List of Space Shuttle missions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of space shuttle missions)
Jump to: navigation, search
For missions flown by the Soviet Buran spacecraft, sometimes referred to as a space shuttle, see List of Buran missions.
U.S. shuttle Columbia landing at the end of STS-73 (November 5, 1995)

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Its official program name was Space Transportation System, taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development.[1] The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982.

From 1981 to 2011 a total of 135 missions were flown, launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. During that time the fleet totaled 1322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds of flight time.[2] The longest orbital flight of the shuttle was STS-80 at 17 days 15 hours, while the shortest flight was STS-51-L at 1 minute 13 seconds, cut short when the space shuttle Challenger broke apart during launch. The shuttles docked with Russian space station Mir nine times and visited the ISS 37 times. The highest altitude achieved by the shuttle was 350 miles when servicing the Hubble Space Telescope.[3] The program flew a total of 355 people representing 16 countries.[4] The Kennedy Space Center served as the landing site for 78 missions while 54 missions landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California and one at White Sands, New Mexico.[5]

The first orbiter, Enterprise, was built purely for atmospheric flight tests and had no orbital capability. Four full operational orbiters were initially built: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, and Atlantis. Challenger and Columbia were destroyed in mission accidents in 1986 and 2003 respectively, killing a total of fourteen astronauts. A fifth operational orbiter, Endeavour, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger. The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of STS-135 by Atlantis on 21 July 2011.[6]

Flight numbering[edit]

Profiles of all five orbiters at launch.

The U.S. space shuttle program was officially referred to as the Space Transportation System (STS). Specific shuttle missions were therefore designated with the prefix "STS".[2] Initially, the launches were given sequential numbers indicating order of launch, such as STS-9. This scheme continued for 25 launches and eight cancellations up to STS-33.[6]

Subsequent to the Apollo 13 mishap, due to NASA Administrator James M. Beggs' triskaidekaphobia and consequent unwillingness to number a forthcoming flight as STS-13,[7][8][9][10] beginning in 1984, each mission was also assigned a code, such as STS-41-B, with the first digit indicating the federal fiscal year offset into the program (so 41-B was scheduled for FY 1984, 51-L originally for FY 1985 and the third flight in FY 1995 would have been named 151-C), the second digit indicating the launch site (1 was Kennedy Space Center and 2 was Space Launch Complex (SLC) 6 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, although Vandenberg was never used), and the letter indicating scheduling sequence.[11] These codes were assigned when the launches were initially scheduled and were not changed as missions were delayed or rescheduled.[6]

Although the codes were adopted from STS-41-B through STS-51-L, the sequential numbers were used internally at NASA on all processing paperwork. Flights were assigned with sequential numbers from STS-9 through STS-33. After the Challenger disaster, NASA restarted with STS-26R, the "reflight" suffix to disambiguate from prior missions. This continued through STS-33R.[6]

After the Challenger disaster, a sequential numbering system only was used, with the number according to counting from the beginning, although, unlike the initial system, the assignment of numbers was based on the initial schedule and may not reflect launch order. The letter indicated that the intermediate numbering system applied, and e.g. flight STS-51 (a mission carried out by Discovery in 1993) was many years after STS-51-A (Discovery's second flight in 1984).[6]

List of shuttle flights[edit]

Test flights[edit]

The Approach and Landing Test Programme encompassed 16 separate tests of Enterprise, covering taxi tests, unmanned and manned flights on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, and finally the free flight tests. The following list includes the free-flight tests, durations listed count only the orbiter free-flight time. The list does not include total time aloft along with airborne time atop of the Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA).

Order Launch Date Mission Shuttle Crew Duration Landing Site Notes Sources
1 12 August 1977 ALT-12
Enterprise 2 00d 00h 05m Edwards
  • First free flight
  • First non-captive flight of Enterprise
[12][13][14][15]
2 13 September 1977 ALT-13
Enterprise 2 00d 00h 05m Edwards Second free flight [12][13]
3 23 September 1977 ALT-14
Enterprise 2 00d 00h 05m Edwards Third free flight [12][13]
4 12 October 1977 ALT-15
Enterprise 2 00d 00h 02m Edwards
  • Fourth free flight
  • First flight without tailcone (operational configuration)
[12][13][15][16]
5 26 October 1977 ALT-16
Enterprise 2 00d 00h 02m Edwards
  • Final free flight
  • Final non-captive flight of Enterprise
[12][13][17]

Launches and orbital flights[edit]

Order Launch Date Mission Shuttle Crew[a] Duration Landing Site Notes Sources
1 12 April 1981
12:00:04 UTC
07:00:04 EST

Columbia 2 02d 06h Edwards
  • First reusable orbital spacecraft flight
  • First flight of Columbia
[18][19][20]
2 12 November 1981
15:10:00 UTC
10:10:00 EST

Columbia 2 02d 06h Edwards
  • First reuse of a manned orbital space vehicle
  • First test of Canadarm robot arm
  • Truncated due to fuel cell problem.
[21][22][23]
3 22 March 1982
16:00:00 UTC
11:00:00 EST

Columbia 2 08d 00h White Sands [24][25][26]
4 27 June 1982
15:00:00 UTC
11:00:00 EDT

Columbia 2 07d 01h Edwards
  • Last shuttle R&D flight
  • First DoD payload
[27][28][29][30]
5 11 November 1982
12:19:00 UTC
07:19:00 EST

