List of spacecraft manufacturers
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During the early years of spaceflight only nation states had the resources to develop and fly spacecraft. Both the U.S. space program and Soviet space program were operated using mainly military pilots as astronauts. During this period, no commercial space launches were available to private operators, and no private organization was able to offer space launches.
In the 1980s, the European Space Agency created Arianespace, the world's first commercial space transportation company, and, following the Challenger disaster, the American government deregulated the American space transportation market as well. In the 1990s the Russian government sold their majority stake in RSC Energia to private investors (although it has recently renationalized the Russian space sector in 2013–2014.) These events for the first time allowed private organizations to purchase, develop and offer space launch services; beginning the period of private spaceflight in the late-1980s and early-1990s.
There are 8 major companies that build large, commercial, Geosynchronous satellite platforms:
|Company||Location||No of satellites launched||Comments|
|Airbus Defence and Space||Europe (France/Germany/Spain/United Kingdom)||formerly Astrium|
|OHB SE||Europe (Germany/Italy/Luxembourg/Sweden/France/Belgium)|
|Boeing Defense, Space & Security||United States||formerly Boeing Integrated Defense Systems|
|INVAP||Argentina||6||INVAP is developing new satellites ARSAT-3 SAOCOM SABIA-Mar|
|JSC Information Satellite Systems||Russia||1160||formerly NPO PM|
|Lockheed Martin Space||United States|
|Northrop Grumman||United States||formerly Orbital ATK|
|Raytheon||United States||One of worlds largest space sensor providers.|
|Maxar Space||United States||240||formerly Space Systems Loral, formally SSL, subsidiary of Maxar Technologies|
|Thales Alenia Space||Europe (France/Italy/United Kingdom/Spain/Belgium/Germany/Poland)||formerly Alcatel Alenia Space|
In addition to those above, the following companies have successfully built and launched (smaller) satellite platforms:
|Company||Location||No of satellites launched||Comments|
|AeroAstro, Inc.||United States||Closed |
|British Aerospace||United Kingdom||purchased Marconi Electronic Systems, to form BAE Systems|
|EnduroSat||Europe (Bulgaria)||CubeSats and Nanosatellites|
|Fairchild Space and Electronics Division||United States||sold to Matra Marconi Space, then sold to Orbital Sciences Corporation|
|Fokker Space & Systems||Netherlands||then Dutch Space, now part of EADS Astrium Satellites|
|GAUSS Srl||Italy||9||CubeSats and Small Satellites (<50 kg)|
|General Electric||United States||then merged into Martin Marietta, now part of Lockheed Martin|
|Hawker Siddeley Dynamics||United Kingdom||now part of EADS Astrium Satellites|
|Dhruva Space||India||Nano Satellites (>8 to <35 kg)|
|Hughes Aircraft||United States||purchased by Boeing|
|In-Space Missions||United Kingdom||Launching first satellite in Q2 2020|
|Innovative Solutions In Space||Netherlands||CubeSats|
|Mitsubishi Heavy Industries||Japan|
|Northrop Grumman Space Technology||United States|
|NanoAvionics||United States||7||CubeSats and Small Sats|
|Pumpkin, Inc.||United States||CubeSat Kit|
|OneWeb||United Kingdom||40||OneWeb satellite constellation|
|Planet Labs||United States||298||Earth observation satellite constellation|
|Philco Ford||United States||then Ford Aerospace, now Space Systems/Loral|
|QinetiQ Space N.V.||Belgium||3||then Verhaert Space|
|Rockwell||United States||purchased by Boeing|
|RKK Energiya||Russia||produced Sputnik 1|
|SPAR Aerospace||Canada||8||bought by MacDonald Dettwiler|
|SNC Space Systems||United States||formerly SpaceDev, owned by Sierra Nevada Corporation|
|SpaceX||United States||1205||largest commercial satellite constellation operator in the world with the Starlink constellation|
|Spectrum Astro||United States||bought by General Dynamics|
|Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd||United Kingdom||now part of Airbus Defence & Space|
|Swales Aerospace||United States||bought by Alliant Techsystems, now Orbital ATK|
|TRANSPACE Technologies||India||On-Board Satellite Systems Fabrication, Testing and Reliability Analysis|
|TRW||United States||nearly 200 ||now part of Northrop Grumman Space Technology|
|TsSKB-Progress||Russia||manufacturer of Bion-M, Foton-M, Resurs-P and Persona|
|Xovian||India||Nanosat and services|
|York Space Systems||United States||1||Up to 250 kg spacecraft production and launch services|
|Yuzhnoye Design Bureau||Ukraine|
Launch vehicle manufacturers and providers of third party services
|Company||Location||No. of successful launches||Comments|
|Arianespace||Europe (France/Germany/Italy/Belgium/Switzerland/Sweden/Spain/Netherlands/Norway/Denmark)||235/247||Ariane (rocket family)|
|Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering||Netherlands||Suborbital student-built sounding rockets|
|ISRO||India||62/67||PSLV, GSLV, GSLV III|
|COSMOS International||Russia/Germany||commercialises the Kosmos-3M launcher|
|Eurockot Launch Services||Europe (Germany/France/United Kingdom/Spain/Netherlands/Russia)||owned by EADS Astrium|
|International Launch Services||United States
|Iranian Space Agency||Iran|
|Mitsubishi Heavy Industries||Japan||62|
|Northrop Grumman||United States||manufacturer of Antares, Minotaur and Pegasus|
|PLD Space||Spain||manufacturer of Miura 1 and Miura 5|
|Rocket Crafters Inc||United States||manufacturer of Intrepid-1|
|Rocket Lab||New Zealand/United States||18/21||manufacturer of Electron launch vehicle|
|SpaceX||United States||129/134||Falcon 1, Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy|
|Sea Launch||United States/Russia/Ukraine/Norway||28/31[when?]||provider of Sea Launch and Land Launch service|
|Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau||Russia||commercialises the Volna and Shtil' launchers|
|NPO Mashinostroyeniya||Russia||commercialises the Strela launcher|
|Starsem||Europe (Germany/France/United Kingdom/Spain/Netherlands/Italy/Belgium/Switzerland/Sweden/Norway/Denmark/ and Russia)||commercialises the Soyuz launcher|
|The Spaceship Company||United States||Reusable spaceship launched from the White Knight Aircraft for space tourism and zero-g experimentation|
|TsSKB-Progress||Russia||manufacturer of Soyuz launch vehicle|
|United Launch Alliance||United States|
|United Start Launch||United States
|commercialises the Start-1 launcher|
|Virgin Galactic||United States||Space Tourism Using 'The Spaceship Company spacecraft|
|Virgin Orbit||United States / United Kingdom||manufacturer of LauncherOne air-launched launch vehicle|
|Blue Origin||United States||manufacturer of simple rockets.|
|Independence-X Aerospace||Malaysia||manufacturer of DNLV launch vehicle|
|Borneo SubOrbitals||Malaysia||manufacturer of unnamed suborbital rocket|
Commercial wings of national space agencies:
- Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC) and Taiwan Aerospace Industry Association (TAIA) Taiwan
- Antrix Corporation India
- China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation China
Lander, rover and probe manufacturers
|Company||Location||No. of probes launched||Comments|
|Brown Engineering Company||Huntsville, AL United States||Rover for Apollo lunar program|
|China National Space Administration||China||for Chang'e 3 program in 2013|
|Deep Space Industries||Mountain View, CA United States|
|Lavochkin||Russia||rovers for Lunokhod 1|
|NASA JPL||United States||for ATHLETE lunar missions, Mars Pathfinder, Opportunity and Spirit rover|
|ISRO||India||Chandrayaan-1, Chandrayaan-2, Mars Orbiter Mission|
|Planetary Resources||Redmond, WA United States||Arkyd-100 for asteroid searching|
Spacecraft component manufacturers-
|Astro- und Feinwerktechnik Adlershof GmbH||Berlin, Germany||Design, Manufacturing, Assembly, Integration and Verification of small satellite buses (TET-1, launched July 2012) and components. Attitude control components (reaction wheels, gyro system, GPS receiver, magnetometer)
