List of spaceflight records

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The first space rendezvous was accomplished by Gemini 6A and Gemini 7 in 1965.

This is a list of spaceflight records. Most of these records relate to human spaceflights, but some unmanned and animal records are included.

First independent sub-orbital and orbital human spaceflight by country[edit]

Country Mission Crew Spacecraft Launch vehicle Date Type
Soviet Union USSR[1] Vostok 1[1] Yuri Gagarin[1] Vostok 3KA[1] Vostok-K[1] 12 April 1961[1] Orbital[1]
United States USA[2] Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7)[2] Alan Shepard[2] Mercury Spacecraft No.7[2] Mercury-Redstone[2] 5 May 1961[2] Sub-orbital[2]
United States USA[3] Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7)[3] John Glenn[3] Mercury Spacecraft No.13[3] Atlas LV-3B 20 February 1962[3] Orbital[3]
China China[4] Shenzhou 5[4] Yang Liwei[4] Shenzhou spacecraft[4] Long March 2F[4] 15 October 2003[4] Orbital[4]

Most spaceflights[edit]

Note: While Young has made six spaceflights, he was launched seven times if his moon ascent on Apollo 16 is counted.

* Dual citizen.

Duration of spaceflight[edit]

Most time in space[edit]

Ten longest human space flights[edit]

# Time in space Crew Country Launch date (Launch craft) Landing date (Landing craft) Space station or mission type
1 437.7 days[12][13] Valeri Polyakov[12]  Russia 1994-01-09 (Soyuz TM-18) 1995-03-22 (Soyuz TM-20) Mir[12]
2 379.6 days[13] Sergei Avdeyev[13]  Russia 1998-08-13 (Soyuz TM-28) 1999-08-28 (Soyuz TM-29) Mir[13]
3 365.0 days[13] Vladimir Titov[13]
Musa Manarov[13]
 Soviet Union 1987-12-21 (Soyuz TM-4) 1988-12-21 (Soyuz TM-6) Mir[13]
4 340.4 days Mikhail Korniyenko
Scott Kelly
 Russia
 United States
2015-03-27 (Soyuz TMA-16M) 2016-03-01 (Soyuz TMA-18M) International Space Station
5 326.5 days[14] Yuri Romanenko[14]  Soviet Union 1987-02-05 (Soyuz TM-2) 1987-12-29 (Soyuz TM-3) Mir[14]
6 311.8 days[15] Sergei Krikalev[15]  Soviet Union/ Russia 1991-05-18 (Soyuz TM-12) 1992-03-25 (Soyuz TM-13) Mir[15]
7 240.9 days[16] Valeri Polyakov[16]  Soviet Union 1988-08-29 (Soyuz TM-6) 1989-04-7 (Soyuz TM-7) Mir[16]
8 237.0 days[17] Leonid Kizim[17]
Vladimir Solovyov[17]
Oleg Atkov[17]
 Soviet Union 1984-02-08 (Soyuz T-10) 1984-10-02 (Soyuz T-11) Salyut 7[17]
9 215.4 days[18] Mikhail Tyurin[18]
Michael López-Alegría[18]
 Russia
 United States
2006-09-18 (Soyuz TMA-9) 2007-04-21 (Soyuz TMA-9) International Space Station[18]
10 211.4 days[19] Anatoli Berezovoy[19]
Valentin Lebedev[19]
 Soviet Union 1982-05-13 (Soyuz T-5)[19] 1982-12-10 (Soyuz T-7)[19] Salyut 7[19]

Longest single flight by a woman[edit]

Longest continuous occupation of space[edit]

  • An international partnership consisting of Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan and the member states of the European Space Agency have jointly maintained a continuous human presence in space since 31 October 2000 when Soyuz TM-31 was launched. Two days later it docked with the International Space Station.[5][24] Since then space has been continuously occupied for 15 years, 331 days.[5]

Longest continuous occupation of a spacecraft[edit]

  • The International Space Station has been continuously occupied since 2 November 2000 (15 years, 329 days).[5][24] It broke the record of 9 years 358 days of the Soviet/Russian Space Station Mir on 23 October 2010.[24]

Longest solo flight[edit]

Longest time on lunar surface[edit]

  • Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt of the Apollo 17 mission stayed for 74 hours 59 minutes 40 seconds (over 3 days) on the lunar surface after they landed on 11 December 1972.[26] They performed three EVAs (extra-vehicular activity) totaling 22 hours 3 minutes, 57 seconds (as commanders were always the first one out of the LM and the last to get back in, Cernan's EVA time was slightly longer).[26]

Longest time in lunar orbit[edit]

  • Ronald Evans of Apollo 17 mission stayed in lunar orbit for 6 days and 4 hours (148 hours),[27] however for the solo portion of that flight around the Moon, T.K. Mattingly on Apollo 16 spent 1 hour 38 minutes longer than Evans' solo duration.

Animal records[edit]

Further information: Animals in space

First animals in space[edit]

  • Fruit flies launched by the United States in 1947 aboard a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 68 miles (108 km).[28] Also the first animals to safely return from space.[28]

First animal in orbit[edit]

  • Laika was a Soviet female canine launched on 3 November 1957 on Sputnik 2. The technology to deorbit had not yet been developed, so there was no expectation for survival. She died several hours into flight. Belka and Strelka were the first to successfully return to Earth from orbit.