Columbia 4 05d 02h Edwards
  • Multiple comsat deployments
  • First EVA of program canceled due to suit problems
[20][31][32][33]
6 4 April 1983
18:30:00 UTC
13:30:00 EST

Challenger 4 05d 00h Edwards [34][35]
7 18 June 1983
11:33:00 UTC
07:33:00 EDT

Challenger 5 06d 02h Edwards
  • First US woman in space Sally Ride
  • Multiple comsat deployments
  • First deployment and retrieval of a Shuttle Pallet Satellite
[36][37]
8 30 August 1983
06:32:00 UTC
02:32:00 EDT

Challenger 5 06d 01h Edwards
  • Comsat deployment
  • First flight of an African American in space, Guion Bluford
  • Test of robot arm on heavy payloads with Payload Flight Test Article
  • First night landing
[38][39]
9 28 November 1983
16:00:00 UTC
11:00:00 EST

Columbia 6 10d 07h Edwards [40][41]
10 3 February 1984
13:00:00 UTC
08:00:00 EST

Challenger 5 07d 23h Kennedy [42][43]
11 6 April 1984
13:58:00 UTC
08:58:00 EST

Challenger 5 06d 23h Edwards [44][45][46]
12 30 August 1984
12:41:50 UTC
08:41:50 EDT

Discovery 6 06d 00h Edwards
  • Multiple comsat deployments
  • First flight of Discovery
  • Test of OAST-1 Solar Array
[47][48]
13 5 October 1984
11:03:00 UTC
07:03:00 EDT

Challenger 7 08d 05h Kennedy [49][50]
14 8 November 1984
12:15:00 UTC
07:15:00 EST

Discovery 5 07d 23h Kennedy
  • Multiple comsat deployments
  • Retrieval of two other comsats (Palapa B2 and Westar VI), which were subsequently refurbished on Earth and reflown
[51][52]
15 24 January 1985
19:50:00 UTC
14:50:00 EST

Discovery 5 03d 01h Kennedy [28][53][54]
16 12 April 1985
13:59:05 UTC
08:59:05 EST

Discovery 7 06d 23h Kennedy
  • Multiple comsat deployments
  • First flight of a sitting politician in space, Jake Garn
  • First impromptu EVA of program to fix Syncom F3 (Leasat 3)
[55][56]
17 29 April 1985
16:02:18 UTC
12:02:18 EDT

Challenger 7 07d 00h Edwards Spacelab mission [57][58]
18 17 June 1985
11:33:00 UTC
07:33:00 EDT

Discovery 7 07d 01h Edwards [59][60]
19 29 July 1985
22:00:00 UTC
18:00:00 EDT

Challenger 7 07d 22h Edwards
  • Spacelab mission
  • Abort to Orbit. Faulty temperature sensor incorrectly indicated that fuel turbine discharge temperature exceeded the limit. Therefore, one main engine was shut down at T+345 s, resulting in a much lower orbit than planned.
  • All mission objectives achieved.
[61][62]
20 27 August 1985
10:58:01 UTC
06:58:01 EDT

Discovery 5 07d 02h Edwards [63][64]
21 3 October 1985
15:15:30 UTC
11:15:30 EDT

Atlantis 5 04d 01h Edwards [28][65][66]
22 30 October 1985
17:00:00 UTC
12:00:00 EST

Challenger 8 07d 00h Edwards [67][68]
23 26 November 1985
24:29:00 UTC
19:29:00 EST

Atlantis 7 06d 21h Edwards [69][70]
24 12 January 1986
11:55:00 UTC
06:55:00 EST

Columbia 7 06d 02h Edwards [71][72]
25 28 January 1986
16:38:00 UTC
11:38:00 EST

Challenger 7 00d 00h 01m 13s Atlantic Ocean Floor [b] [73][74]
26 29 September 1988
15:37:00 UTC
11:37:00 EDT

Discovery 5 04d 01h Edwards
  • Tracking and data relay satellite deployment
  • First post-Challenger flight
[75][76]
27 2 December 1988
14:30:34 UTC
09:30:34 EST

Atlantis 5 04d 09h Edwards [28][77][78]
28 13 March 1989
14:57:00 UTC
09:57:00 EST

Discovery 5 04d 23h Edwards
  • Tracking and data relay satellite deployment with attached Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)
  • IMAX camera
  • Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element I space station radiator experiment.
[79][80]
29 4 May 1989
18:46:59 UTC
14:46:59 EDT

Atlantis 5 04d 00h Edwards Magellan Venus probe deployment [81][82]
30 8 August 1989
12:37:00 UTC
08:37:00 EDT

Columbia 5 05d 01h Edwards [28][83][84]
31 18 October 1989
16:53:40 UTC
12:53:40 EDT

Atlantis 5 04d 23h Edwards [85][86]
32 22 November 1989
24:23:30 UTC
19:23:30 EST

Discovery 5 05d 00h Edwards [28][87][88]
33 9 January 1990
12:35:00 UTC
07:35:00 EST

Columbia 5 10d 21h Edwards [89][90]
34 28 February 1990
07:50:22 UTC
02:50:22 EST

Atlantis 5 04d 10h Edwards [28][91][92]
35 24 April 1990
12:33:51 UTC
08:33:51 EDT

Discovery 5 05d 01h Edwards Hubble Space Telescope deployment [93][94]
36 6 October 1990
11:47:15 UTC
07:47:15 EDT

