List of space travelers by nationality

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Countries (and successor states) whose citizens have flown in space as of September 2015.
Countries capable of manned spaceflight or actively developing the capability.

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The FAI defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometres (62 mi). In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 80 kilometres (50 mi) are awarded astronaut wings. The majority of people who have flown into space have done so by entering Earth orbit. This list includes persons meeting all three criteria, in separate subdivisions.

The flags indicate the space traveler's nationality at the time of their flight or flights. In cases of dual citizenship, the space traveler is listed under their primary residence. A secondary list appended to the entry for the Soviet Union. shows the birth countries of space travelers not born in Russia. A similar list after the entry for the United States shows the birth countries of space travelers who are or were citizens of the U.S. but were born elsewhere. Flags shown in the secondary lists are those in use at the time of the space travelers' birth.[1]

Names in italic are space travelers who are not part of any national astronaut program or astronaut corps (Toyohiro Akiyama, Helen Sharman, the Space Adventures customers and the sub-orbital SpaceShipOne pilots).

Except for the SpaceShipOne pilots, all of the space travellers have been crew or participants aboard flights launched by China, the Soviet Union/Russia or the United States.

Contents

Statistics[edit]

As of October 2016, people from 37 countries have traveled in space.[2] 545 people have reached Earth orbit. 548 have reached the altitude of space according to the FAI definition of the boundary of space, and 554 people have reached the altitude of space according to the American definition. Only 24 people have traveled beyond low Earth orbit.

Of the 37 countries whose citizens have traveled into Earth orbit, 26 have only flown a single space traveler, and 4 others[3] have only flown 2 each. Over 94% of all space travelers have been contributed by the following eight nations:

 United States
  
336 (61.65%)
 Russia1
  
118 (21.65%)
 Germany2,3
  
11 (2.02%)
 China
  
11 (2.02%)
 Japan
  
11 (2.02%)
 France2
  
10 (1.65%)
 Canada
  
9 (1.65%)
 Italy2
  
7 (1.28%)
- Other countries
  
33 (6.06%)

1 Includes 61 Soviet cosmonauts and 11 cosmonauts who flew for both Russia and the Soviet Union.
2 Includes both national space programme activity and European Space Agency participation.
3 Includes astronauts from the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic.

Suborbital space fliers[edit]

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[edit]

The Soviet Union never launched a spaceflight intended as suborbital. The following persons were launched aboard Soyuz 18a, intended as orbital, but which was forced to abort before reaching orbit, after reaching suborbital space.[4]

  1. Soviet Union Vasili LazarevSoyuz 18a. Also orbited aboard Soyuz 12.
  2. Soviet Union Oleg MakarovSoyuz 18a. Also orbited aboard Soyuz 12, Soyuz 27, Soyuz 26 and Soyuz T-3.

United States[edit]

The following persons flew or were launched into the upper atmosphere, above 100 km, which counts as a space flight by FAI guidelines:

  1. United States Brian BinnieSpaceShipOne flight 17P
  2. United States Gus Grissom (1926–1967) — Mercury 4. Also orbited aboard Gemini 3.
  3. United States Mike Melvill, born in Johannesburg, South Africa — SpaceShipOne flight 15P, SpaceShipOne flight 16P
  4. United States Alan Shepard (1923–1998), first American in space — Mercury 3. Also orbited and flew to the moon aboard Apollo 14.
  5. United States Joseph A. Walker (1921–1966), USAF X-15 astronaut — X-15 Flight 90, X-15 Flight 91

The following persons flew into the upper atmosphere between 80 and 100 km, which counts as space flight by United States guidelines:

  1. United States Michael J. Adams (1930–1967) — X-15 Flight 191
  2. United States William H. Dana (1930–2014) — X-15 Flights 174 and 197
  3. United States Joseph H. Engle — X-15 Flights 138, 143, and 153. Also orbited.
  4. United States William J. Knight (1929–2004) — X-15 Flight 190
  5. United States John B. McKay (1922–1975) — X-15 Flight 150
  6. United States Robert A. Rushworth (1924–1993) — X-15 Flight 87
  7. United States Joseph A. Walker (1921–1966) — X-15 Flight 77. Also flew above 100 km.
  8. United States Robert M. White (1924–2010) — X-15 Flight 62

Orbital space travelers[edit]

Afghanistan Afghanistan[edit]

  1. Abdul Ahad Mohmand (Intercosmos), first Afghan in space — Soyuz TM-6/5

Brazil Brazil[edit]

