List of private spaceflight companies

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This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer – or are planning to offer – equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human.

List of abbreviations used in this article

LEO: Low Earth orbit
GTO: Geostationary transfer orbit
VTOL: Vertical take-off and landing
SSTO: Single-stage-to-orbit
TSTO: Two-stage-to-orbit
SSTSO: Single-stage-to-sub-orbit

Manufacturers of space vehicles[edit]

Crew and cargo transport vehicles[edit]

Space stations[edit]

Private Company name Space Craft name Space Craft type Internal
volume
Passenger
capacity
Craft status Orbit Around Ref
Axiom Space Axiom Module? Rigid Module ? 7 proposed Earth [1]
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis I Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[2] unmanned currently in LEO Earth [3]
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis II Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[4] unmanned currently in LEO Earth [5]
Bigelow Aerospace Galaxy Inflatable module 16.7 m3 (590 cu ft)[6] unmanned cancelled Earth [7]
Bigelow Aerospace Sundancer Inflatable module 180 m3 (6,357 cu ft) 3 cancelled Earth [8]
Bigelow Aerospace BA 330 Inflatable module 330 m3 (11,654 cu ft) 6 testing Earth [9]
Bigelow Aerospace BA 2100 Inflatable module 2,100 m3 (74,161 cu ft) 16 proposed Earth
Excalibur Almaz Almaz derivative Rigid module  ? 3 inactive Earth [10][11]
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Earth Launch Station 1 Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Earth
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Earth Launch Station 2 Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Earth
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Lunar Launch Station 1 Rigid module  ? 3 proposed Moon
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Lunar Launch Station 2 Rigid module  ? 12 proposed Moon
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Martian Launch Station 1 Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Mars
Final Frontier Technologies FFT Earth-Moon-Mars Martian Launch Station 2 Rigid module  ? 9 proposed Mars
Galactic Suite Ltd. Galactic Suite Rigid module  ? 6 proposed Earth [12]
Global Space Organization GSO Lunar Station One 3D Printed  ? 10 proposed Earth [13]
Orbital Technologies/RSC Energia Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station Rigid Module The first module CSS will be volume about 20 m³. 7 development Earth [14]
Gateway Galactic, Inc. Antaios (Depot) Propellant Depot  ? unmanned development Earth [15]

Launch vehicles[edit]

Company name Launcher
name
Launcher
type
No. of
stages
Maximum
reach
Launcher
status
Maiden
flight
Ref
RomaniaARCA Haas 2b light rocket 1 suborbit development  ? [16]
RomaniaARCA Super Haas medium rocket 2 LEO development  ? [17]
AustraliaAustralian Space Research Institute AUSROCS light rocket 2 LEO development ? [18]
United StatesBlue Origin New Glenn heavy rocket 2 or 3 GTO development 2019

(planned)

[19]
CanadaCanadian Arrow Canadian Arrow rocket 2 LEO cancelled  ? [citation needed]
MexicoDatiotec Aeroespacial / INMEU A.C. JFCR-2000A Pollux light rocket 1 suborbit development 2017 (planned) [20]
United StatesGeneral Astronautics Urania medium rocket 3 LEO cancelled [21]
AustraliaSingaporeGilmour Space Technologies RASTA light rocket 1 suborbit operational (1/1) 2016
AustraliaSingaporeGilmour Space Technologies Eris light rocket 3 LEO development ?
MalaysiaIndependence-X Aerospace DNLV (Dedicated Nano Launch Vehicle) light rocket 2 LEO development 2023
United StatesInterorbital Systems NEPTUNE

