List of special elections to the United States Senate

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Special elections to the United States Senate are held to fill the vacancies that occur when a Senator dies or resigns before the completion of his or her six-year term. Winners of these special elections typically serve the remainder of the term of the senator who has caused the vacancy. General elections to the U.S. Congress are held in November of even-numbered years. New Congresses convened on March 4 of the following year until 1934, and since then, new Congresses have begun on January 3 of the following year.

Because of the cost of conducting a special election,[1] most states hold elections to fill a Senate vacancy in conjunction with the next general election, while some states, such as Alabama[2] and Texas, allow for special elections to the Senate to be held before a general election (similar to special elections to the U.S. House of Representatives, though special elections are on a state-wide basis). Special election can alter the balance of power in the Senate,[3] as can temporary appointments.

Appointments by Governors[edit]

Prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1913, most state legislatures elected senators, as well as replacement senators. Some states empowered their governor to make temporary appointments until the legislature was in session.

The Seventeenth Amendment now requires the governor of the state to issue a writ for a special election to fill a vacant Senate seat, but no timeframe is specified in the provision for when the special election is to be held. State legislatures may also empower the governor to fill a vacancy by a temporary appointment, until the winner of the special election is certified. The constitution does not set out how the temporary appointee is to be selected (eg., there is no federal requirement that the appointee be of the same party, as happened most recently in New Jersey in 2013), and the state legislature can legislate as to how the replacement is to be selected.

As of 2010, Oregon, and Wisconsin do not empower their governor to make temporary appointments and require special elections; and Oklahoma permits its governor to appoint only the winner of a special election.[4] Between 2004 and 2008, Massachusetts denied the power of the governor to appoint a replacement; in 2004, the Democratic-controlled legislature wanted to limit the power of the Republican governor (Gov. Mitt Romney) to appoint a successor to then-Sen. John Kerry if he were elected president that year. With the death of Sen. Ted Kennedy, the legislature chose to revert the rules to allow the Democratic governor (Gov. Deval Patrick) to appoint a temporary replacement Senator while awaiting the results of a special election to complete the existing term. Hawaii allows the Governor to appoint an interim Senator "who serves until the next regularly-scheduled general election, chosen from a list of three prospective appointees that the prior incumbent's political party submits". Alaska in 2004 enacted conflicting legislation and a separate ballot referendum law that took effect on the same day. It is uncertain if the Alaska governor may successfully appoint an interim Senator to serve until the mandated special election occurs 60 to 90 days after the vacancy happens. The ballot-approved law fails to specifically authorize the governor to appoint, though the legislative law does.[4]

List of special elections[edit]

This is an incomplete list of special elections to the United States Senate. The list only includes vacancies that were filled by special election. Not included are those situations in which vacancies were only filled by appointment or general election, or new seats.

This list is sorted by the date of the special election.

