List of spacecraft manufacturers

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During the early years of spaceflight only nation states had the resources to develop and fly spacecraft. Both the U.S. space program and Soviet space program were operated using mainly military pilots as astronauts. During this period, no commercial space launches were available to private operators, and no private organization was able to offer space launches.

In the 1980s, the European Space Agency created Arianespace, the world's first commercial space transportation company, and, following the Challenger disaster, the American government deregulated the American space transportation market as well. In the 1990s the Russian government sold their majority stake in RSC Energia to private investors (although it has recently renationalized the Russian space sector in 2013–2014.[1]) These events for the first time allowed private organizations to purchase, develop and offer space launch services; beginning the period of private spaceflight in the late-1980s and early-1990s.

Satellite manufacturers[edit]

There are 8 major companies that build large, commercial, Geosynchronous satellite platforms:

Company Location No of satellites launched Comments
Airbus Defence and Space  Europe ( France/ Germany/ Spain/ United Kingdom) formerly Astrium
OHB SE  Europe ( Germany/ Italy/ Luxembourg/ Sweden/ France/ Belgium)
Boeing Defense, Space & Security  United States formerly Boeing Integrated Defense Systems
INVAP  Argentina 6 - SAC-A
INVAP is developing new satellites ARSAT-3 SAOCOM SABIA-Mar
JSC Information Satellite Systems  Russia 1160 formerly NPO PM
Lockheed Martin  United States
Northrop Grumman  United States formerly Orbital ATK
Raytheon  United States One of worlds largest space sensor providers.
Space Systems/Loral  United States 240[2] formerly Space Systems/Loral, LLC
Thales Alenia Space  Europe ( France/ Italy/ United Kingdom/ Spain/ Belgium/ Germany/ Poland) formerly Alcatel Alenia Space

In addition to those above, the following companies have successfully built and launched (smaller) satellite platforms:

Company Location No of satellites launched Comments
AeroAstro, Inc.  United States Closed [3]
Alén Space  Spain 5
Amsat International -  United States,  Canada,  Germany,  Italy,  Japan, Brazil  India,  United Kingdom,  Argentina consortium of amateur satellite constructors
Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp.  United States
Berlin Space Technologies  Germany Small Satellites (30-150kg) & Components
Blue Canyon Technologies  United States 13 Small spacecraft and components; mission services
British Aerospace  United Kingdom purchased Marconi Electronic Systems, to form BAE Systems
CBERS  Brazil  China 5
Compagnia Generale per lo Spazio  Italy part of OHB SE
Clyde Space  United Kingdom CubeSats and Nanosatellites (<10 kg)
EnduroSat  Europe CubeSats and Nanosatellites
Fairchild Space and Electronics Division  United States sold to Matra Marconi Space, then sold to Orbital Sciences Corporation
Fokker Space & Systems  Netherlands then Dutch Space, now part of EADS Astrium Satellites
GAUSS Srl  Italy 9 CubeSats and Small Satellites (<50 kg)
General Electric  United States then merged into Martin Marietta, now part of Lockheed Martin
GomSpace  Denmark Cubesats and nanosatellites (<10 kg)
Hawker Siddeley Dynamics  United Kingdom now part of EADS Astrium Satellites
Dhruva Space[4]  India Nano Satellites (>8 to <35 kg)
Hughes Aircraft  United States purchased by Boeing
IHI Corporation  Japan
In-Space Missions[5]  United Kingdom Launching first satellite in Q2 2020
Innovative Solutions In Space[6]  Netherlands CubeSats
NPO Lavochkin  Russia
Orcho Aerospace  United States
MicroSat Systems Inc.  Canada formerly Space division of Dynacon Incorporated
Millennium Space Systems  United States 2
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries  Japan
Northrop Grumman Space Technology  United States
NanoAvionics  Lithuania 1 CubeSats and Small Sats
Pumpkin, Inc.[7]  United States CubeSat Kit
OneWeb  United Kingdom 40[8] OneWeb satellite constellation
Planet Labs  United States 298[9] Earth observation satellite constellation
Philco Ford  United States then Ford Aerospace, now Space Systems/Loral
QinetiQ Space N.V.  Belgium 3 then Verhaert Space
RCA Astro  United States purchased by General Electric, then by Martin Marietta, now part of Lockheed Martin
Raytheon  United States
RAL Space  United Kingdom part of STFC
Rockwell  United States purchased by Boeing
RKK Energiya  Russia produced Sputnik 1
Satrec Initiative  South Korea 5
SPAR Aerospace  Canada 8 - Alouette 1 (1)
Anik-E (1)
RADARSAT 1 and 2 (2)
Olympus-1 (1)
MSAT 1, 2 and SA (3)
bought by MacDonald Dettwiler
SNC Space Systems  United States formerly SpaceDev, owned by Sierra Nevada Corporation
SpaceQuest, Ltd  United States 16 Microsatellites & Components
SpaceX  United States 422[10] largest commercial satellite constellation operator in the world with the Starlink constellation[11]
Spectrum Astro  United States bought by General Dynamics
Sun Space and Information Systems (Pty) Ltd  South Africa
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd  United Kingdom now part of Airbus Defence & Space
Swales Aerospace  United States bought by Alliant Techsystems, now Orbital ATK
TRANSPACE Technologies[12]  India On-Board Satellite Systems Fabrication, Testing and Reliability Analysis
Turkish Aerospace Industries  Turkey
TRW  United States nearly 200 [13] now part of Northrop Grumman Space Technology
TsSKB-Progress  Russia manufacturer of Bion-M, Foton-M, Resurs-P and [[Persona (satellite)|Persona]
Xovian[14]  India Nanosat and services
York Space Systems  United States 1[15] Up to 250kg spacecraft production and launch services[16]
Yuzhnoye Design Bureau  Ukraine