  1. Marcos Pontes, first Brazilian in space, first lusophone in space, first professional astronaut officially representing a Southern Hemisphere country in space. — Soyuz TMA-8

Bulgaria Bulgaria[edit]

  1. Aleksandar Panayotov Aleksandrov (Intercosmos) — Soyuz TM-5/4
  2. Georgi Ivanov (Intercosmos), first Bulgarian in space. — Soyuz 33

Canada Canada[edit]

  1. Roberta BondarSymbol venus.svg, first Canadian woman in space. — STS-42
  2. Marc Garneau, first Canadian in space. — STS-41-G, STS-77, STS-97
  3. Chris Hadfield, first Canadian to walk in space. — STS-74, STS-100, Soyuz TMA-07M
  4. Guy Laliberté, space tourist — Soyuz TMA-16/14
  5. Steven MacLeanSTS-52, STS-115
  6. Julie PayetteSymbol venus.svgSTS-96, STS-127
  7. Robert ThirskSTS-78, Soyuz TMA-15
  8. Bjarni Tryggvason, born in Iceland — STS-85
  9. Dafydd WilliamsSTS-90, STS-118

China China[edit]

  1. Chen DongShenzhou 11
  2. Fei JunlongShenzhou 6
  3. Jing HaipengShenzhou 7, Shenzhou 9, Shenzhou 11
  4. Liu BomingShenzhou 7
  5. Liu WangShenzhou 9
  6. Liu YangSymbol venus.svg, first Chinese woman in space — Shenzhou 9
  7. Nie HaishengShenzhou 6, Shenzhou 10
  8. Wang YapingSymbol venus.svgShenzhou 10
  9. Yang Liwei, first Chinese national in space — Shenzhou 5
  10. Zhai Zhigang, first Chinese national to walk in space — Shenzhou 7
  11. Zhang XiaoguanShenzhou 10

Cuba Cuba[edit]

  1. Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez (Intercosmos), the first Cuban and the first person from a country in the Western Hemisphere other than the U.S. to travel to space. He was also the first Hispanophone and first person of African ancestry in space. — Soyuz 38

Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia[edit]

  1. Vladimír Remek (Intercosmos), first Czech and first non-Soviet European in space. — Soyuz 28

European Space Agency members[edit]

Some of these astronauts participated in national space programme activity unrelated to their home country's contemporary or subsequent membership of the European Space Agency.

Austria Austria[edit]

  1. Franz Viehböck, first Austrian in space. — Soyuz TM-13/12

Belgium Belgium[edit]

  1. Frank De Winne, EAC — Soyuz TMA-1/TM-34, Soyuz TMA-15
  2. Dirk Frimout, first Belgian in space. — STS-45

Denmark Denmark[edit]

  1. Andreas Mogensen, first Dane in space. — Soyuz TMA-18M/16M

France France[edit]

  1. Patrick Baudry, second Frenchman in space, born in Douala, Cameroon — STS-51-G
  2. Jean-Loup Chrétien, CNES (Intercosmos), first French person in space and first non-Soviet European to walk in space — Soyuz T-6, Soyuz TM-7/6, STS-86
  3. Jean-François Clervoy, EAC — STS-66, STS-84, STS-103
  4. Léopold Eyharts, EAC — Soyuz TM-27/26, STS-122/123
  5. Jean-Jacques Favier, born in Kehl, Germany — STS-78
  6. Claudie André-Deshays HaigneréSymbol venus.svg, EAC, first Frenchwoman in space (Mir, 1996) — Soyuz TM-24/23, Soyuz TM-33/32
  7. Jean-Pierre Haigneré, EAC — Soyuz TM-17/16, Soyuz TM-29
  8. Philippe Perrin, EAC, born in Meknes, Morocco — STS-111
  9. Michel Tognini, EAC — Soyuz TM-15/14, STS-93
  10. Thomas PesquetSoyuz MS-03

Germany Germany[edit]

  1. Reinhold Ewald, EAC — Soyuz TM-25/24
  2. Klaus-Dietrich FladeSoyuz TM-14/13
  3. Reinhard Furrer, born in Wörgl, Austria (1940–1995) — STS-61-A (flew for West Germany)
  4. Alexander GerstSoyuz TMA-13M
  5. Sigmund Jähn (Intercosmos), first German in space — Soyuz 31/29 (flew for East Germany)
  6. Ulf Merbold, EAC — STS-9, STS-42, Soyuz TM-20/19 (flew for both West Germany and united Germany)
  7. Ernst MesserschmidSTS-61-A (flew for West Germany)
  8. Thomas Reiter, EAC, first German to walk in space and first ESA astronaut to stay on the ISS. — Soyuz TM-22, STS-121/116
  9. Hans Schlegel, EAC — STS-55, STS-122
  10. Gerhard Thiele, EAC — STS-99
  11. Ulrich WalterSTS-55

