List of spacecraft manufacturers
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During the early years of spaceflight only nation states had the resources to develop and fly spacecraft. Both the U.S. space program and Soviet space program were operated using mainly military pilots as astronauts. During this period, no commercial space launches were available to private operators, and no private organization was able to offer space launches.
In 1980s, the European Space Agency created Arianespace, the world's first commercial space transportation company, and, following the Challenger disaster, the American government deregulated the American space transportation market as well. In the 1990s the Russian government sold their majority stake in RSC Energia to private investors (although it has recently renationalized the Russian space sector in 2013–2014.) These events for the first time allowed private organizations to purchase, develop and offer space launch services; beginning the period of private spaceflight in the late-1980s and early-1990s.
There are 8 major companies that build large, commercial, Geosynchronous satellite platforms:
|Company||Location||No of satellites launched||Comments|
|Airbus Defence and Space||Europe ( France/ Germany/ Spain/ United Kingdom)||formerly Astrium|
|OHB SE||Europe ( Germany/ Italy/ Luxembourg/ Sweden/ France/ Belgium)|
|Boeing Defense, Space & Security||United States||formerly Boeing Integrated Defense Systems|
|JSC Information Satellite Systems||Russia||1160||formerly NPO PM|
|Lockheed Martin||United States|
|Orbital ATK||United States||formerly Orbital Sciences Corporation|
|Space Systems/Loral||United States||240||formerly Space Systems/Loral, LLC|
|Thales Alenia Space||Europe ( France/ Italy/ United Kingdom/ Spain/ Belgium/ Germany/ Poland)||formerly Alcatel Alenia Space|
In addition to those above, the following companies have successfully built and launched (smaller) satellite platforms:
Launch vehicle manufactures and providers of third party services
Commercial wings of national space agencies:
- Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC) and Taiwan Aerospace Industry Association (TAIA) Taiwan
- Antrix Corporation India
- China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation People's Republic of China
Lander, rover and probe manufacturers
|Company||Location||No. of probes launched||Comments|
|Brown Engineering Company||Huntsville, AL United States||Rover for Apollo lunar program|
|China National Space Administration||People's Republic of China||for Chang'e 3 program in 2013|
|Deep Space Industries||Mountain View, CA United States||DragonFly for asteroid material return mission|
|Lavochkin||Russia||rovers for Lunokhod 1|
|NASA JPL||United States||for ATHLETE lunar missions, Mars Pathfinder, Opportunity and Spirit rover|
|ISRO||India||Chandrayaan-1, Chandrayaan-2, Mars Orbiter Mission|
|Planetary Resources||Redmond, WA United States||Arkyd-100 for asteroid searching|
Spacecraft component manufacturers
|Astro- und Feinwerktechnik Adlershof GmbH||Berlin, Germany||Design, Manufacturing, Assembly, Integration and Verification of small satellite buses (TET-1, launched July 2012) and components. Attitude control components (reaction wheels, gyro system, GPS receiver, magnetometer)
Supplier of space systems and ISS payload NightPod
|Dynetics||Madison, AL United States||used on Sundancer and Ares I|
|American Technology Consortium||Oxnard, CA United States||Mars Pathfinder Airbag Retraction Actuator Planetary Gearboxes, Mars Pathfinder Camera Pointing Mechanisms, Stardust Scan Mirror Mechanism, Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robot Arm Brush Motors, MVACS Camera Pointing Mechanisms, Genesis Array Deployment Mechanism, Shuttle Radar Topography Mapper (SRTM) Mast Deployment Actuators, SRTM Harmonic Drive Actuators, A2100 & A2100M Bus Antenna Pointing Mechanism Linear Actuators, Orbview 3 & 4 Antenna Gimbals, Sirius Satellite Radio Antenna Gimbal Motors, Champollion Cryogenic Comet Drill Actuator, TES Filter Wheel Actuator, Mars Odyssey Mission PanCam Mast Deployment Actuator, Mars Odyssey PanCam Azimuth Twist Capsule and Actuator Assembly, Mars Odyssey PanCam Elevation Actuator, Mars Odyssey Drill Mechanism Gearboxes, and Mars Phoenix Camera Pointing Mechanisms||Asset sale to competitor in 2000, Original corporation renamed to Rocketstar Robotics Inc in 2006|
|Tethers Unlimited, Inc.||Seattle, WA United States||De-Orbiting Devices, Deployable Solar Arrays, Propulsion Systems, Radio Communications, and Robotics|
|RUAG Space||Switzerland||Structures, Fairings, Mechanisms, Opto-Electronics|
|GAUSS Srl||Rome, Italy||Complete Space Platforms, Nanosatellites Structures and Deployers, OBDH, EPS, Radio Communications, Solar Panels and Groundstation systems|
|Andrews Space||Seattle, WA United States|
|Jena-Optronik||Jena, Germany||Attitude and Orbit Control Systems (AOCS) sensors: star sensors, sun sensors, redezvous- and docking sensors; Optical space instruments and components: multi-spectral imager (e.g. JSS 56 for RapidEye satellite constellation, efficient radiometer (e.g. METimage), electronic as well as opto-mechanical subsystems and components for operational Earth observation (e.g. for Copernicus Sentinel missions)|