Launch vehicle manufacturers and providers of third party services[edit]

Company Location No. of successful launches Comments
Arianespace  Europe ( France/ Germany/ Italy/ Belgium/  Switzerland/ Sweden/ Spain/ Netherlands/ Norway/ Denmark) 235/247 Ariane (rocket family)
Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering  Netherlands Suborbital student-built sounding rockets
COSMOS International  Russia/ Germany commercialises the Kosmos-3M launcher
Eurockot Launch Services  Europe ( Germany/ France/ United Kingdom/ Spain/ Netherlands/ Russia) owned by EADS Astrium
International Launch Services  United States
97/100[when?][citation needed]
Iranian Space Agency[17]  Iran
ISC Kosmotras  Russia/ Ukraine/ Kazakhstan
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries  Japan 62
Northrop Grumman  United States manufacturer of Antares, Minotaur and Pegasus
PLD Space  Spain manufacturer of Miura 1 and Miura 5
Rocket Crafters Inc  United States manufacturer of Intrepid-1[18]
Rocket Lab  New Zealand/ United States 10/11 manufacturer of Electron launch vehicle
SpaceX  United States 88/93[needs update] Falcon 1, Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy
Sea Launch  United States/ Russia/ Ukraine/ Norway 28/31[when?][citation needed] provider of Sea Launch and Land Launch service
Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau  Russia commercialises the Volna and Shtil' launchers
NPO Mashinostroyeniya  Russia commercialises the Strela launcher
Starsem  Europe ( Germany/ France/ United Kingdom/ Spain/ Netherlands/ Italy/ Belgium/  Switzerland/ Sweden/ Norway/ Denmark/ and  Russia) commercialises the Soyuz launcher
The Spaceship Company  United States Reusable spaceship launched from the White Knight Aircraft for space tourism and zero-g experimentation
TsSKB-Progress  Russia manufacturer of Soyuz launch vehicle
United Launch Alliance  United States
United Start Launch  United States
commercialises the Start-1 launcher[19]
Virgin Galactic  United States Space Tourism Using 'The Spaceship Company spacecraft
Virgin Orbit  United States /  United Kingdom manufacturer of LauncherOne air-launched launch vehicle
Blue Origin United States

Commercial wings of national space agencies:

Lander, rover and probe manufacturers[edit]