Discovery 5 04d 02h Edwards Ulysses/Inertial Upper Stage solar probe deployment [95][96]
37 15 November 1990
23:48:15 UTC
18:48:15 EST

Atlantis 5 04d 21h Kennedy
  • Seventh classified DoD mission
  • Likely SDS2-2 deployed
[28][97][98]
38 2 December 1990
06:49:01 UTC
01:49:01 EST

Columbia 7 08d 23h Edwards Use of ASTRO-1 observatory [99][100]
39 5 April 1991
14:22:45 UTC
09:22:45 EST

Atlantis 5 05d 23h Edwards Compton Gamma Ray Observatory deployment [101][102]
40 28 April 1991
11:33:14 UTC
07:33:14 EDT

Discovery 7 08d 07h Kennedy
  • First unclassified DoD mission
  • military science experiments
[28][103][104]
41 5 June 1991
13:24:51 UTC
09:24:51 EDT

Columbia 7 09d 02h Edwards Spacelab mission [105][106]
42 2 August 1991
15:02:00 UTC
11:02:00 EDT

Atlantis 5 08d 21h Kennedy Tracking and data relay satellite deployment [107][108]
43 12 September 1991
23:11:04 UTC
19:11:04 EDT

Discovery 5 05d 08h Edwards Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite deployment [109][110]
44 24 November 1991
23:44:00 UTC
18:44:00 EST

Atlantis 6 06d 22h Edwards DSP satellite deployment [111][112]
45 22 January 1992
14:52:33 UTC
09:52:33 EST

Discovery 7 08d 01h Edwards Spacelab mission [113][114]
46 24 March 1992
13:13:40 UTC
08:13:40 EST

Atlantis 7 08d 22h Kennedy ATLAS-1 science platform [115][116]
47 7 May 1992
23:40:00 UTC
19:40:00 EDT

Endeavour 7 08d 21h Edwards
  • Intelsat VI repair
  • First flight of Endeavour
  • First 3 person EVA
  • Assembly of Station by EVA Methods (ASEM) space station truss experiment EVA
  • Record four EVAs total for mission
[117][118]
48 25 June 1992
16:12:23 UTC
12:12:23 EDT

Columbia 7 13d 19h Kennedy Spacelab mission [119][120]
49 31 July 1992
13:56:48 UTC
09:56:48 EDT

Atlantis 7 07d 23h Kennedy [121][122]
50 12 September 1992
14:23:00 UTC
10:23:00 EDT

Endeavour 7 07d 22h Kennedy
  • Spacelab-J
  • First flight of an African American woman in space, Mae Jemison
  • Japan funded mission
[123][124]
51 22 October 1992
17:09:39 UTC
13:09:39 EDT

Columbia 6 09d 20h Kennedy
  • LAGEOS II deployment
  • Microgravity experiments
[125][126]
52 2 December 1992
13:24:00 UTC
08:24:00 EST

Discovery 5 07d 07h Edwards
  • Partially classified 10th and final DoD mission
  • Likely deployment of SDS2 satellite
[28][127][128]
53 13 January 1993
13:59:30 UTC
08:59:30 EST

Endeavour 5 05d 23h Kennedy TDRS-F/IUS deployment [129][130]
54 8 April 1993
05:29:00 UTC
01:29:00 EDT

Discovery 5 09d 06h Kennedy ATLAS-2 science platform [131][132]
55 26 April 1993
14:50:00 UTC
10:50:00 EDT

Columbia 7 09d 23h Edwards [133][134]
56 21 June 1993
13:07:22 UTC
09:07:22 EDT

Endeavour 6 09d 23h Kennedy [135][136]
57 12 September 1993
11:45:00 UTC
07:45:00 EDT

Discovery 5 09d 20h Kennedy
  • ACTS satellite deployed
  • Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer with IMAX camera deployed
[137][138]
58 18 October 1993
14:53:10 UTC
10:53:10 EDT

Columbia 7 14d 00h Edwards Spacelab mission [139][140]
59 2 December 1993
09:27:00 UTC
04:27:00 EST

Endeavour 7 10d 19h Kennedy Hubble Space Telescope servicing [141][142]
60 3 February 1994
12:10:00 UTC
07:10:00 EST

Discovery 6 07d 06h Kennedy [143][144]
61 4 March 1994
13:53:00 UTC
08:53:00 EST

Columbia 5 13d 23h Kennedy Microgravity experiments [145][146]
62 9 April 1994
11:05:00 UTC
07:05:00 EDT

Endeavour 6 11d 05h Edwards Shuttle Radar Laboratory-1 [147][148]
63 8 July 1994
04:43:00 UTC
00:43:00 EDT

Columbia 7 14d 17h Kennedy Spacelab mission [149][150]
64 9 September 1994
22:22:05 UTC
18:22:05 EDT

Discovery 6 10d 22h Edwards
  • Multiple science experiments
  • SPARTAN
[151][152]
65 30 September 1994
11:16:00 UTC
07:16:00 EDT

Endeavour 6 11d 05h Edwards Space Radar Laboratory-2 [153][154]
66 3 November 1994
16:59:43 UTC
11:59:43 EST

Atlantis 6 10d 22h Edwards ATLAS-3 science platform [155][156]
67 3 February 1995
05:22:04 UTC
00:22:04 EST

Discovery 6 08d 06h Kennedy [157][158]
68 2 March 1995
06:38:13 UTC
01:38:13 EST

Endeavour 7 16d 15h Edwards ASTRO-2 Deployment [159][160]
69 27 June 1995
19:32:19 UTC
15:32:19 EDT