Italy Italy[edit]

  1. Maurizio Cheli, EAC — STS-75
  2. Samantha CristoforettiSymbol venus.svg, EAC, first Italian woman in space — Soyuz TMA-15M
  3. Umberto Guidoni, EAC — STS-75, STS-100
  4. Franco Malerba, first Italian in space. — STS-46
  5. Paolo A. Nespoli, EAC — STS-120, Soyuz TMA-20
  6. Luca Parmitano, EAC, first Italian to walk in space.[5]Soyuz TMA-09M
  7. Roberto Vittori, EAC — Soyuz TM-34/33, Soyuz TMA-6/5, STS-134

Netherlands Netherlands[edit]

  1. André Kuipers, EAC — Soyuz TMA-4/3, Soyuz TMA-03M
  2. Wubbo Ockels, EAC, first Dutchman in space. — STS-61-A

Poland Poland[edit]

  1. Mirosław Hermaszewski (Intercosmos), first Pole in space. — Soyuz 30

Romania Romania[edit]

  1. Dumitru Prunariu (Intercosmos), first Romanian in space. — Soyuz 40

Spain Spain[edit]

  1. Pedro Duque, EAC, first Spaniard in space. — STS-95, Soyuz TMA-3/2

Sweden Sweden[edit]

  1. Christer Fuglesang, EAC, first Swede in space. — STS-116, STS-128

Switzerland Switzerland[edit]

  1. Claude Nicollier, EAC, first Swiss in space. — STS-46, STS-61, STS-75, STS-103

United Kingdom United Kingdom[edit]

  1. Helen SharmanSymbol venus.svg, Project Juno, first Briton in space. — Soyuz TM-12/11
  2. Tim Peake, EAC, first professional British astronaut in space. — Soyuz TMA-19M

Additionally, Michael Foale, born in England to a British father and American mother and a dual citizen of the United Kingdom and the United States, and was raised and educated in England; however, he is a member of NASA's Astronaut Corps and flew as an American.[6] Gregory H. Johnson has foreign (US) citizenship, having been born in the UK to American parents, while Piers Sellers, Nicholas Patrick, Richard Garriott and Mark Shuttleworth have dual nationalities.


Hungary Hungary[edit]

  1. Bertalan Farkas (Intercosmos), first Hungarian in space. — Soyuz 36/35

India India[edit]

  1. Rakesh Sharma (Intercosmos), first Indian national in space. — Soyuz T-11/10

Israel Israel[edit]

  1. Ilan Ramon (1954–2003), first Israeli in space, died on the Columbia. — STS-107

Japan Japan[edit]

  1. Toyohiro Akiyama, first Japanese man in space. — Soyuz TM-11/10
  2. Takao Doi, first Japanese man to walk in space. — STS-87, STS-123
  3. Akihiko HoshideSTS-124, Soyuz TMA-05M
  4. Mamoru MohriSTS-47, STS-99
  5. Chiaki MukaiSymbol venus.svg, first Japanese woman in space. — STS-65, STS-95
  6. Soichi NoguchiSTS-114, Soyuz TMA-17
  7. Takuya OnishiSoyuz MS-01
  8. Koichi WakataSTS-72, STS-92, STS-119/127, Soyuz TMA-11M
  9. Naoko YamazakiSymbol venus.svgSTS-131
  10. Kimiya YuiSoyuz TMA-17M
  11. Satoshi FurukawaSoyuz TMA-02M

Kazakhstan Kazakhstan[edit]

  1. Aidyn AimbetovSoyuz TMA-18M

Malaysia Malaysia[edit]

  1. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, first Malaysian in space — Soyuz TMA-11/10

Mexico Mexico[edit]

  1. Rodolfo Neri Vela, first Mexican in space. — STS-61-B

Mongolia Mongolia[edit]

  1. Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa (Intercosmos), first Mongolian in space. — Soyuz 39

Russia Russia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Soviet Union[edit]

The Soviet space program came under the control of the Russian Federation in December 1991; the new program, now called the Russian Federal Space Agency, retained continuity of equipment and personnel with the Soviet program. While all Soviet and RKA cosmonauts were born within the borders of the U.S.S.R., many were born outside the boundaries of Russia, and may be claimed by other Soviet successor states as nationals of those states. These cosmonauts are marked with an asterisk * and their place of birth is shown in an appended list. All, however, claimed Soviet or Russian citizenship at the time of their space flights.

