List of political entities in the 19th century

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This is a list of political entities that existed between 1801 and 1900. It it includes both sovereign states and any political predecessors of current sovereign states.

Political entities[edit]

Name Capital(s) State type Existed Location
Portuguese Angola Colony, Portuguese 1575–1975 Africa: Central
Kingdom of Kongo São Salvador Kingdom/client 1390–1914 Africa: Central
Anziku Kingdom Kingdom 17th century–1875 Africa: Central
Kingdom of Baguirmi Kingdom 1522–1897 Africa: Central
Kamerun 1884–1916 Africa: Central
French Chad Colony, French 1900–1960 Africa: Central
Congo Free StateCongo Free State 1885–1908 Africa: Central
Kuba Kingdom Kingdom c.1600–19th century Africa: Central
French Congo Colony, French 1882–1910 Africa: Central
Kingdom of Orungu Kingdom c.1700–1927 Africa: Central
Kasanje Kingdom Kingdom 1620–1910 Africa: Central
Kazembe chiefdom Chiefdom 1740–1904 Africa: Central
Kingdom of Loango Kingdom c.1550–c.1883 Africa: Central
Kingdom of Luba Kingdom 1585–1889 Africa: Central
Kingdom of Lunda Kingdom c.1665–1887 Africa: Central
Ouaddai Empire Empire 1635–1909 Africa: Central
Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe Colony, Portuguese 1470–1975 Africa: Central
Wadai Empire Empire 1635–1909 Africa: Central
Yeke Kingdom Kingdom 1856–1891 Africa: Central
Sultans of the Comoros Sultanate 15th century–c.1912 Africa: East
Merina Kingdom Kingdom 1540–1897 Africa: East
Ankole Kingdom late 15th century–1967 Africa: East
Buganda Kingdom early 14th century–1967 Africa: East
Bunyoro Kingdom 16th century–1967 Africa: East
Shilluk Kingdom Fashoda Kingdom c.1490–1865 Africa: East
Medri Bahri Debarwa Kingdom 1137–1890 Africa: East, Horn
Aussa Sultanate Sultanate 1734–1902 Africa: East, Horn
Ethiopian EmpireEthiopian EmpireEthiopian Empire Addis Ababa Empire 1137–1935; 1942–1974 Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Garo Kingdom 1567–1883 Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Gomma Kingdom c.1780–1886 Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Gumma Kingdom c.1770–1902 Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Janjero Kingdom 15th century–1894 Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Jimma Kingdom 1790–1932 Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Kaffa Kingdom c.1390–1897 Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Limmu-Ennarea Kingdom 1801–1891 Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Welayta Kingdom c.1250–1894 Africa: East, Horn
British Somaliland Colony, British 1884–1940; 1941–1960 Africa: East, Horn
Sultanate of Hobyo Sultanate 1878–1926 Africa: East, Horn
Majeerteen Sultanate Sultanate c.1600–1924 Africa: East, Horn
Warsangali Sultanate Sultanate 1218–1886 Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Burundi Kingdom 1680–1966 Africa: East, Lakes
Sultanate of Zanzibar Sultanate 1856–1964 Africa: East, Lakes
Wituland 1858–1885 Africa: East, Lakes
Kingdom of Rwanda Kingdom 11th century–1962 Africa: East, Lakes
Khedivate of Egypt Khedivate 1867–1914 Africa: Northeast
Sennar (sultanate) Sultanate 1504–1821 Africa: Northeast
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Colony, British/Egyptian 1899–1956 Africa: Northeast
Sultanate of Darfur Sultanate 1603–1874; 1898–1916 Africa: Northeast
French Algeria Colony, French 1830–1962 Africa: Northwest
Ottoman Algeria Territory, Ottoman c.1517–1830 Africa: Northwest
MoroccoMorocco Sultanate 1664–1912; 1956–present Africa: Northwest
Spanish Sahara Territory, Spanish 1884–1975 Africa: Northwest
Barotseland 17th century–1900 Africa: South
Bechuanaland Protectorate Protectorate 1885–1966 Africa: South
Dutch Cape Colony Colony, Dutch 1652–1795; 1803–1806 Africa: South
