List of sovereign states in the 1940s

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This is a list of sovereign states in the 1940s, giving an overview of states around the world during the period between 1 January 1940 and 31 December 1949. It contains 106 entries, arranged alphabetically, with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. It includes 99 widely recognized sovereign states, six entities which were de facto sovereign but which were not widely recognized by other states, and one state which was initially unrecognized but then gained full recognition later in the decade.

Sovereign states[edit]

Name and capital city Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

A[edit]


Afghanistan Afghanistan – Kingdom of Afghanistan
Capital: Kabul
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 19 November 1946).

AlbaniaAlbania Albania (from 20 October 1944)
Capital: Tirana
Widely recognized independent state.

Andorra vlag 1939 2.svg Andorra – Principality of Andorra
Capital: Andorra la Vella
Widely recognized independent state. The President of France and Bishop of Urgell were ex officio Co-Princes of Andorra. The defense of Andorra was the responsibility of France and Spain.

 Argentina – Argentine Republic
Capital: Buenos Aires
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 27 December 1945). Argentina was a federation of 23 provinces and 10 federal territories.[a] It had a claim over Argentine Antarctica (from 1942). It also claimed the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, both of which were British overseas territories.

 Australia - Commonwealth of Australia
Capital: Canberra
Widely recognized independent state. Dominion of the British Empire (to 9 October 1942). LON member state (to 20 April 1946).UN member state (from 1 November 1945).Commonwealth realm. Australia was a federation of six states and three territories.[b] It had sovereignty over the following external territories:

Australia administered one League of Nations mandate/United Nations trust territory:

Australia administered two United Nations Trust Territories:


B[edit]


 Belgium - Kingdom of Belgium (to 17 May 1940, from 3 September 1944)
Capital: Brussels
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 27 December 1945). Belgium had sovereignty over one colony:

Belgium administered one League of Nations mandate/United Nations trust territory:


 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan (from 8 August 1949)
Capital: Punakha
Widely recognized independent state. Bhutan was officially guided by India in its foreign affairs.

 Bolivia – Republic of Bolivia
Capital: Sucre (official), La Paz (administrative)
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 14 November 1945)

Brazil Brazil – Republic of the United States of Brazil
Capital: Rio de Janeiro
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 24 October 1945). Brazil was a federation of 20 states, five territories, and one federal district.[c]

Kingdom of BulgariaBulgaria Bulgaria
Capital: Sofia
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946).

Burma – Union of Burma (from 4 January 1948)
Capital: Rangoon
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 19 April 1948)

C[edit]


 Canada - Dominion of Canada
Capital: Ottawa
Widely recognized independent state.LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 9 November 1945). Commonwealth realm. Canada was a federation of ten provinces and two territories.[d]

 Ceylon – Dominion of Ceylon (from 4 February 1948)
Capital: Colombo
Widely recognized independent state. Commonwealth realm.

 Chile – Republic of Chile
Capital: Santiago
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

 China / Communist China - People's Republic of China (from 1 October 1949)
Capital: Beijing
Partially recognized de facto independent state. The Republic of China claimed to be the sole legitimate government of China (from 1 October 1949), but only administered the mainland. It also claimed the Paracel Islands (disputed by the Republic of China and South Vietnam), the Spratly Islands (disputed by the Republic of China, South Vietnam, and the Philippines), and South Tibet (controlled by India's North-East Frontier Agency).

 China / Nationalist China – Republic of China
Capital: Chunking (to 2 September 1945), Nanking (from 2 September 1945 to 7 December 1949), Taipei (from 7 Dec 1949)
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 24 October 1945). The Republic of China claimed to be the sole legitimate government of China (from 1 October 1949), but only administered Taiwan, Hainan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, the Pratas Islands, Itu Aba, and portions of Yunnan Province. The Republic of China had territorial claims over Mongolia; the Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River (administered by the Soviet Union); The majority of Gorno-Badakhshan (administered by the Soviet Union); The eastern tip of the Wakhan Corridor (administered by Afghanistan); part of the disputed Kashmir region; eastern Bhutan; South Tibet (controlled by India's North-East Frontier Agency); and Kachin State (administered by Burma).

 Colombia – Republic of Colombia
Capital: Bogotá
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state(to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 5 November 1945). Colombia claimed Quita Sueño Bank, Roncador Bank, and Serrana Bank (disputed by the United States); Bajo Nuevo Bank (disputed by Jamaica, Nicaragua and the United States); and Serranilla Bank (disputed by Nicaragua and the United States)

 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
Capital: San José
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 2 November 1945)

 Cuba – Republic of Cuba
Capital: Havana
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state(to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 2 November 1945). The Cuban area of Guantánamo Bay was under the permanent control of the United States.