Atlantis 7/8 09d 19h Kennedy First Shuttle-Mir docking [161][162]
70 13 July 1995
13:41:55 UTC
09:41:55 EDT

Discovery 5 08d 22h Kennedy TDRS-G/IUS deployed [163][164]
71 7 September 1995
15:09:00 UTC
11:09:00 EDT

Endeavour 5 10d 20h Kennedy [165][166]
72 20 October 1995
13:53:00 UTC
09:53:00 EDT

Columbia 7 15d 21h Kennedy Spacelab mission [167][168]
73 12 November 1995
12:30:43 UTC
07:30:43 EST

Atlantis 5 08d 04h Kennedy
  • 2nd Shuttle-Mir docking
  • Delivered docking module
  • Delivered IMAX cargo bay camera
[160][169]
74 11 January 1996
09:41:00 UTC
04:41:00 EST

Endeavour 6 08d 22h Kennedy [170][171]
75 22 February 1996
20:18:00 UTC
15:18:00 EST

Columbia 7 15d 17h Kennedy Tethered satellite reflight, lost due to broken tether [172][173]
76 22 March 1996
08:13:04 UTC
03:13:04 EST

Atlantis 6/5 09d 05h Edwards Shuttle-Mir docking [174][175]
77 19 May 1996
10:30:00 UTC
06:30:00 EDT

Endeavour 6 10d 00h Kennedy [176][177]
78 20 June 1996
14:49:00 UTC
10:49:00 EDT

Columbia 7 16d 21h Kennedy Spacelab mission [178][179]
79 16 September 1996
08:54:49 UTC
04:54:49 EDT

Atlantis 6/6 10d 03h Kennedy Shuttle-Mir docking [180][181]
80 19 November 1996
19:55:47 UTC
14:55:47 EST

Columbia 5 17d 15h Kennedy
  • Wake Shield Facility
  • Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS) II
[182][183]
81 12 January 1997
09:27:23 UTC
04:27:23 EST

Atlantis 6/6 10d 04h Kennedy Shuttle-Mir docking [184][185]
82 11 February 1997
08:55:17 UTC
03:55:17 EST

Discovery 7 09d 23h Kennedy Hubble Space Telescope servicing [186][187]
83 4 April 1997
19:20:32 UTC
14:20:32 EST

Columbia 7 03d 23h Kennedy Truncated due to fuel cell problem [188][189]
84 15 May 1997
08:07:48 UTC
04:07:48 EDT

Atlantis 7/7 09d 05h Kennedy Shuttle-Mir docking [190][191]
85 1 July 1997
18:02:00 UTC
14:02:00 EDT

Columbia 7 15d 16h Kennedy Spacelab mission [192][193]
86 7 August 1997
14:41:00 UTC
10:41:00 EDT

Discovery 6 11d 20h Kennedy Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (CRISTA-SPAS) [194][195]
87 25 September 1997
14:34:19 UTC
10:34:19 EDT

Atlantis 7/7 10d 19h Kennedy Shuttle-Mir docking [196][197]
88 19 November 1997
19:46:00 UTC
14:46:00 EST

Columbia 6 15d 16h Kennedy
  • Microgravity experiments
  • 2 EVAs
  • SPARTAN
[198][199]
89 22 January 1998
02:48:15 UTC[c]
21:48:15 EST

Endeavour 7/7 08d 19h Kennedy Shuttle-Mir docking [200][201]
90 17 April 1998
18:19:00 UTC
14:19:00 EDT

Columbia 7 15d 21h Kennedy Spacelab mission [202][203]
91 2 June 1998
22:06:24 UTC
18:06:24 EDT

Discovery 6/7 09d 19h Kennedy Last Shuttle-Mir docking [204][205]
92 29 October 1998
19:19:34 UTC
14:19:34 EST

Discovery 7 08d 21h Kennedy [206][207]
93 4 December 1998
08:35:34 UTC
03:35:34 EST

Endeavour 6 11d 19h Kennedy [208][209]
94 27 May 1999
10:49:42 UTC
06:49:42 EDT

Discovery 7 09d 19h Kennedy ISS supply [210][211]
95 23 July 1999
04:31:00 UTC
00:31:00 EDT

Columbia 5 04d 22h Kennedy Chandra X-ray Observatory deployed [212][213]
96 19 December 1999
24:50:00 UTC
19:50:00 EST

Discovery 7 07d 23h Kennedy Hubble Space Telescope servicing [214][215]
97 11 February 2000
16:43:40 UTC
12:43:40 EDT

Endeavour 6 11d 05h Kennedy Shuttle Radar Topography Mission [216][217]
98 19 May 2000
10:11:10 UTC
06:11:10 EDT

Atlantis 7 09d 21h Kennedy ISS supply [218][219]
99 8 September 2000
12:45:47 UTC
08:45:47 EDT

Atlantis 7 11d 19h Kennedy ISS supply [220][221]
100 11 October 2000
23:17:00 UTC
18:17:00 EST

Discovery 7 12d 21h Edwards ISS assembly flight 3A: Z1 truss [222][223]
101 30 November 2000
03:06:01 UTC[c]
22:06:01 EST

Endeavour 5 10d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 4A: P6 solar arrays, radiators [224][225]
102 7 February 2001
23:13:02 UTC
18:13:02 EST