Gaza Empire Empire 1824–1895 Africa: South
Basutoland 1884–1966 Africa: South
Maravi Late 15th century–1870 Africa: South
Angoche Sultanate Angoche, Moma Sultanate 1485–1910 Africa: South
Portuguese Mozambique Colony, Portuguese 1498–1975 Africa: South
Mthethwa Paramountcy Empire c.1780–1817 Africa: South
Mthwakazi 1830s–1889 Africa: South
German South-West Africa Colony, German 1884–1915 Africa: South
Colony of Natal Colony, British 1843–1910 Africa: South
Nieuwe Republiek Republiek 1884–1888 Africa: South
Rozwi Empire Empire 1660–1866 Africa: South
Cape Colony Colony, British 1795–1910 Africa: South
Orange Free StateOrange Free State 1854–1902 Africa: South
South African RepublicSouth African Republic Republic 1856–1877; 1881–1902; 1914–1915 Africa: South
Swaziland 1745–1906; 1968–present Africa: South
Transvaal Colony Colony, British 1877–1881; 1902–1910 Africa: South
Company rule in Rhodesia Company rule 1890–1924 Africa: South
Zulu Kingdom Kingdom 1816–1897 Africa: South
Baol Kingdom 1555–1874 Africa: West
Benin EmpireBenin Empire Benin City Empire 1180–1897 Africa: West
Dahomey Kingdom c.1600–1904 Africa: West
French West Africa Colony, French 1895–1958 Africa: West
Bornu Empire Ngazargamu Empire 1380–1893 Africa: West
Mossi Kingdoms Kingdoms 11th century–1896 Africa: West
Portuguese Cape Verde Colony, Portuguese 1462–1975 Africa: West
Cayor Kingdom 1549–1879 Africa: West
Imamate of Futa Jallon Imamate 1725–1896 Africa: West
Imamate of Futa Toro Imamate 1776–1861 Africa: West
Gambia Colony and Protectorate Colony, British 1821–1965 Africa: West
Ashanti EmpireAshanti Empire Empire 1670–1902; 1935–1957 Africa: West
Gyaaman 1450–1895 Africa: West
Fante Confederacy Confederation 1868–1874 Africa: West
Wassoulou Empire Empire 1878–1898 Africa: West
Baté Empire Empire until 1879 Africa: West
Portuguese Guinea Colony, Portuguese 1474–1974 Africa: West
Kingdom of Jolof Kingdom 1549–1875 Africa: West
Kaabu Kingdom 1537–1867 Africa: West
Kénédougou Kingdom Kingdom c.1650–1898 Africa: West
Khasso Kingdom 17th century–1880 Africa: West
Kong Empire Empire 1710–1898 Africa: West
Kingdom of Koya Kingdom 1505–1896 Africa: West
LiberiaLiberia Republic 1847–present Africa: West
Bamana Empire Empire 1712–1861 Africa: West
Kaarta 1753–1890 Africa: West
Pashalik of Timbuktu 1591–1833 Africa: West
Toucouleur Empire Empire 1848–1893 Africa: West
Massina Empire Empire c.1818–1862 Africa: West
Sultanate of Damagaram Sultanate 1731–1851 Africa: West
Dendi Kingdom Kingdom 1591–1901 Africa: West
Aro Confederacy Confederation 1690–1902 Africa: West
Kano Emirate Emirate 1807–1903 Africa: West
Kingdom of Nri Igbo-Ukwu Kingdom 948–1911 Africa: West
Sokoto Caliphate Caliphate 1804–1903 Africa: West
Oyo Empire Oyo-Ile Kingdom c.1400–1896 Africa: West
Bundu 17th century–1858 Africa: West
Kingdom of Sine Kingdom 1350–1969 Africa: West
Colonial Sierra Leone Colony, British 1800–1961 Africa: West
Togoland 1884–1916 Africa: West
Colony of the Bahamas Colony, British 1648–1973 Americas: Caribbean
Captaincy General of Cuba Territory, Spanish 1607–1898 Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
Dominican RepublicDominican Republic Republic 1844–1861; 1865–present Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
First Empire of Haiti Empire 1804–1806 Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
HaitiHaiti 1859–present Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
Kingdom of Haiti Kingdom 1811–1820 Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
State of Haiti 1806–1811 Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
Saint-Domingue Colony, French 1625–1804 Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
List of Governors of Antigua Colony, British 1632–1981 Americas: Caribbean, Leeward Is.
