List of space travelers by name

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The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometres in altitude - the two grey-shaded regions

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) defines spaceflight as any flight above 100 kilometres (62 mi), a definition recognized by every country. In the 1960s, the United States Department of Defense awarded the rating of astronaut to military and civilian pilots who flew aircraft higher than 50 miles (80 km).[1] This list follows the FAI criterion.

From the Department of Defense, eight USAF and NASA pilots qualified for the Astronaut Badge by flying the sub-orbital X-15 rocket spaceplane.[1] One of these pilots, Joseph A. Walker, flew the X-15 above 100 km on two flights, becoming the first person to enter space twice. However, the other pilots did not reach the 100 km FAI limit.

All other men and women traveled to outer space in non-winged rockets, the orbital space shuttle, or the sub-orbital Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne rocket spaceplane.[1]

People who died training for space travel or died during missions that failed to reach the required altitude such as Christa McAuliffe can be found in the article on space disasters.

As of November 6, 2013, a total of 536 people from 38 countries have gone into space according to the FAI guideline (543 people have qualified when including the US Department of Defense classification). Of the 536, three people completed only a sub-orbital flight, 533 people reached Earth orbit, 24 traveled beyond low Earth orbit and 12 walked on the Moon.

Space travelers have spent over 29,000 person-days (or a cumulative total of over 77 years) in space including over 100 person-days of spacewalks.[2]

  • Names in italic are space travelers who have left Low Earth orbit.
  • National flags indicate the space traveler's citizenship at the time of flight(s).
  • A decrescent moon before a name denotes space travelers who have walked on the moon.
  • A injury icon before a name denotes that the person died during spaceflight, or during an attempted spaceflight.
  • A Venus symbol before a name denotes a female space traveler.
  • A Mars symbol before a name denotes a male space traveler.
  • A star before a name denotes that the person is currently in space.

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See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Astronaut". World Book at NASA. NASA. November 29, 2007. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009. 
  2. ^ [1][dead link]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Molten Aluminum found on Columbia's thermal tiles". USA Today. Associated Press. March 4, 2003. Retrieved August 13, 2007. 
  4. ^ "Space legend Neil Armstrong dies". CNN. Retrieved December 30, 2012. 
  5. ^ Becker, Joachim. "Cosmonaut Biography: Yuri Artyukhin". Spacefacts.de. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  6. ^ "Astronaut Bio: Sonny Carter 4/91". Jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  7. ^ "Remembering Gene Cernan". NASA. January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 16, 2017. 
  8. ^ "Third Man to Walk on Moon Dies in Motorcycle Accident". NASA. July 9, 1999. 
  9. ^ "Astronaut Bio: Ronald E. Evans". Jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  10. ^ Robert Z. Pearlman (2013). "Gordon Fullerton, space shuttle test pilot, dies at 76". collectSPACE. Retrieved August 21, 2013. 
  11. ^ a b DLR. "Reinhard Furrer". DLR Portal. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  12. ^ "Reinhard Furrer, German Astronaut, 54". The New York Times. 1995-09-12. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  13. ^ "Yuri Gagarin Killed As Test Plane Falls". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  14. ^ "What Really Happened to Yuri Gagarin, the First Man in Space? - History in the Headlines". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  15. ^ "NASA Remembers Three Space Tragedies". Space.com. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  16. ^ "Keely Hartsfield Obituary". Houston Chronicle. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  17. ^ Associated Press (26 July 2014). "Astronaut Hank Hartsfield, who went to space three times, dead at 80". New York Daily News. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  18. ^ Tom Read, Freefall, Pages 224-235 (Little Brown, Edition 1, 1998). ISBN 0-316-64303-3.
  19. ^ "Obituary: Karl Henize". Independent.co.uk. 23 October 1993. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  20. ^ "NASA - 93-077.DOC". Nasa.gov. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  21. ^ "Astronaut Bio: James Irwin". Jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  22. ^ Goldstein, Richard (February 5, 2016). "Edgar D. Mitchell, Sixth Moonwalking Astronaut, Dies at 85". nytimes.com. The New York Times. p. A21. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  23. ^ "Apollo 14 astronaut Edgar Mitchell, 85, dies in West Palm Beach". The Palm Beach Post. 2016-02-05. Retrieved 2016-02-05. 
  24. ^ "Steven Nagel, 1946-2014". Columbia Daily Tribune. Columbia, Missouri. August 24, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2014. 
  25. ^ (in Dutch)Wubbo Ockels overleden, nos.nl, 18 May 2014
  26. ^ "Alan G. Poindexter (1961–2012)". National Air and Space Museum. 2012-08-08. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  27. ^ "Payload Specialist Astronaut Bio: Ilan Ramon, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)". Jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  28. ^ [2][dead link]
  29. ^ "Salizhan Sharipov" (PDF). Spaceflight.nasa.gov. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  30. ^ Wilford, John Noble (July 23, 1998). "Alan B. Shepard Jr. Is Dead at 74; First American to Travel in Space". The New York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2016. 
  31. ^ Chaikin, Andrew. A Man on the Moon. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-024146-4. 
  32. ^ "Jack Swigert loses fight against cancer". Ocala Star-Banner. Associated Press. Dec 28, 1982. p. 4D. 
  33. ^ Leary, Warren E. (2001-04-24). "David M. Walker, 56, Astronaut and Aviator". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  34. ^ "Astronaut Bio: Edward H. White, II". Jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-03.