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Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia[edit]

All of the locations below were part of the former U.S.S.R. at the time of the cosmonauts' birth.

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic Azerbaidzhan S.S.R. / Azerbaijan Azerbaijan[edit]
  1. Musa Manarov, born in Baku, Azerbaijan Soviet Union
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Byelorussian S.S.R. / Belarus Belarus[edit]
  1. Pyotr Klimuk, born in Komarovka, Belarus. First Belarus-born man in space Soviet Union
  2. Vladimir Kovalyonok, born in Beloye, Belarus Soviet Union
  3. Oleg Novitski, born in Chervyen’, Belarus Russia
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic Georgian S.S.R. / Georgia Georgia (country)[edit]
  1. Fyodor Yurchikhin, born in Batumi, Georgia Russia
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic Kazakh S.S.R. / Kazakhstan Kazakhstan[edit]
  1. Toktar Aubakirov, born in Karaganda, Kazakhstan. First ethnic Kazakh in space. Soviet Union
  2. Yuri Lonchakov, born in Balkhash, Kazakhstan Russia
  3. Talgat Musabayev, born in Kargaly, Kazakhstan, later a Kazakh citizen[7][8] Russia
  4. Viktor Patsayev, born in Aktyubinsk, Kazakhstan Soviet Union
  5. Vladimir Shatalov, born in Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan, first person born in Kazakhstan in space Soviet Union
  6. Aleksandr Viktorenko, born in Olginka, Kazakhstan Soviet Union Russia
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic Kirghiz S.S.R. / Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan[edit]
  1. Salizhan Sharipov, born in Uzgen, Kyrgyzstan Russia
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic Latvian S.S.R. / Latvia Latvia[edit]
  1. Aleksandr Kaleri, born in Jūrmala, Latvia Russia
  2. Anatoly Solovyev, born in Riga, Latvia Soviet Union Russia
Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Turkmen S.S.R. / Turkmenistan Turkmenistan[edit]
  1. Oleg Kononenko, born in Chardzhou, Turkmenistan Russia
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukrainian S.S.R. / Ukraine Ukraine[edit]
  1. Anatoly Artsebarsky, born in Prosyanaya, Ukraine Soviet Union
  2. Georgi Beregovoi, born in Federovka, Ukraine Soviet Union
  3. Georgiy Dobrovolskiy, born in Odessa, Ukraine Soviet Union
  4. Yuri Gidzenko, born in Elanets, Ukraine Russia
  5. Leonid Kizim, born in Krasny Liman, Ukraine Soviet Union
  6. Oleg Kotov, born in Simferopol, Ukraine Russia
  7. Anatoli Levchenko, born in Krasnokutsk, Ukraine Soviet Union
  8. Vladimir Lyakhov, born in Antratsyt, Ukraine Soviet Union
  9. Yuri Malenchenko, born in Svitlovodsk, Ukraine Russia
  10. Yuri Onufriyenko, born in Ryasne, Ukraine Russia
  11. Leonid Popov, born in Oleksandriia, Ukraine Soviet Union
  12. Pavel Popovich, born in Uzyn, Ukraine. First Ukraine-born man in space. Soviet Union
  13. Georgi Shonin, born in Rovenky, Ukraine Soviet Union
  14. Vasili Tsibliyev, born in Orekhovka, Ukraine Russia
  15. Vladimir Vasyutin, born in Kharkiv, Ukraine Soviet Union
  16. Igor Volk, born in Zmiiv, Ukraine Soviet Union
  17. Aleksandr Volkov, born in Horlivka, Ukraine Soviet Union Russia
  18. Sergei Aleksandrovich Volkov, born in Chuhuiv, Ukraine Russia
  19. Vitali Zholobov, born in Zburjevka, Ukraine Soviet Union
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic Uzbek S.S.R. / Uzbekistan Uzbekistan[edit]
  1. Vladimir Dzhanibekov, born in Iskandar, Uzbekistan Soviet Union

Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia[edit]

  1. Sultan Salman Al Saud, first Saudi in space. — STS-51-G

Slovakia Slovakia[edit]

  1. Ivan Bella, first Slovak in space. — Soyuz TM-29/28

South Africa South Africa[edit]

  1. Mark Shuttleworth, second "space tourist" and first South African in space. — Soyuz TM-34/33

South Korea South Korea[edit]