Colonial Dominica Colony, British 1715–1978 Americas: Caribbean, Leeward Is.
History of Barbados 1627–1958; 1962–1966 Americas: Caribbean, Windward Is.
Colonial Saint Lucia Colony, British 1762–1979 Americas: Caribbean, Windward Is.
Colonial Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Colony, British 1763–1979 Americas: Caribbean, Windward Is.
Colonial Trinidad and Tobago Colony, British 1889–1962 Americas: Caribbean, Windward Is.
British Honduras Colony, British 1862–1981 Americas: Central
United Provinces of Central America Republic 1823–1838 Americas: Central
Costa RicaCosta Rica 1823–present Americas: Central
Greater Republic of Central America Republic 1896–1898 Americas: Central
El Salvador 1841–present Americas: Central
Federal Republic of Central America Republic 1823–1838 Americas: Central
Captaincy General of Guatemala Territory, Spainish 1609–1821 Americas: Central
Guatemala 1823–present Americas: Central
Honduras 1838–present Americas: Central
Mosquito Coast 1838–1894 Americas: Central
Nicaragua 1894–present Americas: Central
Royal Greenland Trading Department Company rule 1774–1908 Americas: North
CanadaCanada Republic 1867–present Americas: North, Canada
Republic of Manitoba Republic 1867–1870 Americas: North, Canada
Chan Santa Cruz c.1850–1901 Americas: North, Mexico
First Mexican Empire Empire 1821–1823 Americas: North, Mexico
MexicoMexico Republic 1867–present Americas: North, Mexico
Republic of the Rio Grande Republic 1840–1840 Americas: North, Mexico
Second Mexican Empire Empire 1864–1867 Americas: North, Mexico
Republic of Sonora Republic 1854–1854 Americas: North, Mexico
Republic of Yucatán Republic 1823; 1841–1848 Americas: North, Mexico
California Republic Republic 1846–1846 Americas: North, United States
Cherokee Nation 1794–1907 Americas: North, United States
Confederate States of America Confederation 1861–1865 Americas: North, United States
Republic of Indian Stream Republic 1832–1835 Americas: North, United States
Republic of Maryland Republic 1854–1857 Americas: North, United States
State of Muskogee 1799–1803 Americas: North, United States
Republic of Texas Republic 1836–1846 Americas: North, United States
United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States Republic 1776–present Americas: North, United States
Republic of West Florida Republic 1810–1810 Americas: North, United States
Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia Kingdom 1860–1862 Americas: South
ArgentinaArgentina 1861–present Americas: South
Argentine Confederation Confederation 1831–1861 Americas: South
United Provinces of the Río de la Plata 1810–1831 Americas: South
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Territory, Spainish 1776–1810 Americas: South
BoliviaBolivia 1839–present Americas: South
Republic of Acre Republic 1899-1900; 1903 Americas: South
BrazilFirst Brazilian Republic Republic 1889–1930 Americas: South
Captaincy General of Chile Territory, Spainish 1541–1818 Americas: South
ChileChile Republic 1818–present Americas: South
ColombiaColombia 1886–present Americas: South
United States of Colombia 1863–1886 Americas: South
Gran Colombia 1821–1831 Americas: South
Granadine Confederation Confederation 1858–1863 Americas: South
Republic of New Granada Republic 1831–1858 Americas: South
United Provinces of New Granada Republic 1810–1816 Americas: South
EcuadorEcuador 1830–present Americas: South
British Guiana Colony, British 1814–1966 Americas: South
ParaguayParaguayParaguay 1811–present Americas: South
PeruPeru 1839–present Americas: South
Viceroyalty of Peru Territory, Spainish 1542–1824 Americas: South
Peru–Bolivian Confederation Confederation 1836–1839 Americas: South
