List of space travelers by nationality

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Countries (and successor states) whose citizens have flown in space as of September 2015.
Countries capable of manned spaceflight or actively developing the capability.

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The FAI defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometres (62 mi). In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 80 kilometres (50 mi) are awarded astronaut wings. The majority of people who have flown into space have done so by entering Earth orbit. This list includes persons meeting all three criteria, in separate subdivisions.

The flags indicate the space traveler's nationality at the time of their flight or flights. In cases of dual citizenship, the space traveler is listed under their primary residence. A secondary list appended to the entry for the Soviet Union. shows the birth countries of space travelers not born in Russia. A similar list after the entry for the United States shows the birth countries of space travelers who are or were citizens of the U.S. but were born elsewhere. Flags shown in the secondary lists are those in use at the time of the space travelers' birth.

Names in italic are space travelers who are not part of any national astronaut program or astronaut corps (Toyohiro Akiyama, Helen Sharman, the Space Adventures customers and the sub-orbital SpaceShipOne pilots).

Except for the SpaceShipOne pilots, all of the space travellers have been crew or participants aboard flights launched by China, the Soviet Union/Russia or the United States.



As of November 2015, people from 40 countries have traveled in space.[1] 540 people have reached Earth orbit. 543 have reached the altitude of space according to the FAI definition of the boundary of space, and 549 people have reached the altitude of space according to the American definition. Only 24 people have traveled beyond low Earth orbit.

Of the 37 countries whose citizens have traveled into Earth orbit, 26 have only flown a single space traveler, and 3 others[2] have only flown 2 each. Over 94% of all space travelers have been contributed by the following eight nations:

 United States
335 (62.04%)
117 (21.67%)
11 (2.04%)
10 (1.85%)
10 (1.85%)
9 (1.67%)
9 (1.67%)
7 (1.30%)
- Other countries
32 (5.93%)

1 Includes 61 Soviet cosmonauts and 11 cosmonauts who flew for both Russia and the Soviet Union.
2 Includes both national space programme activity and European Space Agency participation.
3 Includes astronauts from the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic.

Suborbital space fliers[edit]

United States[edit]

The following persons flew or were launched into the upper atmosphere, above 100 km, which counts as a space flight by FAI guidelines:

The following persons flew into the upper atmosphere between 80 and 100 km, which counts as space flight by United States guidelines:

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[edit]

The Soviet Union never launched a spaceflight intended as suborbital. The following persons were launched aboard Soyuz 18a, intended as orbital, but which was forced to abort before reaching orbit, after reaching suborbital space.[3]

Orbital space travelers[edit]

Afghanistan Afghanistan[edit]

Brazil Brazil[edit]

  • Marcos Pontes, first Brazilian in space, first lusophone in space, first professional astronaut officially representing a Southern Hemisphere country in space. — Soyuz TMA-8

Bulgaria Bulgaria[edit]

Canada Canada[edit]

  1. Roberta BondarSymbol venus.svg, first Canadian woman in space. — STS-42
  2. Marc Garneau, first Canadian in space. — STS-41-G, STS-77, STS-97
  3. Chris Hadfield, first Canadian to walk in space. — STS-74, STS-100, Soyuz TMA-07M
  4. Guy Laliberté, space tourist — Soyuz TMA-16/14
  5. Steven MacLeanSTS-52, STS-115
  6. Julie PayetteSymbol venus.svgSTS-96, STS-127
  7. Robert ThirskSTS-78, Soyuz TMA-15
  8. Bjarni Tryggvason, born in Iceland — STS-85
  9. Dafydd WilliamsSTS-90, STS-118

China China[edit]

  1. Fei JunlongShenzhou 6
  2. Jing HaipengShenzhou 7, Shenzhou 9
  3. Liu BomingShenzhou 7
  4. Liu WangShenzhou 9
  5. Liu YangSymbol venus.svg, first Chinese woman in space — Shenzhou 9
  6. Nie HaishengShenzhou 6, Shenzhou 10
  7. Wang YapingSymbol venus.svgShenzhou 10
  8. Yang Liwei, first Chinese national in space — Shenzhou 5
  9. Zhai Zhigang, first Chinese national to walk in space — Shenzhou 7
  10. Zhang XiaoguanShenzhou 10

Cuba Cuba[edit]

Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia[edit]

European Space Agency members[edit]

Some of these astronauts participated in national space programme activity unrelated to their home country's contemporary or subsequent membership of the European Space Agency.