N series

light-to-medium rocket 1–9 LEO development  ? [22]
United StatesInterorbital Systems NEPTUNE N36 heavy rocket 36 lunar orbit proposed  ? [22]
United StatesInterorbital Systems Neptune TSAAHTO heavy rocket lunar orbit proposed  ? [22]
RussiaLin Industrial Taymyr light rocket 3 LEO proposed ? [23]
United StatesLockheed Martin VentureStar reusable spaceplane 1 LEO cancelled [24]
United StatesLockheed Martin Athena medium rocket 2 or 3 LEO retired (5/7) 1995
United StatesMishaal Aerospace M-SV light rocket 1 suborbit development  ? [25][26]
United StatesMishaal Aerospace M-OV light rocket 1+2-10 Boosters LEO development  ? [25][26]
United StatesOrbital ATK Antares medium rocket 3 LEO operational (5/6) 2013 [27]
JapanInterstellar Technologies Momo liquid fueled sounding rocket suborbit development [28]
United StatesOrbital ATK Minotaur-C, formerly Taurus light rocket 4 LEO operational (6/9) 1994 [29][30][31]
United StatesOrbital ATK Pegasus light rocket 3 LEO operational (38/43) 1990
GermanyOrbital Transport & Raketen AG OTRAG medium rocket variable LEO retired (15/18) 1977 [32]
SpainPLD Space Arion 1 light rocket 1 suborbit development 2018 (planned) [33][34]
SpainPLD Space Arion 2 light rocket 2 LEO development 2020 (planned) [34]
United StatesRocket Crafter Intrepid-1 light rocket 2 LEO development 2018 (planned)
New ZealandRocket Lab ATEA-1 light rocket 2 suborbit operational (1/1) 2009 [35][36]
New ZealandRocket Lab Electron light rocket 2 LEO development 2017 (planned) [37]
United StatesSpace Services Inc. of America Percheron light rocket 1 suborbit cancelled [38]
United StatesSpace Services Inc. of America Conestoga 1620 medium rocket 4 LEO retired (0/1) [38]
United Kingdom SpaceLS Prometheus-1 light rocket 2 LEO development  ? [39][40]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 1 light rocket 2 LEO retired (2/5) 2008 [41]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 1e light rocket 2 LEO cancelled  ? [41]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 5 medium rocket 2 GTO cancelled [42]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 9 v1.0 medium rocket 2 GTO retired (5/5) 2010 [43]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 medium rocket 2 GTO retired (14/15) 2013 [43]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 9 full thrust medium rocket (first stage reusable) /
heavy rocket (expendable configuration)
2 TMI[44] operational (14/15) 2015 [43]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon 9 Block 5 medium rocket (first stage reusable) /
heavy rocket (expendable configuration)
2 TMI[44] development 2017 (planned) [43][45]
United StatesSpaceX Falcon Heavy heavy rocket (first stage core and side boosters reusable) / super heavy rocket (expendable configuration) 2+boosters deep space (Pluto)[46] development 2017 (planned) [43][47]
United StatesSpaceX ITS Launch Vehicle super heavy rocket 2 deep space[48] development ? [49]
United StatesUnited Launch

Alliance

Atlas V medium rocket 2 GTO operational (70/71) 2002 [50]
United StatesUnited Launch

Alliance

Delta II 6000 medium rocket 2 GTO retired (17/17) 1989 [51]
United StatesUnited Launch Alliance Delta II 7000 light rocket 2 GTO operational (128/130) 1990 [51]
United StatesUnited Launch Alliance Delta II 7000H heavy rocket 2 HCO retired (6/6) 2003 [51]
United StatesUnited Launch

Alliance

Delta IV medium rocket 2 GTO operational (34/35) 2003 [52]
United StatesUnited Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy heavy rocket 2 GTO operational (8/9) 2004 [53]
United StatesUnited Launch Alliance Vulcan heavy rocket 2 GTO development 2019

(planned)

[54]
United StatesVector Space System Vector-R light rocket 2 LEO development 2018 (planned)
United StatesVector Space System Vector-RE1 light rocket 2 or 3 LEO development ?
United StatesVector Space System Vector-H light rocket 2 LEO development 2019 (planned)
United StatesVector Space System Vector-HE1 light rocket 2 or 3 LEO development ?
United StatesVentions SALVO light rocket 2 LEO testing  ? [55][56]
United KingdomVirgin Galactic LauncherOne light rocket 2 LEO testing 2017 (planned) [57]
Spainzero2infinity bloostar Rockoon system (high-altitude balloon and in-space rocket launcher) 3 + high-altitude balloon ascent LEO development 2018 [58]
BrazilCTA VLS Alfa rocket 3 LEO development  ?