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves Kingdom 1815–1822/1825 Americas: South
Surinam (Dutch colony) Colony, Dutch 1667–1954 Americas: South
Liga Federal Federation 1815–1820 Americas: South
UruguayUruguay 1828–present Americas: South
VenezuelaUnited States of Venezuela 1864–1953 Americas: South
Viceroyalty of New Granada Territory, Spainish 1717–1819 Americas: South, Central
Emirate of Afghanistan Emirate 1823–1926; 1929 Asia: Central
Durrani Empire Empire 1747–1826 Asia: Central
Kazakh Khanate Khanate 1456–1847 Asia: Central
Khanate of Kokand Khanate 1709–1876 Asia: Central
Emirate of Bukhara Emirate 1747–1826 Asia: Central
Khanate of Khiva Khanate 1511–1920 Asia: Central
Qing dynastyQing dynasty (China) Monarchy 1644–1912 Asia: East, China
Republic of Formosa Republic 1895 Asia: East, China
Republic of Ezo Republic 1869 Asia: East, Japan
Empire of JapanEmpire of Japan Empire 1868–1947 Asia: East, Japan
Ryukyu Kingdom Kingdom 1429–1879 Asia: East, Japan
Tokugawa shogunate Shogunate 1600–1868 Asia: East, Japan
Joseon Kingdom 1392–1897 Asia: East, Korea
Korean EmpireKorean Empire Empire 1897–1910 Asia: East, Korea
Alirajpur State Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1437–1948 Asia: South
Alwar State Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1296–1949 Asia: South
Athgarh Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1178–1949 Asia: South
BhutanTheocratic Bhutan Kingdom 1616–1907 Asia: South
Bhutan Kingdom 1650–1905 Asia: South
Kingdom of Cochin Various Kingdom 12th century–1947 Asia: South
Hyderabad State 1803–1948 Asia: South
Ahom kingdom Kingdom 1228–1826 Asia: South
Ajaigarh State 1765–1949 Asia: South
Alipura State 1757–1950 Asia: South
Garhwal Kingdom Various Kingdom 888–1949 Asia: South
British India Colony, British 1858–1947 Asia: South
Company rule in India Company rule 1757–1858 Asia: South
Jaisalmer State Jaisalmer Principality 1156–1947 Asia: South
Mughal Empire Empire 1526–1540; 1555–1857 Asia: South
Sirmoor State Sirmür Principality 1095–1948 Asia: South
Kharan Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1697–1948 Asia: South
Las Bela Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1742–1948 Asia: South
Makran Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 18th century–1948 Asia: South
Huraa dynasty Monarchy 1757–1952; 1954–1968 Asia: South
Sultanate of the Maldives Sultanate 1117–1952; 1954–1968 Asia: South
Manipur Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1110–1949 Asia: South
Maratha Empire Empire 1674–1820 Asia: South
Kingdom of Mysore Mysore, Srirangapatna Kingdom 1399–1947 Asia: South
Kingdom of Nepal Kingdom 1768–2008 Asia: South
NetherlandsKingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom 1839–present Asia: South
Sikh EmpireSikh Empire Empire 1799–1849 Asia: South
Kingdom of Sikkim Kingdom 1642–1975 Asia: South
British Ceylon Colony, British 1815–1948 Asia: South
Travancore 1729–1949 Asia: South
BruneiBruneian Empire Various Empire 7th century–1888 Asia: Southeast
Middle Period Cambodia Kingdom early 15th century–1863 Asia: Southeast
Dutch East Indies Colony, Dutch 1800–1942; 1945–1949 Asia: Southeast
Lanfang Republic Republic 1777–1884 Asia: Southeast
Aceh Sultanate Sultanate 1496–1903 Asia: Southeast
Sultanate of Banten Sultanate 1527–1813 Asia: Southeast
Kingdom of Champasak Kingdom 1713–1946 Asia: Southeast
Federated Malay States 1895–1942; 1945–1946 Asia: Southeast
Sultanate of Pahang Sultanate 1470–1896 Asia: Southeast
Sultanate of Perak Sultanate 1528–1896 Asia: Southeast
Sultanate of Selangor Sultanate 1745–1896 Asia: Southeast