Longest canine single flight[edit]

  • Veterok (Ветерок, "Little Wind") and Ugolyok (Уголёк, "Ember") were launched on 22 February 1966 on board Cosmos 110 and spent 22 days in orbit before landing on 16 March.

First animals beyond low–Earth orbit[edit]

  • An assortment of animals including a pair of Russian tortoises, as well as wine flies and mealworms launched with a number of other biological specimens including seeds and bacteria on a circumlunar mission aboard the Zond 5 spacecraft.[28] It was launched by a Proton-K rocket on 15 September 1968.[28] The capsule came within 2000 km of the moon and returned to Earth, the first spacecraft in history to return safely to Earth from the moon.[28]

Speed and altitude[edit]

Farthest humans from Earth[edit]

  • Apollo 13 crew; Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, Jack Swigert while passing over the far side of the moon at an altitude of 254 km (158 mi) from the lunar surface, were 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth.[29] This record breaking distance was reached at 0:21 UTC on 15 April 1970.[29]

Highest altitude for manned non-lunar mission[edit]

Fastest[edit]

Age records[edit]

Earliest-born to reach space (suborbital flight)[edit]

Earliest-born to go into space (orbital flight)[edit]

Youngest (age during space flight)[edit]

  • Man – Gherman Titov, aged 25 years, on Vostok 2 on 6 August 1961.[5]
  • Woman – Valentina Tereshkova, aged 26 years on Vostok 6 on 16–19 June 1963.

Oldest (age during space flight)[edit]

Spacewalks[edit]

Most spacewalks[edit]

  • Man – Anatoly Solovyev, 16 spacewalks for total of 77 hours, 41 minutes (which is also the duration record).[5]
  • Woman – Sunita Williams, 7 spacewalks for a total time of 50 hours and 40 minutes.[31]

Most spacewalks during a single mission[edit]

Human spaceflight firsts[edit]