Atlantis 5 12d 21h Edwards ISS assembly flight 5A: Destiny lab [226][227]
103 8 March 2001
11:42:09 UTC
06:42:09 EST

Discovery 7/7 12d 19h Kennedy ISS supply and crew rotation [228][229]
104 19 April 2001
18:40:42 UTC
14:40:42 EDT

Endeavour 7 11d 21h Edwards [230][231]
105 12 July 2001
09:03:59 UTC
05:03:59 EDT

Atlantis 5 12d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 7A: Quest Joint Airlock [232][233]
106 10 August 2001
21:10:14 UTC
17:10:14 EDT

Discovery 7/7 11d 21h Kennedy ISS supply and crew rotation [234][235]
107 5 December 2001
22:19:28 UTC
17:19:28 EST

Endeavour 7/7 11d 19h Kennedy ISS supply and crew rotation [236][237]
108 1 March 2002
11:22:02 UTC
06:22:02 EST

Columbia 7 10d 22h Kennedy [238][239]
109 8 April 2002
20:44:19 UTC
16:44:19 EDT

Atlantis 7 10d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 8A: S0 truss [240][241]
110 5 June 2002
21:22:49 UTC
17:22:49 EDT

Endeavour 7/7 13d 20h Edwards [242][243]
111 7 October 2002
19:45:51 UTC
15:45:51 EDT

Atlantis 6 10d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 9A: S1 truss [244][245]
112 23 November 2002
24:49:47 UTC
19:49:47 EST

Endeavour 7/7 13d 18h Kennedy [246][247]
113 16 January 2003
15:39:00 UTC
10:39:00 EST

Columbia 7 15d 22h Texas, Louisiana [b] [248][249]
114 26 July 2005
14:39:00 UTC
10:39:00 EDT

Discovery 7 13d 21h Edwards
  • First post Columbia flight
  • Flight safety evaluation/testing
  • ISS supply/repair
  • MPLM Raffaello
[250][251]
115 4 July 2006
18:37:55 UTC
14:37:55 EDT

Discovery 7/6 12d 18h Kennedy
  • ISS Flight ULF1.1: supply and crew rotation
  • MPLM Leonardo
[252][253]
116 9 September 2006
15:14:55 UTC
11:14:55 EDT

Atlantis 6 11d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 12A: P3/P4 Truss, Solar Arrays [254][255]
117 9 December 2006
24:47:35 UTC
20:47:35 EDT

Discovery 7/7 12d 21h Kennedy [256][257]
118 8 June 2007
23:38:04 UTC
19:38:04 EDT

Atlantis 7/7 13d 20h Edwards [258][259]
119 8 August 2007
22:36:42 UTC
18:36:42 EDT

Endeavour 7 12d 18h Kennedy [260][261]
120 23 October 2007
03:38:19 UTC[c]
23:38:19 EDT

Discovery 7/7 15d 02h Kennedy [262][263]
121 7 February 2008
19:45:30 UTC
14:45:30 EST

Atlantis 7/7 12d 18h Kennedy [264][265]
122 11 March 2008
06:28:14 UTC
02:28:14 EDT

Endeavour 7/7 15d 18h Kennedy [266][267]
123 31 May 2008
21:02:12 UTC
17:02:12 EDT

Discovery 7/7 13d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 1J: Japanese modules Kibo and RMS [268][269]
124 14 November 2008
24:55:39 UTC
19:55:39 EST

Endeavour 7/7 15d 20h Edwards [270][271]
125 15 March 2009
23:43:44 UTC
19:43:44 EDT

Discovery 7/7 12d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 15A: S6 Truss, Solar Arrays [272][273]
126 11 May 2009
18:01:56 UTC
14:01:56 EDT

Atlantis 7 12d 21h Edwards [274][275][276]
127 15 July 2009
22:03:10 UTC
18:03:10 EDT

Endeavour 7/7 15d 16h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 2J/A: Japanese Experiment Modoules Exposed Facility (EF) and ELM ES. [277][278]
128 28 August 2009
03:59:37 UTC[c]
23:59:37 EDT

Discovery 7/7 13d 21h Edwards [279][280]
129 16 November 2009
19:28:01 UTC
14:28:01 EST

Atlantis 6/7 10d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight ULF3: ExPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELCs) 1 & 2. [281][282]
130 8 February 2010
09:14:07 UTC
04:14:07 EST

Endeavour 6 13d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 20A: Node 3 and Cupola [283][284]
131 5 April 2010
10:21:25 UTC
06:21:25 EDT

Discovery 7 15d 03h Kennedy [285][286]
132 14 May 2010
18:20:09 UTC
14:20:09 EDT

Atlantis 6 11d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight ULF4: Mini-Research Module 1. [287][288]
133 24 February 2011
21:53:24 UTC
16:53:24 EST

Discovery 6 12d 19h Kennedy [289][290]
134 16 May 2011
24:55:42 UTC
20:55:42 EDT

Endeavour 6 15d 18h Kennedy [291][292]
135 8 July 2011
15:29:04 UTC
11:29:04 EDT

Atlantis 4 12d 18h Kennedy [293][294][295]

Cancelled and shortened missions[edit]

One initial emergency flight abort (RTLS) sub-orbital test mission was canceled due to high risk. Many other planned missions were canceled due to the late development of the shuttle, and the Challenger and Columbia disasters.