British rule in Burma Colony, British 1824–1942; 1945–1948 Asia: Southeast
Konbaung Dynasty Monarchy 1752–1885 Asia: Southeast
Sultanate of Maguindanao Sultanate 1500–1888 Asia: Southeast
Spanish East Indies Colony, Spanish 1565–1898 Asia: Southeast
ThailandRattanakosin Kingdom of Siam Kingdom 1782–1932 Asia: Southeast
Annam (French protectorate) Protectorate, French 1884–1945; 1945–1949 Asia: Southeast
Champa Indrapura, Vijaya, Panduranga Kingdom 192–1832 Asia: Southeast
Cochinchina Colony, French 1862–1945; 1945–1949 Asia: Southeast
Nguyen dynasty Monarchy 1802–1945 Asia: Southeast
Kingdom of Sedang Kingdom 1888–c.1890 Asia: Southeast
Tây Sơn dynasty Monarchy 1778–1802 Asia: Southeast
Tonkin 1884–1945; 1945–1949 Asia: Southeast
North Borneo 1882–1941 Asia: Southeast
Kingdom of Sarawak Kingdom 1841–1941; 1945–1946 Asia: Southeast
Sultanate of Sulu Various Sultanate/client 1405–1915 Asia: Southeast
Johor Sultanate Sultanate 1528–c.1949 Asia: Southeast
Pattani kingdom Kingdom 1516–1902 Asia: Southeast
Straits Settlements Territory, British 1826–1942; 1945–1946 Asia: Southeast
Qajar dynasty of the Persia Monarchy 1789–1925 Asia: West
Soran Emirate Emirate 1530s–1835 Asia: West
Sheikhdom of Kuwait Sheikhdom 1752–1961 Asia: West
Muscat and Oman 1820–1970 Asia: West
Emirate of Nejd Emirate 1812–1891 Asia: West
Oman proper Imamate 751–1970 Asia: West
Emirate of Diriyah Emirate 1744–1818 Asia: West
Emirate of Jabal Shammar (Arabia) Emirate 1836–1921 Asia: West
Ottoman EmpireOttoman Empire Empire 1299–1923 Asia: West
Trucial States 1820–1971 Asia: West
Emirate of BeihanEmirate of Beihan Emirate 17th century–1967 Asia: West
Emirate of DhalaEmirate of Dhala Emirate 15th century–1967 Asia: West
Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom Sheikhdom 18th century–1967 Asia: West
Upper Aulaqi Sultanate Sultanate 18th century–1967 Asia: West
Upper Yafa Sultanate c.1800–1967 Asia: West
Wahidi BalhafWahidi Balhaf c.1640–1967 Asia: West
Wahidi HabanWahidi Haban c.1640–1967 Asia: West
Kingdom of Imereti Kingdom 1260–1810 Eurasia: Caucasus
Principality of Bulgaria Principality 1878–1908 Europe: Balkans
Kingdom of GreeceKingdom of Greece Kingdom 1832–1924; 1935–1941; 1944–1974 Europe: Balkans
United States of the Ionian Islands 1815–1864 Europe: Balkans
Septinsular Republic Republic 1800–1815 Europe: Balkans
First Hellenic Republic Republic 1828–1832 Europe: Balkans
Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) Kingdom 1527–1868 Europe: Balkans
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Kingdom 1868–1918 Europe: Balkans
Illyrian Provinces Protectorate, French 1809–1816 Europe: Balkans
Republic of Ragusa Ragusa Republic 1358–1807 Europe: Balkans
Kosovo Vilayet 1877–1913 Europe: Balkans
Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro Prince-Bishopric 1696–1852 Europe: Balkans
Principality of MontenegroPrincipality of Montenegro Principality 1852–1910 Europe: Balkans
Kingdom of SerbiaKingdom of Serbia Kingdom 1882–1918 Europe: Balkans
Principality of Serbia Principality 1815–1882 Europe: Balkans
United Kingdom of Great Britain and IrelandUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Kingdom 1801–1922 Europe: British Isles, UK
Austria-HungaryAustria-Hungary Monarchy 1867–1918 Europe: Central
Archduchy of Austria Archduchy 1453–1806/1918 Europe: Central
Austrian Empire Empire 1804–1867 Europe: Central
Habsburg Monarchy Composite monarchy 1526–1804 Europe: Central
Kingdom of Hungary Various Kingdom 1000–1918 Europe: Central
Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom 1198–1918 Europe: Central
Duchy of Anhalt Duchy 1806–1918 Europe: Central
Anhalt-Bernburg Monarchy 1252–1468; 1603–1863 Europe: Central
