 2017
 Turkmenistan * $5,519 $2,019 2017
 Greenland * $5,437 $5,005 2016
 Ecuador * $5,311 $2,870 2017
 Kazakhstan * $5,311 $1,769 2017
 Gibraltar * $5,203 $5,203 2014
 India * $5,202 $1,429 2017
 Bulgaria * $5,198 $1,928 2017
 Sudan * $5,003 $1,292 2017
 Armenia * $4,990 $2,032 2017
 Venezuela * $4,684 $2,579 2017
 Bosnia and Herzegovina * $4,600 $1,864 2017
 Fiji * $4,555 $2,582 2017
 Guyana * $4,441 $2,510 2017
 Russia * $4,380 $1,721 2017
 Mauritania * $4,347 $1,241 2017
 Laos * $4,338 $1,492 2017
 Namibia * $4,337 $2,159 2017
 Algeria * $4,159 $1,106 2017
 Angola * $4,145 $2,709 2017
 Vietnam * $3,911 $1,329 2017
 Georgia * $3,632 $1,382 2017
 Bolivia * $3,628 $1,637 2017
 Indonesia * $3,562 $1,112 2017
 Peru * $3,488 $1,737 2017
 Ghana * $3,424 $1,201 2017
 Pakistan * $3,420 $983 2017
 Philippines * $3,305 $1,182 2017
 Eswatini * $3,030 $1,154 2017
 Estonia * $3,013 $1,878 2017
 São Tomé and Príncipe * $2,966 $1,699 2017
 Palau * $2,957 $3,271 2017
 Samoa * $2,773 $2,051 2017
 Tonga * $2,666 $2,053 2017
 Zambia * $2,645 $986 2017
 Paraguay * $2,468 $1,081 2017
 Syria * $2,450 $1,199 2016
 Botswana * $2,428 $1,082 2017
 Gambia * $2,336 $623 2017
 Kyrgyzstan * $2,216 $724 2017
 Kosovo * $2,178 $788 2017
 Moldova * $2,173 $876 2017
 Brunei * $2,105 $754 2017
 Eritrea * $2,066 $1,277 2017
 Guatemala * $2,057 $1,126 2017
 Anguilla * $2,024 $2,024 2013
 Zimbabwe * $2,010 $1,035 2017
 Burma * $1,992 $406 2017
 Nicaragua * $1,992 $756 2017
 Honduras * $1,992 $988 2017
 Yemen * $1,913 $813 2017
 West Bank $1,850 $857 2015
 Kenya * $1,833 $887 2017
 Uzbekistan * $1,805 $395 2017
 Senegal * $1,762 $679 2017
 Ivory Coast * $1,739 $724 2017
 Northern Mariana Islands * $1,696 $1,696 2017
 Tajikistan * $1,665 $418 2017
 Papua New Guinea * $1,585 $1,041 2017
 American Samoa * $1,579 $1,579 2017
 Bangladesh * $1,433 $543 2017
 Tuvalu * $1,394 $1,328 2017
 Somalia * $1,392 $480 2017
 Mozambique * $1,391 $472 2017
 Djibouti * $1,309 $730 2017
 Vanuatu * $1,297 $1,462 2017
 Cameroon * $1,289 $504 2017
 South Sudan * $1,229 $188 2017
 Benin * $1,222 $445 2017
 Nigeria * $1,201 $403 2017
 Togo * $1,201 $441 2017
 Cambodia * $1,187 $408 2017
 Sierra Leone * $1,169 $366 2017
 Lesotho * $1,143 $472 2017
 Tanzania * $1,084 $345 2017
 Ethiopia * $1,003 $404 2017
 Chad * $949 $327 2017
 Guinea-Bissau * $932 $397 2017
 Guinea * $894 $328 2017
 Uganda * $873 $261 2017
 Micronesia * $823 $775 2017
 Rwanda * $820 $304 2017
 Mali * $792 $295 2017
 Nepal * $703 $221 2017
 Burkina Faso * $692 $243 2017
 Malawi * $669 $186 2017
 Marshall Islands * $660 $748 2017
 Haiti * $576 $248 2017
 Madagascar * $559 $161 2017
 Kiribati * $546 $474 2017
 Comoros * $520 $257 2017
 Niger * $498 $188 2017
 Liberia * $437 $235 2017
 Libya * $431 $213 2017
 Burundi * $349 $148 2017
 Central African Republic * $312 $178 2017
 East Timor * $213 $80 2017
 Solomon Islands * $189 $185 2017
 DR Congo * $146 $88 2017
 Afghanistan * $139 $41 2017
 Hong Kong * $63 $47 2017
 Falkland Islands * $0 $0 2015
 Macau * $0 $0 2017

See also[edit]

Nation specific

References[edit]

  1. ^ "FT Lexicon" – The Financial Times
  2. ^ a b c d e f International Monetary Fund (2014). "Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014" (PDF).
  3. ^ OECD Data. "General government debt". OECD.org.
  4. ^ OECD Data. "General government deficit". OECD.org.
  5. ^ "Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union – PROTOCOLS – Protocol (No 12) on the excessive deficit procedure".
  6. ^ "Applying the rules of the stability and growth pact".
  7. ^ International Monetary Fund (October 2022). "World Economic Outlook Database".
  8. ^ a b "Country Comparison :: Population — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on December 18, 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Field Listing :: Public debt — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on November 30, 2018.
  10. ^ "Field Listing :: GDP (purchasing power parity) — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on January 9, 2019.
  11. ^ "Field Listing :: GDP (official exchange rate) — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on January 9, 2019.