Company Location No. of probes launched Comments
Brown Engineering Company Huntsville, AL  United States Rover for Apollo lunar program
China National Space Administration  People's Republic of China for Chang'e 3 program in 2013
Deep Space Industries Mountain View, CA  United States
Lavochkin  Russia rovers for Lunokhod 1
NASA JPL  United States for ATHLETE lunar missions, Mars Pathfinder, Opportunity and Spirit rover
ISRO  India Chandrayaan-1, Chandrayaan-2, Mars Orbiter Mission
Planetary Resources Redmond, WA  United States Arkyd-100 for asteroid searching

Spacecraft component manufacturers[edit]

Company Location Production Notes
Antenna Development Corporation Las Cruces, NM  United States Design, Manufacturing, Assembly, and Test of satellite antennas, primarily Low Gain Antennas (Many units in LEO and Deep Space missions) Antenna hats (couplers) and environmental testing.

Supplier of microstrip patch antennas, helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas, antenna couplers, circumferential array antennas, and power splitters

Astro- und Feinwerktechnik Adlershof GmbH [de] Berlin,  Germany Design, Manufacturing, Assembly, Integration and Verification of small satellite buses (TET-1, launched July 2012) and components. Attitude control components (reaction wheels, gyro system, GPS receiver, magnetometer)

Supplier of space systems and ISS payload NightPod

Dynetics Madison, AL  United States used on Sundancer and Ares I
American Technology Consortium Oxnard, CA  United States Mars Pathfinder Airbag Retraction Actuator Planetary Gearboxes, Mars Pathfinder Camera Pointing Mechanisms, Stardust Scan Mirror Mechanism, Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robot Arm Brush Motors, MVACS Camera Pointing Mechanisms, Genesis Array Deployment Mechanism, Shuttle Radar Topography Mapper (SRTM) Mast Deployment Actuators, SRTM Harmonic Drive Actuators, A2100 & A2100M Bus Antenna Pointing Mechanism Linear Actuators, Orbview 3 & 4 Antenna Gimbals, Sirius Satellite Radio Antenna Gimbal Motors, Champollion Cryogenic Comet Drill Actuator, TES Filter Wheel Actuator, Mars Odyssey Mission PanCam Mast Deployment Actuator, Mars Odyssey PanCam Azimuth Twist Capsule and Actuator Assembly, Mars Odyssey PanCam Elevation Actuator, Mars Odyssey Drill Mechanism Gearboxes, and Mars Phoenix Camera Pointing Mechanisms Asset sale to competitor in 2000, Original corporation renamed to Rocketstar Robotics Inc in 2006
Tethers Unlimited, Inc. Seattle, WA  United States De-Orbiting Devices, Deployable Solar Arrays, Propulsion Systems, Radio Communications, and Robotics
RUAG Space   Switzerland Structures, Fairings, Mechanisms, Opto-Electronics
GAUSS Srl Rome,  Italy Complete Space Platforms, Nanosatellites Structures and Deployers, OBDH, EPS, Radio Communications, Solar Panels and Groundstation systems
Andrews Space Seattle, WA  United States
Jena-Optronik [de][20] Jena,  Germany Attitude and Orbit Control Systems (AOCS) sensors: star sensors, sun sensors, rendezvous- and docking sensors; Optical space instruments and components: multi-spectral imager (e.g. JSS 56 for RapidEye satellite constellation), efficient radiometer (e.g. METimage), electronic as well as opto-mechanical subsystems and components for operational Earth observation (e.g. for Copernicus Sentinel missions)
Pumpkin, Inc San Francisco, CA  United States CubeSat Kits[21]
Mynaric Munich  Germany Laser communication equipment for airborne and spaceborne communication networks, so called constellations.
Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace[22] Kongsberg  Norway Kongsberg Adaptive Rotational Mechanism Assembly [KARMA] in configuration as Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM), used on Rosetta (spacecraft), Mars Express, Venus Express, Sentinel 1, Sentinel 3 and BepiColombo MTM.

Drive electronics for Sentinel 1 and BepiColombo MTM. Booster attachment struts, including separation function, for Ariane 5.