Anhalt-Dessau Monarchy 1396–1561; 1603–1863 Europe: Central
Anhalt-Köthen Monarchy 1396–1561; 1603–1853 Europe: Central
Principality of Aschaffenburg Principality 1803–1810 Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Baden Grand Duchy 1806–1918 Europe: Central
Kingdom of BavariaKingdom of Bavaria Kingdom 1805–1918 Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Berg Grand Duchy 1806–1813 Europe: Central
Bremen City-state republic 1806–1867 Europe: Central
Duchy of BrunswickDuchy of Brunswick Braunschweig Duchy 1815–1918 Europe: Central
Free City of Frankfurt City-state republic 1372–1806; 1816–1866 Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Frankfurt Client Grand Duchy 1810–1813 Europe: Central
German Confederation Confederation 1815–1866 Europe: Central
German EmpireGerman Empire Empire 1871–1918 Europe: Central
Free Imperial City of Hamburg City-state 1806–1867 Europe: Central
Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg Electorate 1692–1807 Europe: Central
Kingdom of Hanover Kingdom 1814–1866 Europe: Central
Electorate of Hesse Monarchy 1803–1807; 1813–1866 Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Hesse Grand Duchy 1806–1918 Europe: Central
Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate 1567–1806 Europe: Central
Hesse-Homburg Landgraviate 1622–1866 Europe: Central
Hohenzollern-Hechingen Monarchy 1576–1850 Europe: Central
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Monarchy 1576–1850 Europe: Central
Duchy of Holstein Duchy 1474–1864 Europe: Central
Holy Roman EmpireHoly Roman Empire No official Empire 962–1806 Europe: Central
Principality of Leyen Client Principality 1806–1814 Europe: Central
Principality of Lippe Principality 1123–1918 Europe: Central
Free City of Lübeck City-state 1226–1811; 1815–1937 Europe: Central
Electorate of Mainz Monarchy 780–1803 Europe: Central
Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Duchy 1379–1815 Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Grand Duchy 1815–1918 Europe: Central
Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Duchy 1701–1815 Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Grand Duchy 1815–1918 Europe: Central
Duchy of Nassau Duchy 1806–1866 Europe: Central
North German Confederation Confederation 1867–1871 Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Oldenburg Grand Duchy 1814–1918 Europe: Central
Kingdom of PrussiaKingdom of Prussia Kingdom 1701–1918 Europe: Central
Kingdom of PrussiaPrussia Kingdom 1525–1947 Europe: Central
Principality of Regensburg Principality 1803–1810 Europe: Central
Reuss c.1010–1778/1806 Europe: Central
Reuss-Ebersdorf Monarchy 1678–1824 Europe: Central
Principality of Reuss-Gera Principality 1806–1918 Europe: Central
Principality of Reuss-Greiz Principality 1778–1918 Europe: Central
Reuss-Lobenstein Monarchy 1425–1547; 1647–1824 Europe: Central
Confederation of the Rhine Confederation 1806–1813 Europe: Central
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg Duchy 1602–1672; 1826–1920 Europe: Central
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Duchy 1826–1918 Europe: Central
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Duchy 1699–1825 Europe: Central
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Duchy 1680–1826 Europe: Central
Saxe-Hildburghausen Duchy 1680–1826 Europe: Central
Saxe-Lauenburg Duchy 1296–1803; 1814–1876 Europe: Central
Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen Duchy 1680–1918 Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Grand Duchy 1809–1918 Europe: Central
 SaxonyKingdom of Saxony Kingdom 1806–1918 Europe: Central
Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe Principality 1643–1918 Europe: Central
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Principality 1599–1919 Europe: Central
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Principality 1599–1920 Europe: Central
Waldeck Principality 1180–1918 Europe: Central
Kingdom of WestphaliaKingdom of Westphalia Kingdom 1807–1813 Europe: Central
Kingdom of WürttembergWürttemberg Monarchy 11th century–1918 Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Würzburg Grand Duchy 1805–1814 Europe: Central
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein Principality 1806–present Europe: Central
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom 1772–1918 Europe: Central
Free City of Kraków City-state republic 1815–1846 Europe: Central
Duchy of Warsaw Occupation 1807–1815 Europe: Central
Helvetic Republic Republic 1798–1803 Europe: Central
Swiss Confederation (Napoleonic) Confederation 1803–1815 Europe: Central
Restoration and Regeneration in Switzerland 1815–1848 Europe: Central
SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1848–present Europe: Central
Governorate of Estonia Province 1721–1917 Europe: East, Baltic
Principality of Moldavia Principality 1346–1859 Europe: East, Romania
United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia Principalities 1859–1881 Europe: East, Romania
Kingdom of RomaniaKingdom of Romania Kingdom 1881–1947 Europe: East, Romania
Principality of Wallachia Principality 1330–1859 Europe: East, Romania
Russian EmpireRussian Empire Empire 1721–1917 Europe: East; Asia: Central; Americas: North, Russia
DenmarkDenmark Various Kingdom 1814–present Europe: Nordic
DenmarkDenmark–Norway Kingdom 1524–1814 Europe: Nordic
Duchy of Schleswig Duchy 1058–1866 Europe: Nordic
Grand Duchy of Finland Grand Duchy 1809–1917 Europe: Nordic
Norway in 1814 1814 Europe: Nordic
 SwedenSweden 1523–1814; 1905–present Europe: Nordic
United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway Various Kingdom 1814–1905 Europe: Nordic
Cisalpine Republic Republic 1797–1802 Europe: Southcentral
Republic of Cospaia Republic 1440–1826 Europe: Southcentral
Sovereign Principality of Elba Principality 1814–1815 Europe: Southcentral
Kingdom of Etruria Kingdom 1801–1807 Europe: Southcentral
Republic of Genoa Republic 1005–1797; 1814–1815 Europe: Southcentral
Italian Republic (Napoleonic) Republic/client 1802–1805 Europe: Southcentral
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Kingdom 1805–1814 Europe: Southcentral
Kingdom of ItalyKingdom of Italy Kingdom 1861–1946 Europe: Southcentral
Ligurian Republic Republic 1797–1805 Europe: Southcentral
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia Kingdom 1815–1866 Europe: Southcentral
Duchy of Lucca Duchy 1815–1847 Europe: Southcentral
Republic of Lucca Lucca Republic 1160–1805 Europe: Southcentral
Duchy of Massa and Carrara Duchy 15th–19th century Europe: Southcentral
Duchy of Modena and Reggio Duchy 1452–1796; 1814–1859 Europe: Southcentral
Kingdom of Naples Kingdom 1285–1816 Europe: Southcentral
Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily Kingdom 1043–1410; 1442–1500; 1735–1816 Europe: Southcentral
 ParmaDuchy of Parma Duchy 1545–1859 Europe: Southcentral
Kingdom of Sardinia Cagliari, Turin Kingdom 1324–1861 Europe: Southcentral
Kingdom of Sicily Various Kingdom 1130–1816 Europe: Southcentral
Duchy of Tridentum Benevento Duchy/Principality 574–1802 Europe: Southcentral
Grand Duchy of Tuscany Grand Duchy 1569–1801; 1815–1859 Europe: Southcentral
Kingdom of the Two SiciliesKingdom of the Two Sicilies Kingdom 1816–1861 Europe: Southcentral
Gozo 1798–1801 Europe: Southcentral