First Person(s) Mission Country Date
Person to reach space
Person in orbit
Gagarin in Sweden-2.jpg
Yuri Gagarin Vostok 1[32] Soviet Union USSR 12 April 1961
Person to make suborbital flight
Person to land (splashdown)
in a spacecraft after spaceflight
thus achieving the first true complete human spaceflight
Person to pilot a craft in space
Alan Shepard Freedom 7 United States USA 5 May 1961
Person in space for over 24 hours
Multiple orbits spaceflight
Gherman Titov Vostok 2 Soviet Union USSR 6 August 1961 –
7 August 1961
Person to land (splashdown)
in a spacecraft after orbital flight
John Glenn Friendship 7 United States USA 20 February 1962
Group flight
Adjacent orbits
Spacecraft-to-spacecraft communications
Andrian Nikolayev
Pavel Popovich
Vostok 3
Vostok 4
Soviet Union USSR 12 August 1962 –
15 August 1962
Woman in space
Civilian in space
Valentina Tereshkova Vostok 6 Soviet Union USSR 16 June 1963 –
19 June 1963
Spaceflight (suborbital) by winged spacecraft Joe Walker X-15 Flight 90 United States USA 19 July 1963
Person to enter space twice (suborbital flights above 100 km) Joe Walker X-15 Flights
90 and 91
United States USA 22 August 1963
Three-person spaceflight, single spacecraft
Persons to land in a spacecraft on hard ground
Manned flight without pressurized spacesuits
Vladimir Komarov
Konstantin Feoktistov
Boris Yegorov
Voskhod 1[32] Soviet Union USSR 12 October 1964 –
13 October 1964
Spacewalk
Berkut spacesuit at Air and Space - back removed.jpg
Alexey Leonov Voskhod 2[32] Soviet Union USSR 18 March 1965
Orbital maneuvers (change orbit) Gus Grissom, John W. Young Gemini 3[32] United States USA 23 March 1965
Person to fly two orbital spaceflights Gordon Cooper Faith 7
Gemini 5
United States USA 15 May 1963 –
16 May 1963;
21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
Persons to spend one week in space Gordon Cooper
Pete Conrad
Gemini 5 United States USA 21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
Space rendezvous
(orbital maneuver and station-keeping)
Four people in space
Frank Borman, Jim Lovell
Walter Schirra, Thomas Stafford
Gemini 7
Gemini 6A[32]
United States USA 15 December 1965 –
16 December 1965
Space docking
Gemini 8 docking.jpg
Neil Armstrong
David Scott
Gemini 8 and Agena[32] United States USA 16 March 1966
Multiple rendezvous John W. Young
Michael Collins
Gemini 10 with Agena 10 and Agena 8 United States USA 19 July 1966;
20 July 1966
Spaceflight fatality (during landing) Vladimir Komarov Soyuz 1 Soviet Union USSR 23 April 1967 –
24 April 1967
Person to complete three spaceflights Walter Schirra Apollo 7
(previous flights Mercury-Atlas 8, Gemini 6A)
United States USA 22 October 1968
Persons to leave Low Earth orbit (LEO)
Persons to escape Earth's influence
Persons to enter lunar orbit
Apollo8 Prime Crew2.jpg
Frank Borman
Jim Lovell
Bill Anders
Apollo 8 United States USA 24 December 1968 –
25 December 1968
Space docking of two manned spacecraft
Dual spacewalk
Сrew transfer (Khrunov, Yeliseyev)
Vladimir Shatalov
Boris Volynov
Aleksei Yeliseyev
Yevgeny Khrunov
Soyuz 4
Soyuz 5
Soviet Union USSR 16 January 1969
Solo flight around the Moon John Young Apollo 10 United States USA 22 May 1969
Moon landing/
planetary surface EVA
Aldrin Apollo 11 original.jpg
Neil Armstrong
Buzz Aldrin
Apollo 11 United States USA 20 July 1969
Time five people are in space Georgi Shonin, Valeri Kubasov
Anatoly Filipchenko, Vladislav Volkov, Viktor Gorbatko
Soyuz 6
Soyuz 7
Soviet Union USSR 12 October 1969 –
13 October 1969
Triple spaceflight
Seven-people in space
Shonin, Kubasov
Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko
Vladimir Shatalov, Aleksei Yeliseyev
Soyuz 6
Soyuz 7
Soyuz 8
Soviet Union USSR 13 October 1969 –
16 October 1969
Person to complete four spaceflights James A. Lovell Apollo 13
(previous flights Gemini 7, Gemini 12, Apollo 8)
United States USA 17 April 1970
Person to fly two lunar flights
Person to complete two flights beyond low–Earth orbit
James A. Lovell Apollo 13
(previous flight Apollo 8)
United States USA 11 April 1970 –
17 April 1970
People to spend two weeks in space
Night launch
Andrian Nikolayev
Vitali Sevastyanov
Soyuz 9 Soviet Union USSR 1 June 1970 –
19 June 1970
People to EVA out of
sight of their spacecraft
Alan Shepard
Edgar Mitchell
Apollo 14 United States USA 6 February 1971
Docking with space station
Night landing
Vladimir Shatalov
Aleksei Yeliseyev
Nikolai Rukavishnikov
Soyuz 10
docked with Salyut 1 (soft dock)
Soviet Union USSR 22 April 1971 –
24 April 1971
Manned space station
Salyut 4 and Soyuz drawing.svg
Georgi Dobrovolski
Viktor Patsayev
Vladislav Volkov
Soyuz 11
docked with Salyut 1
Soviet Union USSR 7 June 1971 –
29 June 1971
In-space fatalities Georgi Dobrovolski
Viktor Patsayev
Vladislav Volkov
Soyuz 11 Soviet Union USSR 29 June 1971
People to travel in a wheeled vehicle on a planetary body other than Earth.Scott on the Rover - GPN-2000-001306 Dave Scott
Jim Irwin
Apollo 15 United States USA 31 July 1971–
2 August 1971
EVA in outer space outside Low Earth orbit (trans-Earth trajectory) Al Worden Apollo 15 United States USA 5 August 1971
Person twice in lunar orbit
(during separate lunar expeditions)
John W. Young Apollo 16 (previous flight Apollo 10) United States USA 16 April 1972 –
27 April 1972
People in orbit for four weeks Pete Conrad
Joseph Kerwin
Paul Weitz
Skylab 2 United States USA 25 May 1973 –
22 June 1973
People in orbit for eight weeks Alan Bean
Jack Lousma
Owen Garriott
Skylab 3 United States USA 28 July 1973 –
25 September 1973
People in orbit for 12 weeks Gerald Carr
William Pogue
Edward Gibson
Skylab 4 United States USA 16 November 1973 –
8 February 1974
Spaceflight aborted during liftoff
(at 145 kilometers (90 mi) altitude)
Re-entry (emergency) with 20g acceleration
Vasily Lazarev, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 18a Soviet Union USSR 5 April 1975
Crew to visit occupied space station Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 27 visits Salyut 6 EO-1 crew Soviet Union USSR 10 January 1978 –
16 January 1978
People in orbit 19 weeks
(4 months)
Vladimir Kovalyonok, Aleksandr Ivanchenkov Salyut 6 EO-2, Soyuz 29-Soyuz 31 Soviet Union USSR 15 June 1978 –
2 November 1978
People in orbit 26 weeks
(6 months)
Leonid Popov, Valery Ryumin Salyut 6 EO-4, Soyuz 35-Soyuz 37 Soviet Union USSR 9 April 1980 –
11 October 1980
Spaceflight (orbital) by winged spacecraft John W. Young
Robert L. Crippen
STS-1 United States USA 12 April 1981
Person to fly four different types of spacecraft John W. Young STS-1 (previous flights in Gemini, Apollo, and Lunar Module) United States USA 12 April 1981
Person to complete five spaceflights John W. Young STS-1
(previous flights Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16)
United States USA 14 April 1981
Four-person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
Vance Brand, Robert F. Overmyer
Joseph P. Allen, William B. Lenoir
STS-5 United States USA 11 November 1982 –
16 November 1982
Five-person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
Robert L. Crippen, Frederick H. Hauck
John M. Fabian, Sally K. Ride, Norman E. Thagard
STS-7 United States USA 18 June 1983 –
24 June 1983
Six-person spaceflight,
single spacecraft
John W. Young, Brewster H. Shaw, Owen K. Garriott, Robert A. Parker, Byron K. LichtenbergUSA
Ulf MerboldGermany (European Space Agency)
STS-9 United States USA
Germany West Germany
28 November 1983 –
8 December 1983
Person to complete six spaceflights John W. Young STS-9
(previous flights Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16, STS-1)
United States USA 8 December 1983
Untethered spacewalk
EVAtion - GPN-2000-001087.jpg
Bruce McCandless II STS-41-B United States USA 7 February 1984
Time eight people in space, no docking Oleg Atkov, Leonid Kizim, Vladimir SolovyovUSSR
Vance D. Brand, Robert L. Gibson, Bruce McCandless II, Ronald McNair, Robert L. StewartUSA
Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10, STS-41-B Soviet Union USSR
United States USA
8 February 1984 –
11 February 1984
Time 11 people in space, no docking Oleg Atkov, Leonid D. Kizim, Yury Malyshev, Vladimir Solovyov, Gennady StrekalovUSSR
Robert L. Crippen, Terry J. Hart, George Nelson, Francis Scobee, James van HoftenUSA
Rakesh SharmaIndia
STS-41-C, Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11 Soviet Union USSR
United States USA
India India
6 April 1984 –
11 April 1984
People to complete four spacewalks during the same mission Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov Salyut 7 Soviet Union USSR 26 April –
18 May 1984
Spacewalk by woman Svetlana Savitskaya Soyuz T-12 Soviet Union USSR 25 July 1984
People in orbit 33 weeks
(7 months)
Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov, Oleg Atkov Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11 Soviet Union USSR 8 February 1984 –
2 October 1984
Seven person spaceflight, single spacecraft
STS41G-19-006.jpg
Robert L. Crippen, Jon A. McBride, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride, David C. Leestma, Paul D. Scully-PowerUSA
Marc GarneauCanada
STS-41-G United States USA
Canada Canada
5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Time two women in space Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride STS-41-G United States USA 5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Partial crew exchange at a space station Alexander Volkov, Vladimir Vasyutin replace Vladimir Dzhanibekov Soyuz T-14, Salyut 7 Soviet Union USSR 17 September 1985 –
26 September 1985
Eight person spaceflight, single spacecraft
STS 61-A crew portrait onboard Challenger middeck.jpg
Henry W. Hartsfield, Steven R. Nagel, Bonnie J. Dunbar, James F. Buchli, Guion S. BlufordUSA
Reinhard Furrer, Ernst MesserschmidWest Germany
Wubbo OckelsNetherlands (European Space Agency)
STS-61-A United States USA
West Germany West Germany
Netherlands Netherlands
30 October 1985 –
6 November 1985
Fatalities during launch Francis "Dick" Scobee
Michael J. Smith
Ellison Onizuka
Judith Resnik
Ronald McNair
Sharon Christa McAuliffe
Gregory Jarvis
STS-51-L United States USA 28 January 1986
Space station to space station flight/
Space station to space station return flight/
Expedition on two space stations
Leonid Kizim
Vladimir Solovyov
Soyuz T-15 from Mir to Salyut 7 back to Mir[17] Soviet Union USSR 15 March 1986 –
16 July 1986
Complete crew exchange at a space station Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov replace Yuri Romanenko, Alexander Alexandrov Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-3, at Mir Soviet Union USSR 21 December 1987 –
29 December 1987
People in orbit 52 weeks
(one year)
Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov Mir EO-3, Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-6 Soviet Union USSR 21 December 1987 –
21 December 1988
Time 12 people in space; no docking Shuttle: Vance Brand, Samuel Durrance, Guy S. Gardner, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, John M. Lounge, Ronald Parise, Robert A. ParkerUSA
Mir: Gennady Manakov, Gennady StrekalovRussia

