List of political entities in the 3rd century BC

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The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopotamia c. 3700 BC, in Egypt c. 3300 BC, in the Indus Valley c. 2500 BC, India c. 1700 BC, and in China c. 1600 BC. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. According to Professor Gil Stein of the University of Chicago Oriental Institute, "The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term 'the Ancient World'".[1] The notion of a sovereign state arises in the 16th century with the development of modern diplomacy. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling by the grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations.

This is a list of sovereign states that existed between 300 BC and 201 BC.

Sovereign states[edit]

Map of the world in 200 BC
Sovereign state
Achaea – Achaean League (from 280 BC)[disputed ]
Aetolia – Aetolian League
Albania – Kingdom of Albania
Ardiaean Kingdom - Ardiaean Illyric Kingdom (from 260 BC)
Atropatene – Kingdom of Atropatene
Bithynia (from 297 BC)
Bosporus – Bosporan Kingdom
Chavín - Chavín Culture (to 250 BC)
Chera Kingdom
Chola - Chola Empire
Chorrera (to 300 BC)
Chu - State of Chu (to 223 BC)
Dardanian Kingdom – Dardanian Illyric Kingdom
Dongye - Korean chiefdom
Eastern Zhou – Kingdom of Eastern Zhou (from 256 BC - 249 BC)
Ethiopia – Ethiopian Empire
Gojoseon – Ancient Korean Kingdom
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (from 256 BC)
Han – Han Dynasty (from 206 BC)
Han – State of Han (to 230 BC)
Kush – Kingdom of Kush
Jin State – Jin state
Lu – State of Lu (to 256 BC)
Lycaonia[citation needed]
Maurya Empire
Minyue (from 224 BC)
Numidia – Kingdom of Numidia (from 202 BC)
Parthian Empire (from 247 BC)
Pontus - Kingdom of Pontus (from 291 BC)
Ptolemaic Kingdom
Qi – State of Qi (to 241 BC)
Qin – State of Qin
Qin – Qin Dynasty (from 221 BC - 206 BC)
Roman Republic
Sātavāhana Empire (from 230 BC)
Seleucid Empire
State of the Scordisci (from c.278 BC)
Văn Lang (to 258 BC)
Wei - State of Wei (to 225 BC)
Yan – State of Yan (to 222 BC)
Zhoa – State of Zhoa (to 222 BC)
Zhou – Zhou Dynasty (to 256 BC)

See also[edit]

List of political entities in the 3rd century BC
Preceded by
4th century BC
Sovereign states of
the 3rd century BC
Succeeded by
2nd century BC


  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379.