  1. Yi So-yeonSymbol venus.svg, Spaceflight participant, first South Korean in space — Soyuz TMA-12/11

Syria Syria[edit]

  1. Muhammed Faris (Intercosmos), first Syrian in space. — Soyuz TM-3/2

Ukraine Ukraine[edit]

  1. Leonid Kadenyuk, first Ukrainian in space since independence. — STS-87

United States United States[edit]

* Asterisked space travelers were born outside the United States

Non-NASA space travelers[edit]

  1. Anousheh AnsariSymbol venus.svg*, fourth space tourist and first female space tourist — Soyuz TMA-9/8
  2. Richard Garriott*, space tourist — Soyuz TMA-13/12
  3. Gregory Olsen, third space tourist — Soyuz TMA-7/6
  4. Charles Simonyi*, fifth space tourist — Soyuz TMA-10/9, Soyuz TMA-14/13
  5. Dennis Tito, first space tourist — Soyuz TM-32/31

NASA astronauts[edit]

^ still on active service

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Nancy Sherlock – see Nancy Currie
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Americans born abroad[edit]

  1. William Anders, born in Hong Kong to American parents.
  2. Canada Gregory Chamitoff, born in Montreal, Canada.
  3. Italy Michael Collins, born in Rome, Italy to American parents.
  4. United Kingdom Richard Garriott, born in Cambridge, England.
  5. United Kingdom Gregory H. Johnson, born in South Ruislip, England.
  6. Panama Frederick W. Leslie, born in Ancón, Panama Canal Zone (now Panama).
  7. Taiwan Kjell N. Lindgren, born in Taipei, Taiwan.
  8. Shannon LucidSymbol venus.svg, born in Shanghai, China (then under Japanese rule) to American parents.
  9. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands James H. Newman, born in the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (now Micronesia).

Naturalized Americans[edit]

  1. Iran Anousheh AnsariSymbol venus.svg, born in Mashhad, Iran. First Iranian-American in space. Fourth space tourist and first female space tourist.
  2. Costa Rica Franklin Chang-Diaz, born in San José, Costa Rica. First Costa Rican-American in space.
  3. India Kalpana ChawlaSymbol venus.svg, born in Karnal, India, (1961–2003). First Indian-American in space.
  4. United Kingdom Michael Foale, born in Louth, England, dual British and American citizen.
  5. Spain Michael Lopez-Alegria, born in Madrid, Spain.
  6. Peru Carlos I. Noriega, born in Lima, Peru. First Peruvian-born person in space.
  7. United Kingdom Nicholas Patrick, born in Saltburn-by-the-Sea, England, dual UK-US citizen.
  8. Australia Paul Scully-Power, born in Sydney, Australia.
  9. United Kingdom Piers Sellers, born in Crowborough, England, dual UK-US citizen.
  10. Hungary Charles Simonyi, born in Budapest, Hungary. Fifth space tourist.
  11. Australia Andrew Thomas, born in Adelaide, Australia.
  12. South Vietnam Eugene Trinh, born in Saigon, State of Vietnam (now Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). First Vietnamese-American in space.
  13. Netherlands Lodewijk van den Berg, born in Sluiskil, the Netherlands.
  14. Taiwan Taylor Wang, born in Shanghai, China. First Chinese American in space.

Vietnam Vietnam[edit]

  1. Phạm Tuân (Intercosmos), first Vietnamese and first Asian in space. — Soyuz 37/36

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "KhanKart 1.1.0". 
  2. ^ Other Wikipedia articles count Talgat Musabayev as a Kazakh and Anousheh Ansari as an Iranian-American dual citizen; they may also consider Russia and the Soviet Union, or East, West, and united Germany as distinct countries, resulting in counts of 40 or more countries.
  3. ^ Belgium, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom
  4. ^ "Soyuz 18-1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  5. ^ EVA-22: Cassidy and Parmitano complete ISS spacewalk July 9, 2013
  6. ^ "Astronaut Michael Foale retires from Nasa". BBC News. 10 August 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  7. ^ Bukharbayeva, Bagila (20 June 2004). "Kazakhstan Gets a Bigger Say in Space Launch Site" – via LA Times. 
  8. ^ "Kazakh cosmonaut to replace Brightman on space station trip - Sen.com". 
  9. ^ Akopian, Aram (2001). Armenians and the World: Yesterday and Today. Yerevan: Noyan Tapan. p. 61. ISBN 9789993051299. James Bagian, an engineer and physician, is the first , but surely not the last, Armenian astronaut.