Landers, rovers and probes[edit]

Company name Craft name Craft type Craft status Ref
ARCASPACE ELE lunar orbiter development [59]
Armadillo Aerospace unnamed craft rocket module testing [60]
Astrobotic Technology Artemis Lander lunar lander development [61]
Astrobotic Technology Red Rover rover development [62]
Astrobotic Technology Griffin lunar lander negotiating [63]
Astrobotic Technology Peregrine Lander lunar lander development [64]
Euroluna ROMIT development [65]
Golden Spike Company Manned lunar lander proposed [66]
Hakuto Moon Raker rover development [67]
Hakuto Tetris rover development [68]
Independence-X Aerospace SQUALL (Scientific Quest Unmanned Autonomous Lunar Lander) lander / hover probe development [69]
Interorbital Systems RIPPER lander development [70]
Lunar Mission One unnamed lunar lander + deep drill development [71]
Mars One unnamed lander development [72]
Masten Space Systems XEUS lunar lander negotiating [63]
Masten Space Systems XL-1 lunar lander development [73]
Moon Express MX-1 family lunar lander testing [63][74]
Odyssey Moon MoonOne (M-1) rover development [75]
Omega Envoy development [76]
Part Time Scientists Audi Lunar quattro rover development
Puli Space Technologies Puli rover fundraising [77]
Team FREDNET development [78]
Team Italia rover development [79]
Team Indus HHK1 lunar lander+ 2 rovers development
TransOrbital TrailBlazer lunar orbiter cancelled [80]
Team Plan B Plan B development
Space IL Sparrow nano-ship development
STELLAR development [81]
SYNERGY MOON Tesla rover development [82]

Research craft and tech demonstrators[edit]

Company name Craft name Craft purpose Craft status Ref
ARCA Demonstrator 2b demonstrate reusable monopropellant engine retired
Armadillo Aerospace Quad demonstrate VTOL retired
ASRI AUSROC I systems testing retired
ASRI AUSROC II payload to 10km retired
ASRI AUSROC 2.5 systems testing testing
ASRI AUSROC III payload of 150kg to 500km development
Blue Origin Goddard demonstrate VTOL retired
Interorbital Systems Neutrino systems testing operational
Interorbital Systems Tachyon systems testing operational [83]
Lockheed Martin X-33 demonstrate SSTO cancelled
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1 demonstrate VTOL retired
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1B Lunar Lander Challenge Level 1 operational
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1E Lunar Lander Challenge Level 2, commercial precursor flights operational
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1E2 commercial flights development
Masten Space Systems XL-1T terrestrial test bed for the XL-1 lunar lander development
McDonnell Douglas DC-X demonstrate VTOL retired (11 test flights)
Rotary Rocket Roton ATV demonstrate VTOL retired (3 test flights)
Space Services Inc. Conestoga I systems testing retired (1 test) [38]
SpaceX Grasshopper demonstrate VTOL retired (8 tests) [84]
SpaceX F9R Dev1 refine VTOL (low altitude) destroyed (5 flights) [85]
SpaceX F9R Dev2 refine VTOL (high altitude) development
Swedish Space Corp. Maxus payload to 700km operational
Swedish Space Corp. Maser payload to 300km operational
UP Aerospace SpaceLoft XL payload to 140km operational [86]
World View Enterprises Tycho Platform payload up to 46km and 300kg operational [87]
zero2infinity nanobloon 1.0 payload to 32km operational [88]
zero2infinity nanobloon 2.0 payload to 33km operational
zero2infinity microbloon 1.0 payload to 24km operational
zero2infinity microbloon 2.0 payload to 31km operational
zero2infinity microbloon 3.0 payload to 27km operational

Space mining[edit]

Company name Body to be mined Mining craft Mining status Ref
Deep Space Industries Near-Earth asteroids press conference
Final Frontier Technologies Moon, Asteroid Belt proposed Unknown
Global Space Organization Moon, Near-Earth asteroids Robotic Systems proposed [89]
Independence-X Aerospace Near-Earth Asteroids, Moon, Asteroid Belt proposed proposed
Infinite Space Dynamics Near-Earth Asteroids, Moon, Asteroid Belt Development Development
Kepler Energy and Space Engineering Near-Earth Asteroids proposed fundraising [90]
Moon Express Moon Unknown Unknown
Planetary Resources Near-Earth asteroids Arkyd Series 100, 200, 300 development [91]
Shackleton Energy Company Moon Architecture Architecture
Stott Space Inc. Near-Earth asteroids fundraising [92][relevant? ]

Space manufacturing[edit]

Company name Products Manufacturing craft status Ref
Infinite Space Dynamics Propellant, Space Infrastructure, Propellant depot, communications platforms, space solar power satellites
Shackleton Energy Company propellant, space infrastructure, Propellant depot
Deep Space Industries propellant, communications platforms, space solar power satellites