State (Class) Original Appointee Election winner
Senator Vacancy event Senator Date Senator Date ↑
Virginia
(Class 1)
William Grayson (A) Died March 12, 1790 John Walker (P) March 31, 1790 James Monroe (A) November 9, 1790
New Jersey
(Class 2)
William Paterson (P) Resigned November 13, 1790 No appointment Philemon Dickinson (P) November 23, 1790
Connecticut
(Class 3)
William S. Johnson (P) Resigned March 4, 1791 No appointment Roger Sherman (P) June 13, 1791
Virginia
(Class 2)
Richard Henry Lee (A) Resigned October 8, 1792. No appointment John Taylor (A) October 18, 1792
Maryland
(Class 1)
Charles Carroll (P) Resigned November 30, 1792 No appointment Richard Potts (P) January 10, 1793
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Vacant Failure to elect successor prior to March 4, 1791 No appointment Albert Gallatin (A) February 28, 1793
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Roger Sherman (P) Died July 23, 1793 No appointment Stephen Mitchell (P) December 2, 1793
New York
(Class 3)
Rufus King (F) Resigned May 23, 1796 No appointment John Laurance (F) November 9, 1796
New York
(Class 1)
Philip Schuyler (F) Resigned January 3, 1798 No appointment John Sloss Hobart (F) January 11, 1798
New York
(Class 1)
John Sloss Hobart (F) Resigned April 16, 1798 William North (F) May 5, 1798 James Watson (F) August 17, 1798
New York
(Class 1)
James Watson (F) Resigned March 19, 1800 No appointment Gouverneur Morris (F) April 3, 1800
New York
(Class 3)
John Laurance (F) Resigned August 1800 No appointment John Armstrong Jr. (DR) November 6, 1800
New York
(Class 3)
John Armstrong Jr. (DR) Resigned February 5, 1802 No appointment DeWitt Clinton (DR) February 9, 1802
New York
(Class 1)
Theodorus Bailey (DR) Resigned January 16, 1804 No appointment John Armstrong Jr. (DR) February 3, 1804
New York
(Class 3)
John Armstrong Jr. (DR) Resigned February 23, 1804 No appointment John Smith (DR) February 3, 1804
New York
(Class 1)
John Armstrong Jr. (DR) Resigned June 30, 1804 No appointment Samuel L. Mitchill (DR) November 9, 1804
Alabama
(Class 3)
John Williams Walker (DR) Resigned December 12, 1822 No appointment William Kelly (DR) December 12, 1822
Delaware
(Class 1)
Caesar A. Rodney (DR) Resigned January 29, 1823 No appointment Thomas Clayton (F) January 8, 1824
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Henry Johnson (DR) Resigned May 27, 1824 No appointment Charles Bouligny (DR) November 19, 1824
Illinois
(Class 3)
Ninian Edwards (DR) Resigned March 4, 1824 No appointment John McLean (DR) November 24, 1824
Georgia
(Class 2)
Nicholas Ware (DR) Died January 29, 1823 No appointment Thomas W. Cobb (F) December 6, 1824
Virginia
(Class 2)
John Taylor (DR) Died August 21, 1824 No appointment Littleton Tazewell (DR) December 7, 1824
Alabama
(Class 3)
Henry H. Chambers (DR) Died January 24, 1826 Israel Pickens (DR) February 17, 1826 John McKinley (J) November 27, 1826
New York
(Class 1)
Martin Van Buren (DR) Resigned December 20, 1828 No appointment Charles E. Dudley (D) January 15, 1829
New York
(Class 3)
William L. Marcy (D) Resigned January 1, 1833 No appointment Silas Wright (D) January 4, 1833
Alabama
(Class 3)
John McKinley (D) Resigned April 22, 1837 Clement Comer Clay (D) June 19, 1837 Arthur P. Bagby (D) November 24, 1841
Arkansas
(Class 2)
William S. Fulton (D) Died August 15, 1844 No appointment Chester Ashley (D) November 8, 1844
New York
(Class 1)
Nathaniel P. Tallmadge (W) Resigned June 17, 1844 Daniel S. Dickinson (D) November 30, 1844 Daniel S. Dickinson (D) January 18, 1845
New York
(Class 3)
Silas Wright (D) Resigned November 26, 1844 Henry A. Foster (D) November 30, 1844 John Adams Dix (D) January 18, 1845
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Chester Ashley (D) Died April 29, 1848 William K. Sebastian (D) May 12, 1848 William K. Sebastian (D) November 17, 1848
Alabama
(Class 2)
Dixon Hall Lewis (D) Died October 24, 1848 Benjamin Fitzpatrick (D) November 25, 1848 Jeremiah Clemens (D) November 30, 1849
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
James Bell (R) Died May 26, 1857 No appointment Daniel Clark (R) June 26, 1857
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Vacant Failure to elect successor prior to March 4, 1857 No appointment Andrew Johnson (D) October 8, 1857
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Andrew Butler Died May 25, 1857 No appointment James Henry Hammond (D) December 6, 1857
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Asa Biggs Resigned May 5, 1858
Appointed judge of US District Court of North Carolina
Thomas Lanier Clingman (D) May 7, 1858 Thomas Lanier Clingman (D) November 23, 1858