 Czechoslovakia – Czechoslovak Republic (from 3 April 1945)
Capital: Prague
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 24 October 1945).[e]

D[edit]


 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark (to 9 April 1940, from 5 May 1945)
Capital: Copenhagen
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state(to 20 April 1940). UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

 Dominican Republic
Capital: Santo Domingo
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state(to 9 April 1946). UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

E[edit]


Flag of Ecuador (1900-2009).svg Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
Capital: Quito
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state(to 9 April 1946). UN member state (from 21 December 1945)

Kingdom of Egypt Egypt – Kingdom of Egypt
Capital: Cairo
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state(to 9 April 1946). UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
Capital: San Salvador
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

 Estonia – Republic of Estonia (to June 17, 1940)
Capital: Tallinn
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to June 17, 1940).

 Ethiopia – Ethiopian Empire
Capital: Addis Ababa
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to October 24, 1945). UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

F[edit]


 Finland – Republic of Finland
Capital: Helsinki
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state(to 9 April 1946). UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

France France
Capital: Paris (dejure from 22 Jun 1940 to 20 Aug 1944), Vichy (defacto from 22 Jun 1940 to 20 Aug 1944)
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 18 April 1941 and from 20 August 1944 to 9 April 1946). UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

G[edit]


 Germany
Capital: Berlin
  • German Realm (to 26 June 1943)
  • Greater German Realm (from 26 June 1943 to 8 May 1945)
Widely recognized independent state.

 Greece – Kingdom of Greece (to 23 April 1941, From October 13, 1944)
Capital: Athens
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to April 1941, from Oct 13 1944 to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 25 October 1945)

 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
Capital: Guatemala City
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 21 November 1945)

H[edit]


 Haiti – Republic of Haiti
Capital: Port-au-Prince
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to April 1942). UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

Honduras – Republic of Honduras
Capital: Tegucigalpa
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 17 December 1945)

Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46)Hungarian Republic (1946–49)Hungarian People's Republic Hungary
Capital: Budapest
Widely recognized independent state.

I[edit]


Iceland
Capital: Reykjavík
Widely recognized independent state. In personal union with Denmark to 17 June 1944. UN member state (from 19 November 1946)

India India – Union of India (from 15 August 1947)
Capital: New Delhi
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state.

 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia (from 17 August 1945)
Capital: Djakarta
Widely recognized independent state.

Iran – Imperial State of Iran
Capital: Tehran
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 12 November 1945)

Iraq Iraq – Kingdom of Iraq
Capital: Baghdad
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 21 December 1945)

 Ireland
Capital: Dublin
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946).

Italy
Capital: Rome (to September 1943, from February 1944), Brindisi (from September 1943 to February 1944)
Widely recognized independent state.

J[edit]


 Japan
Capital: Tokyo
Widely recognized independent state.

K[edit]


 North Korea – Democratic People's Republic of Korea (from 9 September 1948)
Capital: Pyongyang
Widely recognized independent state.[f] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

 South Korea – Republic of Korea (from 17 August 1948)
Capital: Seoul
Widely recognized independent state.[g] Permanent observer at the UN. Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

L[edit]


 Latvia – Republic of Latvia (to 17 August 1940)
Capital: Riga
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 5 August 1940) and in exile (to 20 April 1946). Conquered by a Soviet offensive but maintained a government in exile.

 Lebanon – Lebanese Republic (from 22 November 1943)
Capital: Beirut
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state from October 1945.

 Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Capital: Monrovia
Widely recognized independent state.LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 2 November 1945)

 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
Capital: Vaduz
Widely recognized independent state.

 Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania (to 15 Jun 1940)
Capital: Vilnius
Widely recognized independent state.LON member state (to 5 August 1940) and in exile (to 20 April 1946). Conquered by a Soviet offensive but maintained a government in exile.

 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (to 10 May 1940, from 11 Sept 1944)
Capital: Luxembourg City
Widely recognized independent state.LON member state (to 10 May 1940, from 11 Sept 1944 to 20 April 1946) and in exile (from 10 May 1940, to 11 Sept 1944). Conquered by a Nazi offensive but maintained a government in exile based in London. UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

M[edit]


 Mexico – United Mexican States
Capital: Mexico City
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 17 November 1945)

 Monaco – Principality of Monaco
Capital: Monaco
Widely recognized independent state.