Space settlement[edit]

Company name Colony location Status Ref
Interplanetary Transport System Mars development[93]
Final Frontier Technologies Mars proposed[citation needed]
Final Frontier Technologies Moon proposed[citation needed]
Mars One Mars Fundraising and assessing astronaut applications[when?] [94]

Propulsion manufacturers[edit]

Company name Engine Engine type Applications Ref
Accion Systems Inc. MAX-1 and TILE electric, electrospray ion [95][96]
Ad Astra Rocket Company VASIMR magnetoplasma may be used for future Mars missions[97]
AE Aerospace HIRE hybrid ion rocket [98][99]
AE Aerospace Scearamjet Electric Scramjet [100][full citation needed]
American Rocket Company hybrid rocket The company became insolvent and was shut down in May 1996. Its lineage is part of SpaceShipOne.
ARCA Executor (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 IAR 111, Haas 2, Haas 2b, Super Haas
Blue Origin BE-3 LH2/LOX rocket engine New Shepard
Blue Origin BE-4 LOX/Liquid methane Vulcan, New Glenn
CU Aerospace PUC, CHIPS, PPT-11 MCD[101] / Resistojet / PPT[102] Small satellite / CubeSat missions[103]
Reaction Engines Ltd. SABRE precooled air-breathing rocket planned to be used in Skylon [104]
Virgin Galactic RocketMotorTwo hybrid rocket SpaceShipTwo
SpaceDev hybrid rocket SpaceShipOne[citation needed]
SpaceX Kestrel (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1 second stage
SpaceX Merlin (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1,[105] Falcon 9,[106] Falcon 9 Heavy first stage[46]
SpaceX Merlin Vacuum LOX/RP-1 Falcon 9,[106] Falcon 9 Heavy second stage[46]
SpaceX Raptor (rocket engine) LOX/Liquid methane "a highly reusable methane staged-combustion engine that will power the next generation of SpaceX launch vehicles designed for the exploration and colonization of Mars."[107]
TGV Rockets EC-15(Rocket Engine [[Liquid Oxygen|LOX]/Hydrocarbon "Low Cost liquid bipropellant engine for small launch and low cost"

Satellite launchers[edit]

Company Launch vehicles Private Refs
Arianespace Ariane, Vega Partial; minority owned by some EU states
Eurockot Launch Services Rockot No; 49% owned by Russia, and 51% by Kazakhstan
International Launch Services Proton No; 51%+ owned by Russia
ISC Kosmotras Dnepr No; Owned by Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries H-IIA, H-IIB Partial; own launchers, funded by JAXA. [108]
Orbital ATK Antares, Minotaur Partial; own launchers, funded by NASA
SpaceX Falcon 9 Yes; own launchers
Sea Launch Zenit No; Bankrupt. Owned by Russia.
Starsem Soyuz No; 25% Owned by Russia, 25% Samara, 35% EADS SPACE Transportation, 15% EU
United Launch Alliance Atlas, Delta Yes; 50% owned by Lockheed Martin, 50% Boeing

Spaceliner companies[edit]

Company name Contracts for Craft utilised Status Notes Refs
Benson Space Company SpaceDev Dream Chaser waiting for hardware[citation needed]
MirCorp none Soyuz TM, Progress M1 and Mir defunct, Mir deorbited
Space Adventures none Soyuz and the ISS active (7 tourists sent)
RocketShip Tours XCOR Lynx rocketplane waiting for hardware
Virgin Galactic Scaled Composites SpaceShipTwo waiting for hardware

Spacecraft component developers and manufacturers[edit]

Company Production Notes Refs
Altius Space Machines
Advanced Space Advanced Space is a software and services company that leverages its unique subject matter expertise to improve the fundamentals of spaceflight. [109]
Andrews Space
Axelspace [110]
EADS Astrium Satellites
EADS Astrium Space Transportation
Made in Space [111]
NanoRacks [112]
Rocketstar Robotics, Inc. [113]
Starsys merged with SpaceDev [citation needed]
SpaceDev
Space Environment Technologies Space Environment Technologies provides services, products, and hardware for the operational space environment. It offers operational capabilities for forecasting Low Earth Orbit densities and for specifying surface charging, internal charging, single event effect, and radiation environments. [114]
SpaceQuest, Ltd.
Talis Enterprises, Ltd. [115]

See also[edit]

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