Four missions were cut short by a day or more whilst on orbit: STS-2 (equipment failure),[22] STS-35 (weather),[99] STS-44 (equipment failure),[189] and STS-83 (equipment failure, relaunched as STS-94).[189]

Contingency missions[edit]

Main article: STS-3xx

STS-300 was the designation for the Space Shuttle Launch on Need (LON) missions to be launched on short notice for STS-114 and STS-121, in the event that the shuttle became disabled or damaged and could not safely return to Earth.[296][297][298] The rescue flight for STS-115, if needed, would have been STS-301. After STS-115, the rescue mission designations were based on the corresponding regular mission that would be replaced should the rescue mission be needed. For example, the STS-116 rescue mission was branded STS-317, because the normal mission scheduled after STS-116 was STS-117. Should the rescue mission have been needed, the crew and vehicle for STS-117 would assume the rescue mission profile and become STS-317. All potential rescue missions were to be launched with a crew of four, and would return with ten or eleven crew members, depending on the number of crew launched on the rescued shuttle. Missions were expected to last approximately eleven days. None of the planned contingency missions was ever flown.[299]

No contingency mission was planned for STS-135, the final shuttle mission. Instead, NASA planned to effect any required rescues one-by-one, using Russian Soyuz spacecraft.[300]

Year Contingency mission Supported mission Year Contingency mission Supported mission
2005 STS-300 Atlantis STS-114 Discovery 2007 STS-320 Atlantis[d][301] STS-120 Discovery
2006 STS-300 Atlantis STS-121 Discovery 2008 STS-323 Discovery [e][302] STS-122 Atlantis
STS-301 Discovery STS-115 Atlantis STS-324 Discovery STS-123 Endeavour
2007 STS-317 Atlantis STS-116 Discovery STS-326 Endeavour STS-124 Discovery
STS-318 Endeavour STS-117 Atlantis 2009 STS-400 Endeavour STS-125 Atlantis
STS-322 Discovery STS-118 Endeavour 2011 STS-335 Atlantis STS-134 Endeavour

Flight statistics[edit]

Key
double-dagger  Test vehicle
dagger  Lost
Shuttle Designation Flights Flight days Orbits Longest flight First flight Last flight MIR/ISS
Docking
Sources
Flight Date Flight Date
Enterprise double-dagger OV-101,
Test Vehicle
5 00d 00h 19m 0 00d 00h 05m ALT-12 12 August 1977 ALT-16 26 October 1977 – / – [303][304][305][306]
Columbia dagger OV-102 28 300d 17h 47m 15s 4,808 17d 15h 53m 18s STS-1 12 April 1981 STS-107 16 January 2003 0 / 0 [303][304][307][308]
Challenger dagger OV-099 10 62d 07h 56m 15s 995 08d 05h 23m 33s STS-6 4 April 1983 STS-51-L 28 January 1986 0 / 0 [303][304][309][310]
Discovery OV-103 39 364d 22h 39m 29s 5,830 15d 02h 48m 08s STS-41-D 30 August 1984 STS-133 24 February 2011 1 / 13 [303][304][311][312]
Atlantis OV-104 33 306d 14h 12m 43s 4,848 13d 20h 12m 44s STS-51-J 3 October 1985 STS-135 8 July 2011 7 / 12 [303][304][313][314]
Endeavour OV-105 25 296d 03h 34m 02s 4,677 16d 15h 08m 48s STS-49 7 May 1992 STS-134 16 May 2011 1 / 12 [303][304][315][316]
Total N/A 135 1330d 18h 9m 44s 21,158 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 9 / 37 N/A

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ If there are two numbers in this column, it signifies the number of astronauts launched and landed with, respectively.
  2. ^ a b This shuttle was intended to land at Kennedy.
  3. ^ a b c d The listed UTC time occurs the next day.
  4. ^ NASA called this mission STS-320 instead of STS-321.
  5. ^ Originally scheduled to be Endeavour, changed to Discovery due to contamination issues.