Production Corporation Polyot  Russia
Rocketstar Robotics Inc[23] Camarillo, CA  United States Space Interferometry Mission Optical Shutter Mechanisms
SNC Space Systems  United States formerly SpaceDev, owned by Sierra Nevada Corporation
Clyde Space  United Kingdom Power System Electronics, Batteries, Solar Panels, Attitude Control Systems Acquired by ÅAC Microtec[24]
Oxford Space Systems  United Kingdom Spacecraft antennas, deployable booms and other structures Startup on the Harwell Science and Innovation Campus
Astro Aerospace[25] Carpinteria, CA  United States Deployable mechanisms, spacecraft structures, AstroMesh deployable reflector, deployable booms, large and small aperature mesh reflector antennas, STEM (Storable Tubular Extendable Member), hinge mechanisms, A special business unit of Northrop Grumman
TRANSPACE Technologies[26] Bangalore, KA  India On-Board Satellite Sub-Systems Fabrication, Testing, Reliability Analysis and PCB Design Approved Vendor for ISRO Satellite Center, India
RadioBro Corporation[27] Huntsville, Alabama  United States Small Spacecraft Communications, Flight Readiness Testing, Training Services[28]
Solar MEMS Technologies[29]  Spain Sun Sensors for Satellites[30]

Propulsion manufacturers[edit]

Company name Country Engine Engine type Comments
ArianeGroup Lampoldshausen,  Germany S10, S20, S200, S400

CHT-1N, CHT-20N, CHT-400N

RIT-10, RIT-2x

propellant and Monopropellant Thrusters, Gridded Ion Thrustersi Main manufacturer for Propulsion Systems, Equipments and Services in Europe, serving major space projects like ATV, ORION-ESM, ExoMars, JUICE, MTG, GEO and EO satellites with Propulsion Solutions.
ThrustMe France NPT30, I2T5 Gridded ion thruster, Cold gas thruster Fully integrated propulsion systems for small satellites using solid iodine propellant.
Exotrail Massy,  France ExoMG Hall-effect thruster
Moog-ISP (In Space Propulsion) Westcott, Buckinghamshire United Kingdom

Niagara Falls, NY  United States

All Forms of Chemical Propulsion including Main Apogee Engines and AOCS Thrusters Bipropellant and Monopropellant Product Families Include: LEROS, MONARC Thruster, LTT Thruster Division of Moog Inc.
Busek Natick, Massachusetts  United States BHT-200, BHT-1500, BHT-20k, BET-1, BmP-220, BIT-1, BIT-3, BIT-7, uPPT-3 Hall-effect thruster, Gridded Ion, Electrospray, micro Pulsed Plasma, Green Monopropellant, Electrothermal, Hollow Cathodes, Field Emission Cathode TacSat-2, FalconSat-5, FalconSat-6, ST-7/LISA Pathfinder. Licensed technology for BPT-4000 aboard AEHF 1, AEHF 2, AEHF 3. Propulsion options ranging from CubeSats to GEO Communications Satellites to Asteroid Redirect Mission Spacecraft.[31]
Aerojet Rocketdyne Rancho Cordova, California  United States Numerous liquid rocket engine, Solid rocket engine, Hall-effect thruster, Gridded Ion thruster.
American Rocket Company  United States hybrid rocket intellectual property acquired by SpaceDev
CU Aerospace Champaign, IL  United States PUC, CHIPS, PPT-11 MCD[32] / Resistojet / PPT[33] Small satellite / CubeSat Propulsion Modules [34]
Frontier Astronautics Valencia, CA  United States VIPER liquid rocket engine reusable rocket engine [35]
Asp high test peroxide reusable monopropellant rocket engine
Ad Astra Rocket Company Webster, TX  United States VASIMR magnetoplasma may be used for future Mars missions
Enpulsion GmbH Wiener Neustadt, Austria Propulsion Systems for Cubesats, Small Sats, and Medium/Large Satellites Field Emission Electric Propulsion Enpulsion is commercializing a technology that has been developed for ESA science missions for more than 10 years.[36]
PLD Space  Spain TREPEL family used on Miura Rockets
Reaction Engines Ltd. Oxfordshire, England  United Kingdom SABRE combined cycle precooled jet engine and closed cycle rocket engine planned to be used in Skylon
SpaceDev Poway, CA  United States hybrid rocket used on SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo
SpaceX Hawthorne, California,  United States Merlin / Raptor / Draco / Kestrel liquid rocket engine used on Falcon Rockets
TGV Rockets Washington, DC,  United States PF-X / Electrocycle liquid rocket engine used on customer vehicles
ArianeGroup Vernon,  France Vinci / Viking / Vulcain / HM7B liquid rocket engine used on Ariane rockets
NPO Energomash  Russia liquid rocket engine used on R-7, Molniya, Soyuz, Energia, Zenit, Atlas III, Atlas V, Angara, Antares
KBKhA  Russia liquid rocket engine used on Soyuz, Proton, Energia
KBKhM  Russia liquid rocket engine used on Vostok, Voskhod, Zenit, Soyuz, Progress, Salyut 1, Salyut 4, Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Mir Core Module, Zvezda, GSLV Mk I
NIIMash  Russia liquid rocket engine used on Almaz, Buran, Briz-M
TsNIIMash  Russia used on STEX
Kuznetsov Design Bureau  Russia liquid rocket engine used on N1, Soyuz-2-1v, Antares
OKB Fakel  Russia Hall-effect thruster used on SMART-1, LS-1300
Proton-PM  Russia liquid rocket engine used on Proton, Angara
Keldysh Research Center  Russia
Voronezh Mechanical Plant  Russia liquid rocket engine used on Vostok, Voskhod, Molniya, Soyuz, Proton, Energia, Luna
Yuzhnoye Design Office / Yuzhmash  Ukraine used on