Mongolia Mongolia – Mongolian People's Republic
Capital: Ulaanbaatar
Widely recognized independent state.

N[edit]


Nepal – Kingdom of Nepal
Capital: Kathmandu
Widely recognized independent state.

 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital: Amsterdam
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 10 Dec 1945). Under occupation by Germany from 10 May 1940 to 5 May 1945.

New Zealand New Zealand – Dominion of New Zealand
Capital: Wellington
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 24 Oct 1945). Dominion of the British Empire until 25 Nov 1947.

 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
Capital: Managua
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 24 Oct 1945).

 Norway – Kingdom of Norway
Capital: Oslo
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 24 Oct 1945).

Under occupation by Germany from 9 April 1940 to 8 May 1945.


P[edit]


 PakistanDominion of Pakistan (from 14 Aug 1947)
Capital: Karachi
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 30 September 1947).

 Panama – Republic of Panama
Capital: Panama City
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 13 Nov 1945).

 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
Capital: Asunción
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 24 Oct 1945).

 Peru – Peruvian Republic
Capital: Lima
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 31 Oct 1945).

 Philippine Commonwealth
Capital: Manila (from 14 Oct 1943 to 3 Mar 1945)
Widely recognized independent state. Under Japanese Occupation from 3 Jan 1942 – 17 Aug 1945 during which a puppet government was established on 14 Oct 1943. Resistance by Philippine Guerrillas continued until the puppet regieme's fall on 17 Oct 1945. UN member state (from 24 October 1945).

 Second Philippine Republic (from 14 Oct 1943 to 17 Aug 1945)
Capital: Manila (from 14 Oct 1943 to 3 Mar 1945) Baguio(from 3 Mar 1945)
de facto independent country, considered to be a puppet state of Japan.

 PolandPoland (from 31 Dec 1944)
Capital: Warsaw
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946). UN member state (from 24 October 1945).

 Portugal – Portuguese Republic
Capital: Lisbon
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state (to 20 April 1946).

R[edit]


Kingdom of RomaniaSocialist Republic of Romania Romania
Capital: Bucharest
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state

S[edit]


 San MarinoMost Serene Republic of San Marino
Capital: City of San Marino
Widely recognized independent state.

Saudi ArabiaKingdom of Saudi Arabia
Capital: Riyadh
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

 SikkimKingdom of Sikkim
Capital: Gangtok
Widely recognized independent state.

 Union of South AfricaUnion of South Africa
Capital: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), Bloemfontein (judicial)
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 17 November 1945)

 Soviet UnionUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics (Including two non-sovereign UN members)
Capital: Moscow
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 24 October 1945)

 Spanish State – Spain
Capital: Madrid
Widely recognized independent state. Spain had sovereignty over the following overseas provinces:

 Sweden – Sweden
Capital: Stockholm
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state

  SwitzerlandSwiss Confederation
Capital: Bern
Widely recognized independent state.LON member state. Permanent observer at the UN.

 SyriaSyrian Republic (from Jan. 1, 1944)
Capital: Damascus
Widely recognized independent state.

T[edit]


 ThailandKingdom of Thailand
Capital: Bangkok
Widely recognized independent state.LON member state.UN member state.

 Transjordan (to April 3, 1949),- Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, Jordan (from April 3, 1949)
Capital: Amman
  • Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan (to April 3, 1949)
  • Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (from April 3, 1949)
Widely recognized independent state.

 TriesteFree Territory of Trieste (from May 25, 1946)
Capital: Amman
Widely recognized independent state.

Tripura – Kingdom of Tripura (to September 9, 1949)
Capital: Agartala
Widely recognized independent state.

 Turkey – Republic of Turkey
Capital: Ankara
Widely recognized independent state.LON member state to October 4, 1945.UN member state from October 4, 1945.

U[edit]


 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Capital: London
Widely recognized independent state.LON member state to October 4, 1945.UN member state from October 4, 1945. The United Kingdom was composed of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom had sovereignty over :

 United States – United States of America
Capital: Washington, D.C.
Widely recognized independent state. LON member state to October 4, 1945. UN member state from October 4, 1945. The United States had sovereignty over :

 Uruguay – Oriental Republic of Uruguay
Capital: Montevideo
Widely recognized independent state.LON member state to December 18, 1945.UN member state from December 18, 1945.