Soyuz and Soyuz/Mir:
Musa Manarov, Viktor AfanasyevRussia
Toyohiro AkiyamaJapan

STS-35, Mir EO-7, Soyuz TM-10-Soyuz TM-11 Soviet Union USSR
United States USA
Japan Japan
2 December 1990 –
10 December 1990
Time three women in space Millie Hughes-Fulford, Tamara E. Jernigan, M. Rhea Seddon STS-40 United States USA 5 June 1991 –
14 June 1991
Three-person spacewalk
Three Crew Members Capture Intelsat VI - GPN-2000-001035.jpg
Pierre J. Thuot, Richard J. Hieb
Thomas D. Akers
STS-49 United States USA 13 May 1992
Time 13 people in space; no docking Shuttle: Steve Oswald, William Gregory, John Grunsfeld, Wendy Lawrence, Tammy Jernigan, Sam Durrance, Ron PariseUSA
Mir: Aleksandr Viktorenko, Yelena Kondakova, Valeriy PolyakovRussia

Soyuz/Mir:
Vladimir Dezhurov, Gennady StrekalovRussia
Norman E. ThagardUSA

STS-67, Mir, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-21 United States USA
Russia Russia
14 March 1995 –
18 March 1995
Time ten people in one spacecraft; docking
Crewmembers of STS-71, Mir-18 and Mir-19 Pose for Inflight Picture - GPN-2002-000061 rotated.jpg
Robert L. Gibson, Charles J. Precourt, Ellen S. Baker, Bonnie J. Dunbar, Gregory J. Harbaugh Norman E. ThagardUSA
Anatoly Solovyev, Nikolai Budarin, Vladimir Dezhurov, Gennady StrekalovRussia
STS-71, Mir, Soyuz TM-21 United States USA
Russia Russia
29 June 1995 –
4 July 1995
Space tourist Dennis Tito Soyuz TM-32/31, ISS EP-1 United States USA
Russia Russia
April 28, 2001 –
May 6, 2001
Person to complete seven trips to space Jerry L. Ross STS-110
(previous flights STS-61B, STS-27, STS-37, STS-55, STS-74, STS-88)
United States USA 19 April 2002
Privately funded human space flight (suborbital)
Kluft-photo-SS1-landing-June-2004-Img 1406c.jpg
Mike Melvill SpaceShipOne flight 15P United States USA 21 June 2004
Time 13 people in one spacecraft; docking[5]
STS-127 group picture 03.jpg
Michael Barratt, Mark L. Polansky, Douglas G. Hurley, Christopher J. Cassidy, Thomas H. Marshburn, David Wolf, Timothy KopraUSA
Gennady Padalka, Roman RomanenkoRussia
Robert Thirsk, Julie PayetteCanada
Frank De WinneBelgium (European Space Agency)
Koichi WakataJapan
ISS, Soyuz TMA-14, Soyuz TMA-15, STS-127 United States USA
Russia Russia
Canada Canada
Belgium Belgium
Japan Japan
17 July 2009
Four women in space at once
STS-131 and Expedition 23 Group Portrait.jpg
Shuttle: Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie WilsonUSA
Naoko YamazakiJapan
ISS: Tracy Caldwell DysonUSA
STS-131
ISS Expedition 23
United States USA
Japan Japan
5 April 2010 –
20 April 2010