Supplier of space systems and ISS payload NightPod
|Bradford Space||New York, NY||Supplier of green propulsion systems, rocket engines, sun sensors, reaction wheels, acceleration measurement units, and astronaut workstations.||Over 100 thrusters in-space|
|Dynetics||Madison, AL United States||used on Sundancer and Ares I|
|Tethers Unlimited, Inc.||Seattle, WA United States||De-Orbiting Devices, Deployable Solar Arrays, Propulsion Systems, Radio Communications, and Robotics|
|RUAG Space||Switzerland||Structures, Fairings, Mechanisms, Opto-Electronics|
|AB 360 Space||United States||manufacturer of CLEPS-C100 Combined electric Propulsion systems, Adjustable Thruster Engines for Mars travel|
|GAUSS Srl||Rome, Italy||Complete Space Platforms, Nanosatellites Structures and Deployers, OBDH, EPS, Radio Communications, Solar Panels and Groundstation systems|
|Andrews Space||Seattle, WA United States|
|Jena-Optronik||Jena, Germany||Attitude and Orbit Control Systems (AOCS) sensors: star sensors, sun sensors, rendezvous- and docking sensors; Optical space instruments and components: multi-spectral imager (e.g. JSS 56 for RapidEye satellite constellation), efficient radiometer (e.g. METimage), electronic as well as opto-mechanical subsystems and components for operational Earth observation (e.g. for Copernicus Sentinel missions)|
|Pumpkin, Inc||San Francisco, CA United States||CubeSat Kits|
|Mynaric||Munich Germany||Laser communication equipment for airborne and spaceborne communication networks, so called constellations.|
|Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace||Kongsberg Norway||Kongsberg Adaptive Rotational Mechanism Assembly [KARMA] in configuration as Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM), used on Rosetta (spacecraft), Mars Express, Venus Express, Sentinel 1, Sentinel 3 and BepiColombo MTM.|
|Production Corporation Polyot||Russia|
|Rocketstar Robotics Inc||Camarillo, CA United States||Space Interferometry Mission Optical Shutter Mechanisms|
|SNC Space Systems||United States||formerly SpaceDev, owned by Sierra Nevada Corporation|
|Clyde Space||United Kingdom||Power System Electronics, Batteries, Solar Panels, Attitude Control Systems||Acquired by ÅAC Microtec|
|Astro Aerospace||Carpinteria, CA United States||Deployable mechanisms, spacecraft structures, AstroMesh deployable reflector, deployable booms, large and small aperature mesh reflector antennas, STEM (Storable Tubular Extendable Member), hinge mechanisms,||A special business unit of Northrop Grumman|
|TRANSPACE Technologies||Bangalore, KA India||On-Board Satellite Sub-Systems Fabrication, Testing, Reliability Analysis and PCB Design||Approved Vendor for ISRO Satellite Center, India|
|RadioBro Corporation||Huntsville, Alabama United States||Small Spacecraft Communications, Flight Readiness Testing, Training Services|
|Solar MEMS Technologies||Spain||Sun Sensors for Satellites|
|Company name||Country||Engine||Engine type||Comments|
|ArianeGroup||Lampoldshausen, Germany||S10, S20, S200, S400
CHT-1N, CHT-20N, CHT-400N
|propellant and Monopropellant Thrusters, Gridded Ion Thrusters||Main manufacturer for Propulsion Systems, Equipments and Services in Europe, serving major space projects like ATV, ORION-ESM, ExoMars, JUICE, MTG, GEO and EO satellites with Propulsion Solutions.|
|AB 360 Space||Washington DC, United States||CLEPS X-100, CLEPS C100||hybrid Thrusters, Combined Liquid Electric Propulsion Systems, Methane/ Oxygen Ion Thrusters||Uses Electric and Liquid Propulsion simultaneously for space propulsion for LEO/MEOsatellites |
|Moog-ISP (In Space Propulsion)||Westcott, Buckinghamshire United Kingdom
Niagara Falls, NY United States
|All Forms of Chemical Propulsion including Main Apogee Engines and AOCS Thrusters||Bipropellant and Monopropellant Product Families Include: LEROS, MONARC Thruster, LTT Thruster||Division of Moog Inc.|
|Bradford Space||New York, NY||LMP-103s thrusters,
Water based thrusters