V[edit]


  Vatican City – Vatican City State
Capital: Vatican City
Widely recognized independent state.

Venezuela – United States of Venezuela
Capital: Caracas
Widely recognized independent state.

Y[edit]


Yemen Yemen – Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
Capital: Sana'a
Widely recognized independent state.

 YugoslaviaDemocratic Federal Yugoslavia, Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
Capital: Belgrade
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state from October 24, 1945

Other entities[edit]

Excluded from the list above are the following noteworthy entities which either were not fully sovereign or did not claim to be independent:

  •  Estonia was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940, but the legality of the annexation was not widely recognized. The Baltic diplomatic services in the West continued to be recognised as representing the de jure state.
  •  Latvia was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940, but the legality of the annexation was not widely recognized. The Baltic diplomatic services in the West continued to be recognised as representing the de jure state.
  •  Lithuania was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940, but the legality of the annexation was not widely recognized. The Baltic diplomatic services in the West continued to be recognised as representing the de jure state.
  • The Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone was a strip of neutral territory between Iraq and Saudi Arabia.
  • The Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone was a strip of neutral territory between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta was an entity claiming sovereignty. The order had bi-lateral diplomatic relations with a large number of states, but had no territory other than extraterritorial areas within Rome.[1] Although the order frequently asserted its sovereignty, it did not claim to be a sovereign state. It lacked a defined territory. Since all its members were citizens of other states, almost all of them lived in their native countries, and those who resided in the order's extraterritorial properties in Rome did so only in connection with their official duties, the order lacked the characteristic of having a permanent population.
  • Tangier was an international zone under the joint administration of France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy, Portugal and Belgium.
  • West Berlin from 23 May 1949 was a political enclave that was closely aligned with – but not actually a part of – West Germany. It consisted of three occupied sectors administered by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France.
  • Republic of China (1912–1949) China, Provisional Government of – Provisional Government of the Republic of China (to 30 March 1940) was organized and recognized by Japan military authority during Second Sino-Japanese War.
  • China, Reformed Government of – Reformed Government of the Republic of China (to 30 March 1940) was organized and recognized by Japan military authority during Second Sino-Japanese War.
  •  Manchukuo – Great Empire of Manchuria (to August, 1945) was organized and recognized by Japan military authority after Mukden Incident. Recognized by Axis powers member states.
  •  Mengjiang – Mongol Military Government (to August, 1945)
    Capital: Kalgan was organized and recognized by Japan military authority during Second Sino-Japanese War. Recognized by Axis powers member states.
  • Slovakia Slovakia – Slovak Republic (to April 4, 1945) was organized and recognized by German military after Munich Agreement. Recognized by Axis powers member states. Recognized by Axis powers member states and several neutral States.
  • National Government of the Republic of China – National Government of the Republic of China (from 30 March 1940 to April 4, 1945) was organized and recognized by Japanese military, combined Reformed Government and Provisional Government together. Recognized by Axis powers member states.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 23 Provinces: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chubut (from 15 June 1955), Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa (from 15 June 1955), Jujuy, La Pampa (renamed Eva Perón from 29 January 1952 to 27 April 1956), La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones (from 1953), Neuquén (from 15 June 1955), Presidente Juan Perón (from 10 August 1951, renamed Chaco on 27 April 1956), Río Negro (from 15 June 1955), Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz (from 1957), Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán. 10 Territories: Buenos Aires, Chaco (to 10 August 1951, renamed Presidente Juan Perón in 1950), Chubut (to 15 June 1955), Formosa (to 15 June 1955), Misiones (to 1953), Neuquén (to 15 June 1955), Río Negro (to 15 June 1955), Santa Cruz (to 1957), Tierra del Fuego.
  2. ^ 6 States: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia. 3 Territories: Australian Capital Territory, Jervis Bay Territory, Northern Territory.
  3. ^ 20 States: Alagoas, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe. 5 Territories: Acre, Amapá, Fernando de Noronha, Guaporé (renamed Rondônia on 17 February 1956), Rio Branco. 1 Federal District: Brazilian Federal District.
  4. ^ 10 Provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan. 2 Territories: Northwest Territories, Yukon.
  5. ^ Owing to a dispute over lands seized during World War II, Liechtenstein and Czechoslovakia did not recognize each other.
  6. ^ North Korea was not recognized by Estonia, France, Japan, or South Korea.
  7. ^ South Korea was not recognized by the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, Romania or North Korea.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bilateral relations with countries Archived 2008-06-26 at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved 2009-12-22