Crown Colony of Malta Colony, British 1813–1964 Europe: Southcentral
Malta Protectorate Protectorate, British 1800–1813 Europe: Southcentral
San MarinoSan Marino San Marino Republic 301–present Europe: Southcentral
Papal StatesPapal States Rome Pontificate 754–1870 Europe: Southcentral
Roman Republic (19th century) Republic 1849 Europe: Southcentral
AndorraAndorraAndorra Principality 1278–present Europe: Southwest
PortugalKingdom of Portugal Various Kingdom 1139–1910 Europe: Southwest
SpainBourbon Spain Kingdom 1700–1812 Europe: Southwest
First Spanish Republic Republic 1873–1874 Europe: Southwest
SpainKingdom of Spain Kingdom 1813–1873 Europe: Southwest
SpainBourbon Restoration (Spain) Toledo, Madrid Kingdom 1874–1931 Europe: Southwest
Kingdom of Galicia Santiago de Compostela Kingdom 409–1833 Europe: Southwest,
Alsace-Lorraine 1871–1918 Europe: West, France
Bourbon Restoration 1814–1815; 1815–1830 Europe: West, France
FranceFirst French Empire Empire 1804–1814; 1815 Europe: West, France
FranceFrench First Republic Republic 1792–1804 Europe: West, France
French Second Republic Republic 1848–1852 Europe: West, France
FranceFrench Third Republic Republic 1870–1940 Europe: West, France
Second French Empire Empire 1852–1870 Europe: West, France
July Monarchy Monarchy 1830–1848 Europe: West, France
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin 1848–1860 Europe: West, France
BelgiumBelgium 1830–present Europe: West, Low Countries
LuxembourgLuxembourg 1815–present Europe: West, Low Countries
Batavian RepublicBatavian Republic Republic 1795–1806 Europe: West, Low Countries
NetherlandsKingdom of Holland Kingdom 1806–1810 Europe: West, Low Countries
 NetherlandsNetherlands 1648–1830 Europe: West, Low Countries
Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands Principality 1813–1815 Europe: West, Low Countries
United Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom 1815–1839 Europe: West, Low Countries
MonacoMonaco 1419–1793; 1814–present Europe: West, Monaco
States and territories of Australia Colony, British 1788–1901 Oceania
Kings of Easter Island Kingdom 900–1878 Oceania
Cook Islands Federation Federation 1893–1901 Oceania
Kingdom of Rarotonga Kingdom 1858–1893 Oceania
Colony of Fiji Colony, British 1874–1970 Oceania
Kingdom of Fiji Kingdom 1871–1874 Oceania
Gilbert and Ellice Islands 1892–1976 Oceania
Colony of New Zealand Colony, British 1841–1907 Oceania
Niuean monarchy Monarchy c. 1700–1900 Oceania
British protectorate of Niue Protectorate, British 1900–1974 Oceania
German New Guinea Colony, German 1884–1919 Oceania
Territory of Papua Territory, British 1883–1949 Oceania
Kingdom of Bora Bora Kingdom Early 19th century–1895* Oceania
Kingdom of Huahine Kingdom 1760–1895 Oceania
Kingdom of Mangareva Kingdom 18th century–1881 Oceania
Raiatea Monarchy 18th century–1888 Oceania
Kingdom of Tahiti Kingdom 1788–1880 Oceania
Kingdom of Hawaii Kingdom 1795–1893 Oceania
Provisional Government of Hawaii Provisional Government 1893–1894 Oceania
Republic of Hawaii Republic 1894–1898 Oceania
German Samoa Colony, German 1900–1920 Oceania
Malietoa dynasty (Samoa) Monarchy pre-1858–1900 Oceania
Tui Manua dynasty (Samoa) Monarchy up to 1900 Oceania
British Solomon Islands Colony, British 1893–1978 Oceania
Portuguese Timor Colony, Portuguese 1702–1975 Oceania
Kingdom of Tonga (1900–1970) Kingdom 1900–1970 Oceania
TongaTonga 1845–1900; 1970–present Oceania
Tuʻi Tonga Empire Empire 450s–1865 Oceania
Anglo-French Joint Naval Commission Colony, British/French 1887–1906 Oceania

See also[edit]

List of political entities in the 19th century
Preceded by
18th century
Political entities
of the 19th century
Succeeded by
20th century