|Pumpkin, Inc||San Francisco, CA United States||CubeSat Kits|
|Mynaric||Munich Germany||Laser communication equipment for airborne and spaceborne communication networks, so called constellations.|
|Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace||Kongsberg Norway||Kongsberg Adaptive Rotational Mechanism Assembly [KARMA] in configuration as Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM), used on Rosetta (spacecraft), Mars Express, Venus Express, Sentinel 1, Sentinel 3 and BepiColombo MTM.|
|Production Corporation Polyot||Russia|
|Rocketstar Robotics Inc||Camarillo, CA United States||Space Interferometry Mission Optical Shutter Mechanisms|
|SNC Space Systems||United States||formerly SpaceDev, owned by Sierra Nevada Corporation|
|Clyde Space||United Kingdom||Power System Electronics, Batteries, Solar Panels, Attitude Control Systems||Acquired by ÅAC Microtec|
|Astro Aerospace||Carpinteria, CA United States||Deployable mechanisms, spacecraft structures, AstroMesh deployable reflector, deployable booms, large and small aperature mesh reflector antennas, STEM (Storable Tubular Extendable Member), hinge mechanisms,||A special business unit of Northrop Grumman|
|TRANSPACE Technologies||Bangalore, KA India||On-Board Satellite Sub-Systems Fabrication, Testing, Reliability Analysis and PCB Design||Approved Vendor for ISRO Satellite Center, India|
|RadioBro Corporation||Huntsville, Alabama United States||Small Spacecraft Communications, Flight Readiness Testing, Training Services|
|Solar MEMS Technologies||Spain||Sun Sensors for Satellites|
|Company name||Country||Engine||Engine type||Comments|
|Moog-ISP (In Space Propulsion)||Westcott, Buckinghamshire United Kingdom
Niagara Falls, NY United States
|All Forms of Chemical Propulsion including Main Apogee Engines and AOCS Thrusters||Bipropellant and Monopropellant Product Families Include: LEROS, MONARC Thruster, LTT Thruster||Division of Moog Inc.|
|Busek||Natick, Massachusetts United States||BHT-200, BHT-1500, BHT-20k, BET-1, BmP-220, BIT-1, BIT-3, BIT-7, uPPT-3||Hall-effect thruster, Gridded Ion, Electrospray, micro Pulsed Plasma, Green Monopropellant, Electrothermal, Hollow Cathodes, Field Emission Cathode||TacSat-2, FalconSat-5, FalconSat-6, ST-7/LISA Pathfinder. Licensed technology for BPT-4000 aboard AEHF 1, AEHF 2, AEHF 3. Propulsion options ranging from CubeSats to GEO Communications Satellites to Asteroid Redirect Mission Spacecraft.|
|Aerojet Rocketdyne||Rancho Cordova, California United States||Numerous||liquid rocket engine, Solid rocket engine, Hall-effect thruster, Gridded Ion thruster.|
|American Rocket Company||United States||hybrid rocket||intellectual property acquired by SpaceDev|
|CU Aerospace||Champaign, IL United States||PUC, CHIPS, PPT-11||MCD / Resistojet / PPT||Small satellite / CubeSat Propulsion Modules |
|Frontier Astronautics||Valencia, CA United States||VIPER||liquid rocket engine||reusable rocket engine |
|Asp||high test peroxide||reusable monopropellant rocket engine|
|Ad Astra Rocket Company||Webster, TX United States||VASIMR||magnetoplasma||may be used for future Mars missions|
|Enpulsion GmbH||Wiener Neustadt, Austria||Propulsion Systems for Cubesats, Small Sats, and Medium/Large Satelites||Field Emission Electric Propulsion||Enpulsion is commercializing a technology that has been developed for ESA science missions for more than 10 years.|
|Reaction Engines Ltd.||Oxfordshire, England United Kingdom||SABRE||combined cycle precooled jet engine and closed cycle rocket engine||planned to be used in Skylon|
|SpaceDev||Poway, CA United States||hybrid rocket||used on SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo|
|SpaceX||Hawthorne, California, United States||Merlin / Raptor / Draco / Kestrel||liquid rocket engine||used on Falcon Rockets|
|TGV Rockets||Washington, DC, United States||PF-X / Electrocycle||liquid rocket engine||used on customer vehicles|
|ArianeGroup||Vernon, France||Vinci / Viking / Vulcain / HM7B||liquid rocket engine||used on Ariane rockets|
|NPO Energomash||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on R-7, Molniya, Soyuz, Energia, Zenit, Atlas III, Atlas V, Angara, Antares|
|KBKhA||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on Soyuz, Proton, Energia|
|KBKhM||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on Vostok, Voskhod, Zenit, Soyuz, Progress, Salyut 1, Salyut 4, Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Mir Core Module, Zvezda, GSLV Mk I|
|NIIMash||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on Almaz, Buran, Briz-M|
|TsNIIMash||Russia||used on STEX|
|Kuznetsov Design Bureau||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on N1, Soyuz-2-1v, Antares|
|OKB Fakel||Russia||Hall-effect thruster||used on SMART-1, LS-1300|
|Proton-PM||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on Proton, Angara|
|Keldysh Research Center||Russia|
|Voronezh Mechanical Plant||Russia||liquid rocket engine||used on Vostok, Voskhod, Molniya, Soyuz, Proton, Energia, Luna|
|Yuzhnoye Design Office / Yuzhmash||Ukraine||used on|
- List of private spaceflight companies including only companies with primarily private funding and missions ("NewSpace")
- Russian aerospace industry
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