List of political entities in the 2nd century BC

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The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia c. 3700 BC, in Egypt c. 3300 BC, in the Indus Valley c. 2500 BC, India c. 1700 BC, and in China c. 1600 BC. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. According to Professor Gil Stein of the University of Chicago Oriental Institute, "The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term 'the Ancient World'".[1] The notion of a sovereign state arises in the 16th century with the development of modern diplomacy. For earlier times, the term "sovereign state" is an anachronism. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling by the grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations.

This is a list of sovereign states that existed between 200 BC and 101 BC.

Sovereign states[edit]

Map of the world in 150 BC
Sovereign state Years
Adena culture 1000 - 200 BC
Albania 4th century BC - 8th century AD
Ardiaean Kingdom c.260 – 168 BC
Armenia 190 BC - 428 AD
Atropatene 320s BC - 3rd century AD
Bithynia 297 - 74 BC
Buyeo 2nd century BC - 494 AD
Carthaginian Empire 650 - 146 BC
Chavín culture 900 - 200 BC
Chera Kingdom 5th century BC - 1102 AD
Commagene 163 BC - 72 AD
Dardanian Kingdom c.448 – 28 BC
Dongye 3rd century BC - 5th century AD
Gojoseon 2333 - 108 BC
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256 - 125 BC
Han Empire 206 BC - 220 AD
Iberia 302 BC - 580 AD
Indo–Greek Kingdom 180 BC - 10 AD
Indo–Scythian Kingdom 200 BC - 400 AD
Japan 660 BC - present
Jin 3rd century - 2nd century BC
Judea 137 - 37 BC
Kush 1070 BC - 350 AD
Lycaonia 8th century - 200 BC
Macedonia 8th century - 146 BC
Mauretania 110 BC - 40 AD
Maurya Empire 321 - 185 BC
Maya civilization c.2000 BC - 1697 AD
Minyue 224 - 110 BC
Nabataean kingdom 168 BC - 106 AD
Numidia 202 - 46 BC
Okjeo 2nd century BC - 5th century AD
Osroene 132 BC - 244 AD
Paracas culture 600 - 175 BC
Parthian Empire 247 BC - 224 AD
Pontus 291 BC - 62 AD
Ptolemaic Kingdom 305 - 30 BC
Roman Republic 509 – 27 BC
Sātavāhana Empire 230 BC - 220 AD
Scythia 8th century BC - 2nd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312 - 63 BC
Sparta 11th century - 195 BC
Scordisci c.278 - 50 BC

See also[edit]

List of political entities in the 2nd century BC
Preceded by
3rd century BC
Sovereign states of
the 2nd century BC
Succeeded by
1st century BC


  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379.