Austria Austria[edit]

Belgium Belgium[edit]

Denmark Denmark[edit]

France France[edit]

Germany Germany[edit]

Italy Italy[edit]

Netherlands Netherlands[edit]

Poland Poland[edit]

Romania Romania[edit]

Spain Spain[edit]

Sweden Sweden[edit]

Switzerland Switzerland[edit]

United Kingdom United Kingdom[edit]

Additionally, Michael Foale, born in England to a British father and American mother and a dual citizen of the United Kingdom and the United States, and was raised and educated in England; however, he is a member of NASA's Astronaut Corps and flew as an American.[5] Gregory H. Johnson has foreign (US) citizenship, having been born in the UK to American parents, while Piers Sellers, Nicholas Patrick, Richard Garriott and Mark Shuttleworth have dual nationalities.

Hungary Hungary[edit]

India India[edit]

Israel Israel[edit]

Japan Japan[edit]

Kazakhstan Kazakhstan[edit]

Malaysia Malaysia[edit]

Mexico Mexico[edit]

Mongolia Mongolia[edit]

Russia Russia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Soviet Union[edit]

The Soviet space program came under the control of the Russian Federation in December 1991; the new program, now called the Russian Federal Space Agency, retained continuity of equipment and personnel with the Soviet program. While all Soviet and RKA cosmonauts were born within the borders of the U.S.S.R., many were born outside the boundaries of Russia, and may be claimed by other Soviet successor states as nationals of those states. These cosmonauts are marked with an asterisk * and their place of birth is shown in an appended list. All, however, claimed Soviet or Russian citizenship at the time of their space flights.




















Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia[edit]

All of the locations below were part of the former U.S.S.R. at the time of the cosmonauts' birth.

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic Azerbaidzhan S.S.R. / Azerbaijan Azerbaijan[edit]
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Byelorussian S.S.R. / Belarus Belarus[edit]
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic Georgian S.S.R. / Georgia Georgia (country)[edit]
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic Kazakh S.S.R. / Kazakhstan Kazakhstan[edit]
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic Kirghiz S.S.R. / Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan[edit]
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic Latvian S.S.R. / Latvia Latvia[edit]
Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Turkmen S.S.R. / Turkmenistan Turkmenistan[edit]
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukrainian S.S.R. / Ukraine Ukraine[edit]
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic Uzbek S.S.R. / Uzbekistan Uzbekistan[edit]

Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia[edit]

Slovakia Slovakia[edit]

South Africa South Africa[edit]

South Korea South Korea[edit]

Syria Syria[edit]

Ukraine Ukraine[edit]

United States United States[edit]

* Asterisked space travelers were born outside the United States

Non-NASA space travelers[edit]

NASA astronauts[edit]

^ still on active service

Nancy Sherlock – see Nancy Currie

Americans born abroad[edit]

Naturalized Americans[edit]

Vietnam Vietnam[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Other Wikipedia articles count Talgat Musabayev as a Kazakh and Anousheh Ansari as an Iranian-American dual citizen; they may also consider Russia and the Soviet Union, or East, West, and united Germany as distinct countries.
  2. ^ Belgium, Bulgaria, and the Netherlands
  3. ^ "Soyuz 18-1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  4. ^ EVA-22: Cassidy and Parmitano complete ISS spacewalk July 9, 2013
  5. ^ "Astronaut Michael Foale retires from Nasa". BBC News. 10 August 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ Akopian, Aram (2001). Armenians and the World: Yesterday and Today. Yerevan: Noyan Tapan. p. 61. ISBN 9789993051299. James Bagian, an engineer and physician, is the first , but surely not the last, Armenian astronaut.