List of sovereign states in the 1910s

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This is a list of sovereign states in the 1910s, giving an overview of states around the world during the period between 1 January 1910 and 31 December 1919. It contains entries, arranged alphabetically, with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. It includes widely recognized sovereign states, and entities which were de facto sovereign but which were not widely recognized by other states.

Sovereign states by year
List of sovereign states in 1909 Events of 1910 List of sovereign states in 1911

Sovereign states[edit]

Name and capital city Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

A[edit]


 Afghanistan – Emirate of Afghanistan
Capital: Kabul
Widely recognized independent state from 8 August, 1919.[1]

Albania (from 28 November, 1912) Limited sovereignty for occupatio bellica by the Balkan League states. Recognized independent state de jure from 29 July, 1913.[2][3] De facto Italian protectorate from 23 June, 1917.

Andorra – Principality of Andorra
Capital: Andorra La Vella
Widely recognized independent state.[4]

 Argentina – Argentine Republic
Capital: Buenos Aires
Widely recognized independent state

Armenia – Republic of Armenia (from 28 May, 1918)
Capital: Yerevan
Widely recognized state.

Asir – Idrisid Emirate of Asir (from 3 August, 1917)
Capital: Sabya
Widely recognized independent state

 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
Capital: Melbourne
Widely recognized independent state. Australia is autonomous but still dependent from the United Kingdom. Australia had two external territories:

Austria Austria (from 12 November, 1918)
Capital: Vienna
Widely recognized independent state.

 Austria-Hungary – Austro-Hungarian Empire (to 31 October, 1918)[5]
Capital: Vienna and Budapest
Widely recognized independent state. Austria-Hungary had one concession:

Azerbaijan – Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (from 28 May, 1918)[6]
Capital: Ganja (to September, 1918), Baku (from September, 1918)
Widely recognized state.

B[edit]


 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
Capital: Brussels
Widely recognized state. Belgium had one colony and one concession:

 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan (to January 8, 1910)
Capital: Thimphu
Widely recognized state.

 Bolivia – Republic of Bolivia
Capital: Sucre
Widely recognized state.

Brazil Brazil – Republic of the United States of Brazil
Capital: Rio de Janeiro
Widely recognized state. Brazil was a federation of 20 states, one territory, and one federal district.[a]

 Bulgaria – Kingdom of Bulgaria
Capital: Sofia
Widely recognized state.

C[edit]


 Canada – Dominion of Canada
Capital: Ottawa
Widely recognized state. Canada is autonomous but still dependent from the United Kingdom.

 Chile – Republic of Chile
Capital: Santiago
Widely recognized state.

China
Capital: Peking
Widely recognized state.

 Colombia – Republic of Colombia
Capital: Bogotá
Widely recognized state.

Costa Rica– First Republic of Costa Rica
Capital: San José
Widely recognized state.

 Crete – Cretan State (de jure to December 1, 1913)
Capital: Chania
De jure autonomous state of the Ottoman Empire to December 1, 1913. De facto unilaterally annexed by Greece.

 Cuba – Republic of Cuba
Capital: Havana
Widely recognized state.

Czechoslovakia – Czechoslovak Republic (from October 28, 1918)
Capital: Prague

D[edit]


 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
Capital: Copenhagen
Widely recognized state. Denmark had two colonies and one dependency:

 Dominican Republic – Dominican Republic
Capital: Santo Domingo
Widely recognized state. Under United States military occupation from May 5, 1916.

E[edit]


 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
Capital: Quito
Widely recognized state.

El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
Capital: San Salvador
Widely recognized state.

Estonia Widely recognized state.

 Ethiopia – Ethiopian Empire
Capital: Addis Ababa
Widely recognized state.

F[edit]


& Finland
Capital: Helsinki

France – French Republic
Capital: Paris
Widely recognized state. The following are colonies, concessions and protectorates of France:

G[edit]


Georgia – Democratic Republic of Georgia (from May 26, 1918)
Capital: Tiflis
Widely recognized state. Immediately recognized by Germany and the Ottoman Empire.

Flag of Weimar Republic.svg Germany – German Realm
Capital: Berlin
Widely recognized state. The following are colonies, concessions and protectorates of Germany:

 Greece – Kingdom of Greece
Capital: Athens
Widely recognized state.

 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
Capital: Guatemala City
Widely recognized state.