Total time in space[edit]

The following is a list of the 50 space travelers with the most total time in space, as of 7 September 2016.[33] Travelers currently in space are ranked by total time in space of their completed missions only.

Color-key:

  •   Currently in space
  •   Active
  •   Retired
  •   Deceased
Rank Person Days Flights Status Nationality
1 Gennady Padalka 878.480 5 Active  Russia
2 Yuri Malenchenko 827.389 6 Active  Russia
3 Sergei Krikalev 803.371 6 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
4 Alexandr Kaleri 769.276 5 Active  Russia
5 Sergei Avdeyev 747.593 3 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
6 Valeriy Polyakov 678.690 2 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
7 Anatoly Solovyev 651.117 5 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
8 Viktor Afanasyev 555.772 4 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
9 Yury Usachev 552.773 4 Retired  Russia
10 Sergey Volkov 547.931 3 Active  Russia
11 Pavel Vinogradov 546.939 3 Active  Russia
12 Musa Manarov 541.021 2 Retired  Soviet Union ( Azerbaijan)
13 Fyodor Yurchikhin 537.106 4 Active  Russia
14 Jeffrey Williams 534.116 4 Active  United States
15 Oleg Kononenko 533.000 3 Active  Russia
16 Mikhail Tyurin 532.118 4 Active  Russia
17 Oleg Kotov 526.211 3 Active  Russia
18 Scott Kelly 520.440 4 Retired[34]  United States
19 Mikhail Borisovich Korniyenko 516.417 2 Active  Russia
20 Alexander Viktorenko 489.066 4 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
21 Nikolai Budarin 444.060 3 Retired  Russia
22 Yuri Romanenko 430.765 3 Retired  Soviet Union
23 Alexander Volkov 391.495 3 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
24 Yuri I. Onufrienko 389.282 2 Retired  Russia
25 Vladimir G. Titov 387.036 4 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
26 Vasili Tsibliyev 381.662 2 Retired  Russia
27 Valery G. Korzun 381.653 2 Retired  Russia
28 Michael Fincke 381.633 3 Active  United States
29 Peggy A. Whitson 376.738 2 Active  United States
30 Leonid Kizim 374.749 3 Deceased  Soviet Union
31 Michael Foale 373.763 6 Retired  United States /  United Kingdom[35]
32 Aleksandr Serebrov 372.954 4 Deceased  Soviet Union /  Russia
33 Valeri Ryumin 371.725 4 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
34 Donald Pettit 369.696 3 Active  United States
35 Anton Shkaplerov 365.001 2 Active  Russia
36 Vladimir Solovyov 361.952 2 Retired  Soviet Union
37 Thomas Reiter 350.239 2 Retired  Germany
38 Koichi Wakata 347.356 4 Active  Japan
39 Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Skvortsov 345.267 2 Active  Russia
40 Talgat Musabayev 341.408 3 Retired  Russia
41 Maksim Surayev 334.508 2 Active  Russia
42 Roman Romanenko 333.459 2 Active  Russia
43 Vladimir Lyakhov 333.324 3 Retired  Soviet Union
44 Oleg Skripochka 331.521 2 Active  Russia
45 Aleksandr Samokutyayev 331.474 2 Active  Russia
46 Yuri P. Gidzenko 329.950 3 Retired  Russia
47 Sunita Williams 321.719 2 Active  United States
48 Gennadi Manakov 309.889 2 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
49 Aleksandr P. Aleksandrov 309.758 2 Retired  Soviet Union
50 Gennady Strekalov 268.938 5 Deceased  Soviet Union /  Russia

Total human spaceflight time by country[edit]