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Report of the Space Task Group, 1969". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Malik, Tarik (21 July 2011). "NASA's Space Shuttle By the Numbers: 30 Years of a Spaceflight Icon". Space.com. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  3. ^ Pinchefsky, Carol (18 April 2012). "5 Horrifying Facts You Didn't Know About the Space Shuttle". Forbes. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  4. ^ "Space Shuttle Era Facts" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2011. FS-2011-7-142-KSC. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  5. ^ Ryba, Jeanne; Brian Dunbar (11 September 2012). "Space Shuttle Launch and Landing". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Jenkins, p. 524
  7. ^ "Robert L. Crippen", NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, 26 May 2006.
  8. ^ "Terry J. Hart", NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, 10 April 2003.
  9. ^ "Paul J. Weitz", NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, 26 March 2000.
  10. ^ "James D. A. van Hoften", NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, 5 December 2007.
  11. ^ Norton, Lily. "8 Surprising Space Shuttle Facts". Space.com. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Heppenheimer, p. 123
  13. ^ a b c d e Dumoulin, Jim. "Enterprise(OV-101)". Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  14. ^ Godwin, pp. page=32
  15. ^ a b "Enterprise: The Test Shuttle". space.com. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  16. ^ Jenkins, p. 212
  17. ^ Jenkins, p. 210
  18. ^ Duggins, p. 58
  19. ^ Chen, p. 9
  20. ^ a b Goodwin, pp. 41-201
  21. ^ Duggins, p. 64
  22. ^ a b Chen, p. 11
  23. ^ Goodwin, pp. 206–264
  24. ^ Chen, p. 13
  25. ^ Goodwin, pp. 267–344
  26. ^ Wilford, John Noble (18 March 1982). "Space Shuttle Landing Site Is Shifted Because of Rains". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  27. ^ Goodwin, pp. 348–409
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cassutt, Michael (2009). "Secret Space Shuttles: When you’re 200 miles up, it’s easy to hide what you’re up to.". Air and Space Magazine (Smithsonian Institution). Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  29. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-4". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  30. ^ Chen, p. 15
  31. ^ Duggins, p. 65
  32. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-5". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  33. ^ Chen, p. 17
  34. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-6". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  35. ^ Chen, p. 19
  36. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-7". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  37. ^ Chen, p. 21
  38. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-8". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  39. ^ Chen, p. 23
  40. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-9". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  41. ^ Chen, p. 25
  42. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-41B". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  43. ^ Chen, p. 27
  44. ^ Wilford, John Noble (5 April 1984). "Space Shuttle Poised For First Service Call On Satellite in Orbit". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  45. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-41C". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  46. ^ Chen, p. 29
  47. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-41D". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  48. ^ Chen, p. 31
  49. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-41G". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  50. ^ Chen, p. 33
  51. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-51A". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  52. ^ Chen, p. 35
  53. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-51C". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  54. ^ Chen, p. 37
  55. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-41G". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  56. ^ Chen, p. 39
  57. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-51B". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  58. ^ Chen, p. 41
  59. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-51G". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  60. ^ Chen, p. 43
  61. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-51F". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  62. ^ Chen, p. 45
  63. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-51I". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  64. ^ Chen, p. 47
  65. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-51J". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  66. ^ Chen, p. 49
  67. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-61A". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  68. ^ Chen, p. 51
  69. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-61B". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  70. ^ Chen, p. 53
  71. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-61C". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  72. ^ Chen, p. 55
  73. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-51L". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  74. ^ Chen, p. 57
  75. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-26". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  76. ^ Chen, p. 59
  77. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-27". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  78. ^ Chen, p. 61
  79. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-29". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  80. ^ Chen, p. 63
  81. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-30". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  82. ^ Chen, p. 65
  83. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-28". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  84. ^ Chen, p. 67
  85. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-34". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  86. ^ Chen, p. 69
  87. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-33". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  88. ^ Chen, p. 71
  89. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-32". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  90. ^ Chen, p. 73
  91. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-36". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  92. ^ Chen, p. 75
  93. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-31". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  94. ^ Chen, p. 77
  95. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-41". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  96. ^ Chen, p. 79
  97. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-38". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  98. ^ Chen, p. 81
  99. ^ a b "Mission Archives: STS-35". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  100. ^ Chen, p. 83
  101. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-37". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  102. ^ Chen, p. 85
  103. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-39". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  104. ^ Chen, p. 87
  105. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-40". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  106. ^ Chen, p. 89
  107. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-43". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  108. ^ Chen, p. 91
  109. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-48". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  110. ^ Chen, p. 93
  111. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-44". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  112. ^ Chen, p. 95
  113. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-42". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  114. ^ Chen, p. 97
  115. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-45". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  116. ^ Chen, p. 99
  117. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-49". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  118. ^ Chen, p. 101
  119. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-50". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  120. ^ Chen, p. 103
  121. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-46". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  122. ^ Chen, p. 105
  123. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-47". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  124. ^ Chen, p. 107
  125. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-52". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  126. ^ Chen, p. 109
  127. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-53". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  128. ^ Chen, p. 111
  129. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-54". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  130. ^ Chen, p. 113
  131. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-56". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  132. ^ Chen, p. 115
  133. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-55". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  134. ^ Chen, p. 117
  135. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-57". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  136. ^ Chen, p. 119
  137. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-51". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  138. ^ Chen, p. 121
  139. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-58". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  140. ^ Chen, p. 123
  141. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-61". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  142. ^ Chen, p. 125
  143. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-60". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  144. ^ Chen, p. 127
  145. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-62". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  146. ^ Chen, p. 129
  147. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-59". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  148. ^ Chen, p. 131
  149. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-65". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  150. ^ Chen, p. 133
  151. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-64". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  152. ^ Chen, p. 135
  153. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-68". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  154. ^ Chen, p. 137
  155. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-66". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  156. ^ Chen, p. 139
  157. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-63". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  158. ^ Chen, p. 141
  159. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-67". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  160. ^ a b Chen, p. 143
  161. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-71". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  162. ^ Chen, p. 145
  163. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-70". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  164. ^ Chen, p. 147
  165. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-69". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  166. ^ Chen, p. 149
  167. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-73". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  168. ^ Chen, p. 151