H[edit]


Ha'il – Emirate of Jabal Shammar
Capital: Ha'il
Widely recognized state.

 Haiti – Republic of Haiti
Capital: Port-au-Prince
Widely recognized state. Under United States military occupation from July 28, 1915.

Hejaz – Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz (from June 10, 1916)
Capital: Mecca
Widely recognized state.

 Honduras – Republic of Honduras
Capital: Tegucicalpa
Widely recognized state.

Hungary
Capital: Budapest
Unrecognized state from August 1 to 8, 1919.

I[edit]


 Iceland – Kingdom of Iceland (from December 1, 1918)
Capital: Reykjavík
Widely recognized independent state under a personal union with Denmark. Still dependent from Denmark.

 Italy – Kingdom of Italy
Capital: Rome
Widely recognized state. Italy had four colonies and one concession:

J[edit]


 Japan – Empire of Japan
Capital: Tokyo City
Widely recognized state. Japan had sovereignty over the following protectorates, dependencies and concessions:

Japan administered one League of Nations mandate:


L[edit]


& Latvia (disputed between two governments) Widely recognized state.

 Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Capital: Monrovia
Widely recognized state.

 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
Capital: Vaduz
Widely recognized state.

& Lithuania
Capital: Vilnius
Widely recognized state.

 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Capital: Luxembourg City
Widely recognized state. Limited sovereignty for occupatio bellica.

M[edit]


 Mexico – United Mexican States
Capital: Mexico City
Widely recognized state. Mexico had one territory:

 Monaco – Principality of Monaco
Capital: Monaco
Widely recognized state.

Mongolia - Great Mongolian State[8] (from December 29, 1911)
Capital: Niislel Khuree
Widely recognized state. Still dependent from China.

Montenegro
Capital: Cetinje
Widely recognized state. Limited sovereignty for occupatio bellica to December 1, 1918.

Morocco – Sultanate of Morocco (to March 30, 1912)
Capital: Fes
De jure sovereign state under French and Spanish protectorate from March 30, 1912.[9][10]

Mountain Republic - Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (from March 6, 1917)
Capital: Temir-Khan-Shura
Widely recognized state.

 Muscat and Oman – Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
Capital: Muscat
De jure independent state. De facto a British protectorate.

N[edit]


Riyadh / Nejd
Capital: Riyadh
Widely recognized state.

 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital: Amsterdam
Widely-recognized independent state. The Netherlands had sovereignty over three colonies:

 Newfoundland – Dominion of Newfoundland
Capital: St. John's
Widely recognized state. Newfoundland is autonomous but still dependent from the United Kingdom.

New Zealand New Zealand – Dominion of New Zealand
Capital: Wellington
Widely recognized state. New Zealand is autonomous but still dependent from the United Kingdom. The following are territories of New Zealand:

 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
Capital: Managua
Widely recognized state. Under United States military occupation from 1912.

 Norway – Kingdom of Norway
Capital: Oslo
Widely recognized state. Norway had three uninhabited possessions:

O[edit]


 Ottoman Empire – Sublime Ottoman State
Capital: Constantinople
Widely recognized state. Ottoman Empire had one protectorate:

 Wadai – Sultanate of Wadai (to 1912)
Capital: Abeche
Widely recognized state.

P[edit]


 Panama – Republic of Panama
Capital: Panama City
Widely recognized state.

 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
Capital: Asuncion
Widely recognized state.

Persia – Persian Empire
Capital: Tehran
Widely recognized state.

 Peru – Peruvian Republic
Capital: Lima
Widely recognized independent state.

Poland (from January 14, 1917)
Capital: Warsaw
Client / Puppet state of Germany until November 11, 1918. Widely recognized independent state from November 11, 1918.

Portugal
Capital: Lisbon
Widely recognized independent state. The following are colonies, vassal state and possession of Portugal:

R[edit]


 Romania – Kingdom of Romania
Capital: Bucharest
Widely recognized state.

Russia
Capital: Saint Petersburg
Widely recognized state. Russia had three protectorates, one concession and one autonomous grand duchy:

S[edit]


 San Marino – Most Serene Republic of San Marino
Capital: San Marino
Widely recognized state.

Serbia / Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Capital: Belgrade
Widely recognized state. Limited sovereignty for occupatio bellica to December 1, 1918.

Thailand Siam – Kingdom of Siam
Capital: Bangkok
Widely recognized state.