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Comtech To Shut Down AeroAstro Small-satellite Operation -". 16 July 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  4. ^ "Dhruva Space". Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
  5. ^ "In-Space". Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  6. ^ "ISIS". Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  7. ^ Werner, Debra (13 August 2012). "Builder Packing More Capability into Small Satellites". Space News. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
  8. ^ "Inside Planet Labs' new satellite manufacturing site". TechCrunch. 14 September 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  9. ^ Clark, Stephen (22 April 2020). "SpaceX's Starlink network surpasses 400-satellite mark after successful launch". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  10. ^ Patel, Neel. "SpaceX now operates the world's biggest commercial satellite network". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  11. ^ "TRANSPACE". Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  12. ^ "TRW Plays Key Role in Aerospace". Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  13. ^ "Xovian". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  14. ^ Howell, Elizabeth (16 May 2019). "It Only Took A Few Months For This Satellite To Get Ready For Space". Forbes. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  15. ^ "YORK SPACE SYSTEMS". 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  16. ^ "Iran unveils three new home-made satellites". Retrieved 26 September 2013.
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ "BDLI manufacturer for space". Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  20. ^
  21. ^ "Kongsberg Gruppen". Retrieved 26 September 2013.
  22. ^ "Rocketstar Robotics". Retrieved 26 September 2013.
  23. ^
  24. ^ "Astro Aerospace". Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  25. ^ "TRANSPACE". Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  26. ^ "RadioBro". Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  27. ^
  28. ^ "SolarMEMS". Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  29. ^
  30. ^ "Busek Home Page". Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  31. ^ Chadenedes, Mark de; Ahern, Drew; Cho, Jin-Hoon; Park, Sung-Jin; Eden, J.; Burton, Rodney; Yoon, Je Kwon; Garrett, Stephen; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Raja, Laxminarayan; Laystrom-Woodard, Julia; Carroll, David; Benavides, Gabriel. 46th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi:10.2514/6.2010-6616. Retrieved 11 August 2017 – via American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
  32. ^ Laystrom, Julia; Burton, Rodney; Benavides, Gabriel. "Geometric Optimization of a Coaxial Pulsed Plasma Thruster". doi:10.2514/6.2003-5025. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  33. ^ "CU Aerospace - Small-Satellite Propulsion". 10 August 2014. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  34. ^
  35. ^