Total Human Spaceflight statistics by nation [36] [37]
Nation Total persons Total person flights Total in orbit (@ update)* Total person days*+  % of Total person days
TOTAL 546 1231 3 48782.45 -
1
 Russia
 Soviet Union
121 260 1 26018.29
0.533353493654238
 United States 336 841 1 18387.67
0.376932039838386
38 61 - 2436.31
0.0499422803401046
 Japan 11 19 1 1152.37
0.0236227232378399
 Germany 11 15 - 658.97
0.0135083578731047
 Italy 7 11 - 627.21
0.0128573809739635
 Canada 9 17 - 506.14
0.0103755288768247
 France 9 17 - 432.18
0.00885937294419929
 Netherlands 2 3 - 210.69
0.00431897669614521
 Belgium 2 3 - 207.65
0.00425675316127355
 United Kingdom 2 2 - 193.81
0.00397291077696655
 China 10 12 - 100.81
0.00206655875858687
  Switzerland 1 4 - 42.50
0.000871257608041606
 Sweden 1 2 - 26.73
0.000548025491181441
 Spain 1 2 - 18.78
0.000385014350066064
 Israel 1 1 - 15.93
0.000326563232659746
 Ukraine 1 1 - 15.69
0.0003216377366484
 Bulgaria 2 2 - 11.80
0.000241861783909725
 South Korea 1 1 - 10.88
0.00022311358088388
 Malaysia 1 1 - 10.88
0.00022311358088388
 South Africa 1 1 - 9.89
0.000202785233183875
 Brazil 1 1 - 9.89
0.000202671348883034
 Kazakhstan 1 1 - 9.84
0.000201774510013916
 Denmark 1 1 - 9.84
0.000201774510013916
 Afghanistan 1 1 - 8.85
0.000181446162313911
 Syria 1 1 - 7.96
0.000163196203104243
 Czechoslovakia 1 1 - 7.93
0.000162512897299201
 Austria 1 1 - 7.93
0.000162455955148781
 Poland 1 1 - 7.92
0.00016231359977273
 Slovakia 1 1 - 7.91
0.0001622281865471
 India 1 1 - 7.90
0.000162000417945419
 Hungary 1 1 - 7.86
0.000161217463377142
 Cuba 1 1 - 7.86
0.000161188992301931
 Mongolia 1 1 - 7.86
0.000161174756764326
 Vietnam 1 1 - 7.86
0.000161174756764326
 Romania 1 1 - 7.86
0.000161160521226721
 Saudi Arabia 1 1 - 7.07
0.000144889301744154
 Mexico 1 1 - 6.88
0.000140988764440372
Table data accurate as of 2016-09-26 00:01 UTC
Astronauts currently in space:
United States Kathleen Hallisey "Kate" Rubins
Japan Takuya Onishi
Russia Anatoli Alekseyevich Ivanishin
Crew Vehicles currently in space:
Soyuz MS
* includes those in orbit at time table was updated
+TOTAL person days in orbit will not match the sum of the totals for individual nations as some individuals are dual citizens (based solely on those identified as such by spacefacts.de - see table references).

Notable unmanned spaceflights[edit]