 South Africa – Union of South Africa (from May 31, 1910)
Capital: Pretoria
Widely recognized independent state. South Africa is autonomous but still dependent from the United Kingdom. South Africa has one mandate:

Spain Spain – Kingdom of Spain
Capital: Madrid
Widely recognized state. Spain had three colonies, one protectorate and two possessions:

Sulu – Sultanate of Sulu (to 1915)
Capital: Jolo
Widely recognized state.

 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
Capital: Stockholm
Widely recognized state.

  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
Capital: Bern
Widely recognized state.

T[edit]


Tibet (from 1912)
Capital: Lhasa
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Republic of China.

Transcaucasia – Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (from February 22 to May 28, 1918)
Capital: Tiflis
Widely recognized independent state.

U[edit]


 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Capital: London
Widely recognized state. The following are colonies, territories, dependencies and protectorates of the United Kingdom:

 United States – United States of America
Capital: Washington, D.C.
Widely recognized state. The following are territories of the United States of America:

Upper Asir - Sheikdom of Upper Asir (from August 1916)
Capital: Abha
Widely recognized state.

 Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
Capital: Montevideo
Widely recognized state.

V[edit]


 Venezuela – United States of Venezuela
Capital: Caracas
Widely recognized state.

Y[edit]


Yemen – Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (from October 30, 1918)
Capital: Sana`a
Widely recognized independent state.[11][12]

States claiming sovereignty[edit]

Alash – Alash Autonomy (from December 13, 1917)
Capital: Alash-Qala
Unrecognized state.[13]

Alsace-Lorraine – Alsace-Lorraine Soviet Republic (from November 10 to 22, 1918)
Capital: Straßburg
Unrecognized socialist state created during the German Revolution after the World War I.

Altai – Confederated Republic of Altai (from 1917)
Capital: Gorno-Altaysk
Unrecognized state.

Aras – Republic of Aras (from December 1918 to June 1919)
Capital: Nakhchivan
Unrecognized state.

Banat Republic (from October 31, 1918 to February 20, 1919)
Capital: Timișoara
Unrecognized state. Client state of the Hungarian People's Republic to November 1918. Client state of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes from November 1918.

Bavaria
Capital: Munich
Unrecognized socialist state created during the German Revolution after the World War I.

Belarus Partially-recognized state from 1918 to 1919. Puppet/Buffer State of Soviet Russia from January 1, 1919.

Flag of Weimar Republic.svg Bottleneck – Free State Bottleneck (from January 10, 1919)
Capital: Lorch
Unoccupied territory within post-World War I Germany.

Bremen – Bremen Soviet Republic (from January 10 to February 4, 1919)
Capital: Bremen
Unrecognized socialist state created during the German Revolution after the World War I.

Central Albania – Republic of Central Albania (from October 16, 1913 to March 7, 1914)
Capital: Durrës
Unrecognized state.

Centrocaspian Dictatorship – Centro-Caspian Dictatorship (from August 1 to September 15, 1918)
Capital: Baku
Unrecognized state.

Courland and Semigallia – Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (from March 8 to September 22, 1918)
Capital: Riga
Client state of Germany.

Crimea
Capital: Bakhchysarai
Self-proclaimed autonomy of the Russian Democratic Federative Republic.

Don – Don Republic (from May 18, 1918)
Capital: Novocherkassk
Unrecognized state.

Donbas and Kryvbas – Donets-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic (from February 12 to March 20, 1918)
Capital: Kharkiv
Unrecognized, self-declared state.

Hutsul Republic (from January 8 to June 11, 1919)
Capital: Yasinia
Unrecognized state.

Icaria – Free State of Icaria (from July 18 to November 1912)
Capital: Icaria
Unrecognized state.

Idel-Ural – Idel-Ural State (from March 1, 1918 to April 1918)
Capital: Ufa
Semi-Independent state.

Ireland – Irish Republic (from January 21, 1919)
Capital: Dublin
Revolutionary state.

Kars Republic – Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus (from December 1, 1918 to April 1919)
Capital: Kars
Nominally-independent provisional government.

Kokand – Turkestan Autonomy (from November 27, 1917 to February 22, 1918)
Capital: Kokand
Unrecognized state.

Komancza – Komancza Republic (from November 4, 1918 to January 24, 1919)
Capital: Komańcza
Microstate.

Korea, Provisional Government of – Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea (from April 11, 1919)
Capital-in-exile: Shanghai
Partially recognized Korean government-in-exile.