  169. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-74". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  170. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-72". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  171. ^ Chen, p. 155
  172. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-75". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  173. ^ Chen, p. 157
  174. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-76". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  175. ^ Chen, p. 159
  176. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-77". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  177. ^ Chen, p. 161
  178. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-78". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  179. ^ Chen, p. 163
  180. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-79". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  181. ^ Chen, p. 165
  182. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-80". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  183. ^ Chen, p. 167
  184. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-81". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  185. ^ Chen, p. 169
  186. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-82". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  187. ^ Chen, p. 171
  188. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-83". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  189. ^ a b c Chen, p. 173
  190. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-84". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  191. ^ Chen, p. 175
  192. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-94". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  193. ^ Chen, p. 177
  194. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-85". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  195. ^ Chen, p. 179
  196. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-86". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  197. ^ Chen, p. 181
  198. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-87". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  199. ^ Chen, p. 183
  200. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-89". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  201. ^ Chen, p. 185
  202. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-90". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  203. ^ Chen, p. 187
  204. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-91". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  205. ^ Chen, p. 189
  206. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-95". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  207. ^ Chen, p. 191
  208. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-88". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  209. ^ Chen, p. 193
  210. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-96". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  211. ^ Chen, p. 195
  212. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-93". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  213. ^ Chen, p. 197
  214. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-103". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  215. ^ Chen, p. 199
  216. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-99". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  217. ^ Chen, p. 201
  218. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-101". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  219. ^ Chen, p. 203
  220. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-106". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  221. ^ Chen, p. 205
  222. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-92". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  223. ^ Chen, p. 207
  224. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-97". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  225. ^ Chen, p. 209
  226. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-98". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  227. ^ Chen, p. 211
  228. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-102". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  229. ^ Chen, p. 213
  230. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-100". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  231. ^ Chen, p. 215
  232. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-104". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  233. ^ Chen, p. 217
  234. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-105". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  235. ^ Chen, p. 219
  236. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-108". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  237. ^ Chen, p. 221
  238. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-109". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  239. ^ Chen, p. 223
  240. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-110". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  241. ^ Chen, p. 225
  242. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-111". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  243. ^ Chen, p. 227
  244. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-112". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  245. ^ Chen, p. 229
  246. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-113". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  247. ^ Chen, p. 231
  248. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-107". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  249. ^ Chen, p. 233
  250. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-114". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  251. ^ Chen, p. 235
  252. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-121". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  253. ^ Chen, p. 237
  254. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-115". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  255. ^ Chen, p. 239
  256. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-116". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  257. ^ Chen, p. 241
  258. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-117". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  259. ^ Chen, p. 243
  260. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-117". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  261. ^ Chen, p. 245
  262. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-120". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  263. ^ Chen, p. 247
  264. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-122". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  265. ^ Chen, p. 249
  266. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-123". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  267. ^ Chen, p. 251
  268. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-124". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  269. ^ Chen, p. 253
  270. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-126". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  271. ^ Chen, p. 255
  272. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-119". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  273. ^ Chen, p. 257
  274. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-125". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  275. ^ Chen, p. 259
  276. ^ "Hubble's Amazing Rescue". NOVA. Season 37. Episode 2 (in English). 13 October 2009. PBS. Rocky Mountain PBS. 
  277. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-127". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  278. ^ Chen, p. 261
  279. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-128". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  280. ^ Chen, p. 263
  281. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-129". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  282. ^ Chen, p. 265
  283. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-130". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  284. ^ Chen, p. 267
  285. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-131". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  286. ^ Chen, p. 269
  287. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-132". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  288. ^ Chen, p. 271
  289. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-133". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  290. ^ Chen, p. 273
  291. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-134". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  292. ^ Chen, p. 275
  293. ^ "Mission Archives: STS-135". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  294. ^ Chen, p. 277
  295. ^ Reichhardt, Tony (2013). "The Last Shuttle Flight: On board Atlantis, the closing of an era.". Air and Space Magazine (Smithsonian Institution). Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  296. ^ NASA (2005). "Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS)/Rescue Flight Resource Book" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 25 November 2008. 
  297. ^ NASA (2005). "Flight Readiness Review BriefingTranscript" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 25 November 2008. 
  298. ^ Bergin, Chris (2007). "NASA sets new launch date targets through to STS-124". CSCS flight numbers. NASA Spaceflight.com. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  299. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (31 May 2010). "STS-335: NASA continues planning for contingency Launch On Need mission". Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  300. ^ Ned, Potter (8 July 2011). "NASA Space Shuttle: Only Four Astronauts on Final Launch From Cape Canaveral". ABC News. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  301. ^ Bergin, Chris (15 April 2007). "NASA sets new launch date targets through to STS-124". NASA Spaceflight.com. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  302. ^ NASA Spaceflight.com STS-122: Atlantis Launches – Endeavour LON doubt Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  303. ^ a b c d e f Chen, p. 280
  304. ^ a b c d e f "NASA Facts: Space Shuttle Era Facts" (PDF). John F. Kennedy Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  305. ^ "Enterprise (OV-101)". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  306. ^ "Fast Facts on the Space Shuttle Enterprise". FOX News Insider. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  307. ^ "Space: The Space Shuttle Columbia". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  308. ^ "Fast Facts: Space Shuttle Columbia". Fox News. 2 February 2003. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  309. ^ "Challenger (STA-099, OV-99)". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  310. ^ "Space Shuttle Challenger facts". Florida Today. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  311. ^ Wall, Mike. "Space Shuttle Discovery: 5 Surprising Facts About NASA's Oldest Orbiter". Space.com. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  312. ^ "FAST FACTS: The Space Shuttle Discovery". Fox News Insider. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  313. ^ Fletcher, Dan (14 May 2010). "Space Shuttle Atlantis Blasts Off: Five Fast Facts". Time Magazine. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  314. ^ "Shuttle launch facts: 15 things to know about space shuttle Atlantis' mission". Florida Today. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  315. ^ "The Space Shuttle Endeavour Fact Sheet". CBS News Sacramento. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  316. ^ "Space shuttle Endeavour facts". Florida Today. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 

External links[edit]