In reference to: Spacecraft Event Origin Date
Earth MW 18014 (A-4(V-2)) First rocket to reach space (suborbital flight). Germany Germany 20 June 1944
Earth V-2 No. 20 First living organisms (fruit flies) in space (suborbital flight) successfully recovered. United States USA 20 February 1947
Earth R-1V[38] First mammals (dogs) in space (suborbital flight) successfully recovered. Soviet Union USSR 22 July 1951
Earth Sputnik 1 First satellite in orbit.[32] Soviet Union USSR 4 October 1957
Earth Sputnik 2 First animal in orbit, Laika the dog. Soviet Union USSR 3 November 1957
Earth Vanguard 1 Oldest satellite still in orbit— expected to stay in orbit 240 years. Ceased transmission in May 1964. United States USA 17 March 1958
Earth Pioneer 1 Failed to reach the moon as intended, but reached a record–setting distance of 113,800 km from Earth. United States USA 11 October 1958
Earth Jupiter AM-13 First monkey in space. United States USA 13 December 1958
Earth Luna 1 First spacecraft to reach Earth's escape velocity. Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959
Moon Luna 1 First flyby, dist. of 5,995 km. Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959
Sun Luna 1 First spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959
Moon Luna 2 First impact.[32] Soviet Union USSR 14 September 1959
Moon Luna 3 First image of lunar far-side.[32] Soviet Union USSR 7 October 1959
Earth Discoverer 13 First satellite recovered from orbit.[32] United States USA 11 August 1960
Earth Korabl-Sputnik 2 First living beings recovered from orbit.[39] Soviet Union USSR 19 August 1960
Venus Venera 1 First flyby, dist. of 100,000 km (lost communication contact before).[32] Soviet Union USSR 19 May 1961
Venus Mariner 2 First planetary flyby, dist. of 34,762 km (with communication contact). United States USA 14 December 1962
Earth Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1 Oldest spacecraft still in use, 50 yrs as of 2015 United States USA 6 May 1965
Mars Mariner 4 First Mars flyby, first planetary imaging, dist. of 9,846 km. United States USA 14 July 1965
Earth Astérix First satellite launched independently by a nation other than the US or USSR (other nations had previously flown satellites launched on American rockets). France France 26 November 1965
Moon Luna 9 First soft landing, first pictures from lunar surface.[32] Soviet Union USSR 3 February 1966
Venus Venera 3 First impact.[32] Soviet Union USSR 1 March 1966
Moon Luna 10 First orbiter.[32] Soviet Union USSR 3 April 1966
Docking Cosmos 186, Cosmos 188 First automated docking of unmanned spacecraft. Soviet Union USSR 30 October 1967
Moon Zond 5 First to circle the Moon and return to land on Earth.
First animals to circle the Moon.
Soviet Union USSR 15 September 1968
Moon Luna 16 First automated sample return. Soviet Union USSR 24 September 1970
Moon Luna 17 First automated roving vehicle – Lunokhod 1. Soviet Union USSR 17 November 1970
Venus Venera 7 First soft landing. Soviet Union USSR 15 December 1970
Mars Mariner 9 First orbiter. United States USA 14 November 1971
Mars Mars 2 First impact. Soviet Union USSR 27 November 1971
Mars Mars 3 First soft landing, telemetry signal for 20 seconds
before transmissions ceased.
Soviet Union USSR 2 December 1971
Sun Pioneer 10 First spacecraft to reach Sun's escape velocity. United States USA 3 March 1972
Jupiter Pioneer 10 First flyby, dist. of 132,000 km. United States USA 4 December 1973
Mercury Mariner 10 First flyby, dist. of 703 km. United States USA 29 March 1974
Venus Venera 9 First orbiter.
First surface-level imaging of another planet.
Soviet Union USSR 22 October 1975
Sun Helios 2 Highest velocity of a spacecraft relative to the sun, 252,792 km/h.
Closest ever approach to the sun at a record distance of 0.29 AU (43 million km), slightly inside the orbit of Mercury. Record still unbeaten as of November 2009 but to be beaten by the future Solar Orbiter probe (0.23 AU / 33 million km).
West Germany West Germany
United States USA
17 April 1976
Mars Viking 1 First surface-level imaging of Mars. United States USA 20 July 1976
Saturn Pioneer 11 First flyby, dist. of 21,000 km. United States USA 1 September 1979
Venus Venera 13 First sound record on another planet. Soviet Union USSR 1 March 1982
Trans-Neptunian region Pioneer 10 First spacecraft to travel past the orbit of Neptune, the furthest major planet from the sun. United States USA 13 June 1983
Venus Vega 1 First helium balloon atmospheric probe. Soviet Union USSR 11 June 1985
Comet Giacobini-Zinner International Cometary Explorer (ICE) First flyby through comet tail, dist. of 7,800 km, no pictures. United States USA 11 September 1985
Uranus Voyager 2 First flyby, dist. of 81,500 km. United States USA 24 January 1986
Comet Halley Vega 1 First comet flyby with pictures returned, dist. of 8,890 km. Soviet Union USSR 6 March 1986
Orbital Spaceplane Buran First fully automated orbital flight of a spaceplane (with airstrip landing). Soviet Union USSR 15 November 1988
Phobos Phobos 2 First flyby, dist. of 860 km. Soviet Union USSR 21 February 1989
Neptune Voyager 2 First flyby, dist. of 40,000 km. United States USA 25 August 1989
951 Gaspra Galileo First asteroid flyby, dist. of 1,600 km. United States USA 29 October 1991
Jupiter Galileo probe First impact. United States USA 7 December 1995
Jupiter Galileo First orbiter. United States USA 8 December 1995
Mars Mars Pathfinder First automated roving vehicle – Sojourner. United States USA 4 July 1997
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid orbiter. United States USA 14 February 2000
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid soft landing. United States USA 12 February 2001
Saturn Cassini orbiter First orbiter. Not the esa logo.svg ESA
United States USA
1 July 2004
Solar wind Genesis First sample return from farther than the Moon. United States USA 8 September 2004
Titan Huygens probe First soft landing. Not the esa logo.svg ESA
United States USA
14 January 2005
Comet Tempel 1 Deep Impact First comet impact. United States USA 4 July 2005
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa First asteroid ascent.
First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cutoff.
Japan Japan 19 November 2005
81P/Wild Stardust First sample return from comet. United States USA 15 January 2006
Farthest distance from Earth Voyager 1 At greatest distance from Earth, 19.7 billion km. United States USA As of August 2015[40]
Longest time in operation Voyager 2 Longest operating space probe, since August 1977 United States USA As of 2015
Earth to Venus trajectory IKAROS First interplanetary solar sail. Japan Japan set sail on 10 June 2010
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa First sample return from asteroid. Japan Japan 13 June 2010
Mercury MESSENGER First orbiter. United States USA 17 March 2011
Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point Chang'e 2 First object to reach the L2 Lagrangian point directly from lunar orbit.[41] China China 25 August 2011
International Space Station SpaceX Dragon First commercial spacecraft to berth with the International Space Station. United States SpaceX 25 May 2012
Interstellar Medium Voyager 1 First spacecraft to cross the Heliopause, exiting the Heliosphere and entering interstellar space. United States USA 25 August 2012
4179 Toutatis Chang'e 2 First object to reach asteroid directly from Sun-Earth Langrangian point.
First probe to explore both Moon and asteroid.[42]
China China 13 December 2012
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta First comet orbiter.[43] Not the esa logo.svg ESA
6 August 2014
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Philae First comet soft landing.[44] Not the esa logo.svg ESA
12 November 2014
Ceres Dawn First dwarf planet orbiter.[45] United States USA
6 March 2015
Mars Opportunity Longest distance traveled on surface of another world - 26.219 miles (42.195 km) (marathon-length)[46] United States USA
23 March 2015 (ongoing)
Mercury MESSENGER First impact.[47] United States USA 30 April 2015
Pluto New Horizons First flyby of Pluto, Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx, first up-close images of Pluto system, first images of Pluto and Charon's surfaces, first spacecraft to explore the Kuiper belt. United States USA 14 July 2015
All 9 planets in the pre-IAU 2006 redefinition version of the Solar System All United States spacecrafts including New Horizons With the New Horizons flyby of Pluto, the United States is the first nation to have its space probes to explore all 9 planets in the pre-2006 IAU redefinition version of the Solar System. United States USA 14 July 2015
Earth Juno Fastest man-made object relative to Earth, ca. 265,000 km/h.[48] United States USA 4 July 2016