 Kuban – Kuban People's Republic (from January 28, 1918)
Capital: Yekaterinodar
Unrecognized state.

Lemko Republic – Lemko-Rusyn People's Republic (from December 5, 1918)
Capital: Florynka
Unrecognized state from December 5, 1918.[14]

Lithuania-Byelorussia – Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (from February 17 to July 17, 1919)
Capital: Vilnius, Minsk, and Smolensk
Soviet puppet state from February 17 to July 17, 1919.

Moldova – Moldavian Democratic Republic (from December 15, 1917 to December 10, 1918)
Capital: Argyrokastron
Unrecognized state.

Northern Epirus – Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus (from February 28 to May 17, 1914)
Capital: Argyrokastron
Unrecognized, self-declared independent state. Autonomy under nominal (unimplemented) Albanian sovereignty from May 17, 1914; de facto under Greek administration from October 27, 1914.

North Ingria – Republic of North Ingria (from January 23, 1919)
Capital: Kirjasalo
Unrecognized state.

Odessa – Odessa Soviet Republic (from January 17 to March 13, 1918)
Capital: Odessa
Puppet state of Soviet Russia.

Perloja – Republic of Perloja (from November 1918) Unrecognized state.

Saxony – Soviet Republic of Saxony (from November 13, 1918 to March 14, 1919)
Capital: Dresden
Unrecognized socialist state created during the German Revolution after the World War I.

Slovakia – Slovak Soviet Republic (from June 16 to July 7, 1919)
Capital: Prešov
Puppet state of the Hungarian Soviet Republic.

Slovenes, Croats and Serbs – State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (from October 29 to December 1, 1918)
Capital: Zagreb
Unrecognized provisional government.

Syria – Arab Kingdom of Syria (from November 26, 1919)
Capital: Damascus
De facto independent state not recognized by any other state.[15]

Tarnobrzeg – Republic of Tarnobrzeg (from November 6, 1918, to spring 1919)
Capital: Tarnobrzeg
Unrecognized state.

Tripolitania – Tripolitanian Republic (from November 16, 1918)
Capital: ‘Aziziya
Unrecognized state.

Uhtua – Republic of Uhtua (from June 21, 1918)
Capital: Uhtua
Unrecognized state.

Ukraine (separated into several governments)

Uryankhay – Uryankhay Republic (from December 1, 1911 to April 17, 1914)
Capital: Belotsarsk
Self-declared independent state.

Western Thrace – Independent Government of Western Thrace (from August 31 to October 25, 1913)
Capital: Komotini
Unrecognized state.

Würzburg – Würzburg Soviet Republic (from April 7 to 9, 1919)
Capital: Würzburg
Unrecognized socialist state created during the German Revolution after the World War I.

Zakopane – Republic of Zakopane (from October 13 to November 16, 1918)
Capital: Zakopane
Unrecognized state.

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Anglo-Afghan Wars". www.britannica.com.
  2. ^ "Albania — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  3. ^ "1912 | The Declaration of Albanian Independence". Albanianhistory.net. Retrieved 2022-02-20.
  4. ^ "Andorra", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2021-10-06, retrieved 2021-10-20
  5. ^ "World War I - The collapse of Austria-Hungary". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved October 21, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. ^ "Azerbaijan— The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  7. ^ "Estonian Declaration of Independence, 24 February 1918". 2009-05-22. Archived from the original on 2009-05-22. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  8. ^ "Mongolia - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. 2022-02-14. Retrieved 2022-02-20.
  9. ^ International Law: Achievements and Prospects, p. 51, at Google Books
  10. ^ Repertory of Decisions of the International Court of Justice (1947–1992), p. 453, at Google Books
  11. ^ "Kingdom of Yemen (1918-1962)". www.fotw.info. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  12. ^ "Yemen", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2021-10-06, retrieved 2021-10-20
  13. ^ Ubiria, Grigol (16 September 2015). Soviet Nation-Building in Central Asia:The Making of the Kazakh and Uzbek Nations. Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 9781317504351. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  14. ^ "Lemko Republic of Florynka/Ruska narodna respublika Lemkiv". World Academy of Rusyn Culture. Archived from the original on 2010-06-14. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  15. ^ Tauber, Eliezer (13 September 2013). The Formation of Modern Iraq and Syria. Routledge. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-135-20118-0.