List of space travelers by name

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The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometres in altitude – the two grey-shaded regions.

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) defines spaceflight as any flight above 100 kilometres (62 mi). In the 1960s, the United States Department of Defense awarded the rating of astronaut to military and civilian pilots who flew aircraft higher than 50 miles (80 km).[1] This list follows the FAI criterion.

From the Department of Defense, eight USAF and NASA pilots qualified for the Astronaut Badge by flying the sub-orbital X-15 rocket spaceplane.[1] One of these, Joseph A. Walker, flew the X-15 above 100 km on two flights, becoming the first person to enter space twice.[2][3][4] The other pilots did not reach the 100 km FAI limit. However, Joe Engle would later go on to fly on the Space Shuttle, thus exceeding this limit.

There are also nine space travellers who surpassed the 50-mi-border on the sub-orbital SpaceShipTwo (including Richard Branson,[5][6] founder of Virgin Galactic spaceflight company), and are thus recognized as (commercial) astronauts by the FAA but not by the FAI since they didn't surpass the 100-km-line while one of them (Frederick W. Sturckow) had flown to space in the Space Shuttle already and thus already has been an FAI-recognized astronaut. The rest, therefore, are not recognized as commercial astronauts using FAI criterion.

All other men and women traveled to outer space in non-winged rockets, the orbital Space Shuttle, or the sub-orbital Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne rocket spaceplane.[1]

People who died training for space travel or died during missions that failed to reach the required altitude, such as Christa McAuliffe, can be found in the article on space disasters.

As of July 20, 2021, a total of 574 people from 41 countries have gone into space according to the FAI criterion (587 people have qualified when including the US Department of Defense classification). Of those 574, three people only reached a sub-orbital flight, 567 people reached Earth orbit, 24 traveled beyond low Earth orbit and 12 walked on the Moon.[7] Space travelers have spent over 29,000 person-days (or a cumulative total of over 77 years) in space including over 100 person-days of spacewalks.[8]

  • Names in italic are space travelers who have left low Earth orbit.
  • National flags indicate the space traveler's citizenship at the time of flight(s).
  • A injury icon before a name denotes that the person died during spaceflight, or during an attempted spaceflight.
  • A decrescent moon before a name denotes space travelers who have walked on the Moon.
  • A star before a name denotes that the person is currently in space.

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See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Astronaut". World Book at NASA. NASA. November 29, 2007. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
  2. ^ Evans, Michelle (2013). "The X-15 Rocket Plane: Flying the First Wings Into Space-Flight Log" (PDF). Mach 25 Media. p. 32 & 33. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-04-13. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
  3. ^ "International Space Hall of Fame :: New Mexico Museum of Space History :: Inductee Profile". www.nmspacemuseum.org. Archived from the original on 2017-08-15. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
  4. ^ "Captain Joseph Albert Walker". www.mccarran.com. Archived from the original on 2019-12-03. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
  5. ^ July 2021, Chelsea Gohd 11. "Virgin Galactic launches Richard Branson to space in 1st fully crewed flight of VSS Unity". Space.com. Retrieved 2021-07-21.
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  17. ^ DLR. "Reinhard Furrer". DLR Portal. Archived from the original on 2017-01-18. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
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  22. ^ "Keely Hartsfield Obituary". Houston Chronicle. 16 March 2014. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  23. ^ Associated Press (26 July 2014). "Astronaut Hank Hartsfield, who went to space three times, dead at 80". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
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  28. ^ Bertoni, Steve. "Why Cirque Du Soleil Billionaire Guy Laliberte Traveled To Space". forbes.com. Archived from the original on July 12, 2021. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  29. ^ Goldstein, Richard (February 5, 2016). "Edgar D. Mitchell, Sixth Moonwalking Astronaut, Dies at 85". nytimes.com. The New York Times. p. A21. Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
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  32. ^ (in Dutch)Wubbo Ockels overleden Archived 2020-11-12 at the Wayback Machine, nos.nl, 18 May 2014
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  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2003-08-03. Retrieved 2003-10-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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