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Gebhardt, Chris (12 April 2011). "Anniversaries: 50 years of human spaceflight – 30 years for Shuttle". NASASpaceFlight (not affiliated with NASA). Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7)". NASA. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7)". NASA. 20 November 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Making History: China's First Human Spaceflight". Space.com. 28 September 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wall, Mike (11 March 2015). "The Most Extreme Human Spaceflight Records". Space.com. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  6. ^ "Astronaut Biography". NASA. 
  7. ^ a b NASA (2005). "Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev Biography". NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  8. ^ NASA (2005). "Krikalev Sets Time-in-Space Record". NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  9. ^ Thompson, Curtiss (29 June 2015). "Russian Cosmonaut Sets Record For Most Time Spent In Space". Penny4NASA. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  10. ^ Russian astronaut record-breaker Padalka returns to Earth, BBC News, 12 September 2015
  11. ^ NASA. "Peggy A. Whitson (Ph.D.)". Biographical Data. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  12. ^ a b c Schwirtz, Michael (2009-03-30). "Staying Put on Earth, Taking a Step to Mars". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Pearlman, Robert (26 March 2015). "One Year in Space: A History of Ultra-Long Missions Off Planet Earth". Space.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c Carroll, Michael (2015). Living Among Giants: Exploring and Settling the Outer Solar System. Springer. p. 195. ISBN 3319106732. 
  15. ^ a b c Leary, Warren (4 Feb 1994). "Man in the News: Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev; Symbol of New Cooperation". Cape Canaveral: New York Times. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  16. ^ a b c Dunn, Marcia (28 Dec 1997). "Mischief a Specialty for Mir's Doctor in Residence". Associated Press. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f Pearlman, Robert (17 June 2010). "Cosmonaut Leonid Kizim, Who Visited 2 Space Stations in 1 Mission, Dies". Space.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  18. ^ a b c d Wenz, John (27 March 2015). "5 Things You Must Know About Scott Kelly's Year in Space". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f "Soviet-era cosmonaut Anatoly Berezovoy, commanded Salyut space station, dies". collectSpace. 20 Sep 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  20. ^ 3 space station astronauts safely return to Earth, Associated Press, IVAN SEKRETAREVS
  21. ^ Italian Astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti Sets Record for Women in Space, Robert Z. Pearlman, NBC News, Jun 9 2015
  22. ^ Tariq Malik (2007). "Orbital Champ: ISS Astronaut Sets New U.S. Spacewalk Record". Space.com. 
  23. ^ "Astronaut Bio: Sunita Williams (5/2008)". NASA Logo National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  24. ^ a b c "10 Years and Counting". NASA. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  25. ^ "Astronautic World Records: Spacecraft with one astronaut - General category". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale.  This only counts the duration of solo flight within a mission, so a longer mission with solo flight, such as Apollo 17 at 12d+13h duration is surpassed because the solo undocked duration was only 3d+7h.)
  26. ^ a b "Mission Report: Apollo 17 - The Most Productive Lunar Expedition" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  27. ^ "Ronal Evans Biographical Data". NASA. April 1990. Retrieved 21 June 2015. longest time in lunar orbit, 147 hours, 48 minutes 
  28. ^ a b c d e Tate, Karl. "Cosmic Menagerie: A History of Animals in Space (Infographic)" (infographic). Space.com. Retrieved June 28, 2014. 
  29. ^ a b "Apollo 13 The Seventh Mission: The Third Lunar Landing Attempt 11 April–17 April 1970". NASA. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  30. ^ Dumoulin, Jim (August 25, 2000), NASA Project Gemini-XI, retrieved April 12, 2010 
  31. ^ "most spacewalk". 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "MAJOR SPACE "FIRSTS'-AN AMERICAN ASSESSMENT" (PDF). Flight. 91 (3028): 459. 1967-03-23. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  33. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts (sorted by "Time in Space")". spacefacts.de.  The current missions are listed but not included in day count.
  34. ^ Northon, Karen (2016-03-11). "Astronaut Scott Kelly to Retire from NASA in April". NASA. Retrieved 2016-06-01. 
  35. ^ Michael Foale holds dual U.S./British citizenship.
  36. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts flown in space (in alphabetical order)". spacefacts.de.  The alphabetical list of astronauts provides the "Total Persons" "Total Person Flights" as well as the "Total person days", excepting the time of astronauts currently in orbit
  37. ^ "Manned spaceflights". spacefacts.de.  The flight list allows is searched to determine which flight is in orbit, and when it reached orbit. This allows determination of "Total in orbit (@ update) and update the "Total person days" accordingly.
  38. ^ "R-1V". Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  39. ^ Asif A. Siddiqi. "Challenge to Apollo" (PDF). NASA. ; see page. 253
  40. ^ "Where are the Voyagers?". 
  41. ^ "Ching'e 2 to reaches liberation point 2". 2011-08-27. 
  42. ^ "China's space probe flies by asteroid Toutatis". Chinadaily.com.cn.16 December 2012.
  43. ^ [1]
  44. ^ [2]
  45. ^ [3]
  46. ^ NASA's Opportunity rover celebrates Mars marathon milestone
  47. ^ [4]
  48. ^ http://www.space.com/33336-nasa-juno-probe-jupiter-orbit-tonight.html

External links[edit]