|LMP-103s green monopropellant propulsion systems & thrusters,
COMET water based propulsion systems
|>100 thrusters on flight satellites|
|Busek||Natick, Massachusetts United States||BHT-200, BHT-1500, BHT-20k, BET-1, BmP-220, BIT-1, BIT-3, BIT-7, uPPT-3||Hall-effect thruster, Gridded Ion, Electrospray, micro Pulsed Plasma, Green Monopropellant, Electrothermal, Hollow Cathodes, Field Emission Cathode||TacSat-2, FalconSat-5, FalconSat-6, ST-7/LISA Pathfinder. Licensed technology for BPT-4000 aboard AEHF 1, AEHF 2, AEHF 3. Propulsion options ranging from CubeSats to GEO Communications Satellites to Asteroid Redirect Mission Spacecraft.|
|Aerojet Rocketdyne||Rancho Cordova, California United States||Numerous||liquid rocket engine, Solid rocket engine, Hall-effect thruster, Gridded Ion thruster.|
|American Rocket Company||United States||hybrid rocket||intellectual property acquired by SpaceDev|
|CU Aerospace||Champaign, IL United States||PUC, CHIPS, PPT-11||MCD / Resistojet / PPT||Small satellite / CubeSat Propulsion Modules |
|VIPER||liquid rocket engine||reusable rocket engine |
|Ad Astra Rocket Company||Webster, TX United States||VASIMR||magnetoplasma||may be used for future Mars missions|
|Enpulsion GmbH||Wiener Neustadt, Austria||Propulsion Systems for Cubesats, Small Sats, and Medium/Large Satellites||Field Emission Electric Propulsion||Enpulsion is commercializing a technology that has been developed for ESA science missions for more than 10 years.|
|PLD Space||Spain||TREPEL family||used on Miura Rockets|
|Reaction Engines Ltd.||Oxfordshire, England United Kingdom||SABRE||combined cycle precooled jet engine and closed cycle rocket engine||planned to be used in Skylon|
|SpaceDev||Poway, CA United States||hybrid rocket||used on SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo|
|SpaceX||Hawthorne, California, United States||Merlin / Raptor / Draco / Kestrel||liquid rocket engine||used on Falcon Rockets|
|ArianeGroup||Vernon, France||Vinci / Viking / Vulcain / HM7B||liquid rocket engine||used on Ariane rockets|
|NPO Energomash||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on R-7, Molniya, Soyuz, Energia, Zenit, Atlas III, Atlas V, Angara, Antares|
|KBKhA||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on Soyuz, Proton, Energia|
|KBKhM||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on Vostok, Voskhod, Zenit, Soyuz, Progress, Salyut 1, Salyut 4, Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Mir Core Module, Zvezda, GSLV Mk I|
|NIIMash||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on Almaz, Buran, Briz-M|
|TsNIIMash||Russia||used on STEX|
|Kuznetsov Design Bureau||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on N1, Soyuz-2-1v, Antares|
|OKB Fakel||Russia||Hall-effect thruster||used on SMART-1, LS-1300|
|Proton-PM||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on Proton, Angara|
|Keldysh Research Center||Russia|
|Voronezh Mechanical Plant||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on Vostok, Voskhod, Molniya, Soyuz, Proton, Energia, Luna|
|Yuzhnoye Design Office / Yuzhmash||Ukraine||used on|
|Independence-X Aerospace||Malaysia||ID-1, ID-2, ID-3 and unnamed 2-stage rocket engine for DNLV||solid rocket motor and liquid rocket engine||used on ID-1, ID-2 and DNLV rocket|
|Borneo SubOrbitals||Malaysia||hybrid rocket||used on yet-to-be-named rocket|
|Apollo Fusion||United States||ACE, ACE Max||Hall-effect thruster||To be used on Spaceflight, Inc.'s Sherpa-LTE space tug|
|Benchmark Space Systems||United States||Starling, Halcyon, Peregrine||Warm gas thruster, High-test peroxide thruster, Hypergolic thruster||To be used on Spaceflight, Inc.'s Sherpa-LTC space tug|
|ThrustMe||France||NPT30, I2T5||Gridded ion thruster, Cold gas thruster||first in-orbit demonstration of an electric propulsion system powered by iodine|
- List of private spaceflight companies including only companies with primarily private funding and missions ("NewSpace")
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