California
(Class 3)
David C. Broderick (D) Died September 16, 1859 Henry P. Haun (D) November 3, 1859 Milton S. Latham (D) January 11, 1860
California
(Class 1)
Eugene Casserly (D) Resigned November 29, 1873 No appointment John S. Hager (D) December 23, 1873
Alabama
(Class 3)
George S. Houston (D) Died December 31, 1879 Luke Pryor (D) January 7, 1880 James L. Pugh (D) November 24, 1880
New York
(Class 1)
Thomas C. Platt (R) Resigned May 16, 1881 No appointment Warner Miller (R) July 16, 1881
New York
(Class 3)
Roscoe Conkling (R) Resigned May 16, 1881 No appointment Elbridge G. Lapham (R) July 22, 1881
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Augustus Garland (D) Resigned March 6, 1885 No appointment James H. Berry (D) March 20, 1885
California
(Class 1)
John Franklin Miller (R) Died March 8, 1886 George Hearst (D) March 23, 1886 Abram P. Williams (R) August 4, 1886
California
(Class 1)
George Hearst (D) Died February 28, 1891 No appointment Charles N. Felton (R) March 19, 1891
California
(Class 3)
Leland Stanford (R) Died June 21, 1893 George C. Perkins (R) July 26, 1893 George C. Perkins (R) January 22, 1895
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Edward C. Walthall (D) Resigned January 24, 1894[n 1] No appointment Anselm J. McLaurin (D) February 7, 1894
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Edward D. White (D) Resigned March 12, 1894
Appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court
Newton C. Blanchard (D) March 12, 1894 Newton C. Blanchard (D) May 16, 1894
Georgia
(Class 2)
Alfred H. Colquitt (D) Died March 26, 1894 Patrick Walsh (D) April 2, 1894 Patrick Walsh (D) November 2, 1894
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Zebulon B. Vance Died April 14, 1894 Thomas J. Jarvis (D) April 19, 1894 Jeter C. Pritchard (D) January 23, 1895
Michigan
(Class 1)
Francis B. Stockbridge (R) Died April 3, 1894 John Patton Jr. (R) May 5, 1894 Julius C. Burrows (R) January 24, 1895
Montana
(Class 1)
Vacant Failure to elect No appointment Lee Mantle (R) January 16, 1895
Wyoming
(Class 1)
Vacant Failure to elect No appointment Clarence D. Clark (R) January 23, 1895
Washington
(Class 1)
Vacant Failure to elect No appointment John L. Wilson (R) February 19, 1895
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Edward C. Walthall (D) Died April 21, 1898 William V. Sullivan (D) May 31, 1898 William V. Sullivan (D) January 16, 1900
Alabama
(Class 3)
Edmund Pettus (D) Died July 27, 1907 No appointment Joseph F. Johnston (D) August 6, 1907
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Philander C. Knox (R) Resigned March 4, 1909 No appointment George T. Oliver (R) March 17, 1909
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Anselm J. McLaurin (D) Died December 22, 1909 James Gordon (D) December 27, 1909 LeRoy Percy (D) February 22, 1910
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Samuel D. McEnery (D) Died June 28, 1910 John Thornton (D) August 27, 1910 John Thornton (D) December 6, 1910
North Dakota
(Class 3)
Martin N. Johnson (R) Died October 12, 1909 Fountain L. Thompson (D) November 10, 1909 Asle Gronna (R) February 1, 1911
William E. Purcell (D) February 1, 1910
West Virginia
(Class 2)
Stephen Benton Elkins (R) Died January 4, 1911 Davis Elkins (R) January 9, 1911 Clarence Wayland Watson (D) February 1, 1911
Iowa
(Class 3)
Jonathan P. Dolliver (R) Died October 15, 1910 Lafayette Young (R) November 4, 1910 William S. Kenyon (R) April 11, 1911
Georgia
(Class 3)
Alexander S. Clay (D) Died November 13, 1910 Joseph M. Terrell (D) November 17, 1910 M. Hoke Smith (D) July 12, 1911
Maine
(Class 2)
William P. Frye (R) Died August 8, 1911 No appointment Obadiah Gardner (D) April 2, 1912
Colorado
(Class 3)
Charles J. Hughes Jr. (D) Died January 11, 1911 No appointment Charles S. Thomas (D) January 15, 1913
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Robert Love Taylor (D) Died March 31, 1912 Newell Sanders (R) April 11, 1912 William R. Webb (D) January 23, 1913
Nevada
(Class 1)
George S. Nixon (R) Died June 5, 1912 William A. Massey (R) July 1, 1912 Key Pittman (D) January 23, 1913
Texas
(Class 2)
Joseph Weldon Bailey (D) Resigned January 3, 1913 Rienzi Melville Johnston (D) January 4, 1913 Morris Sheppard (D) January 23, 1913
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Jeff Davis Died January 3, 1913 John N. Heiskell (D) January 6, 1913 William Marmaduke Kavanaugh (D) January 23, 1913
Idaho
(Class 3)
Weldon B. Heyburn (R) Died October 17, 1912 Kirtland Irving Perky (D) November 18, 1912 James H. Brady (R) January 24, 1913
Arkansas
(Class 2)
John N. Heiskell (D) did not run for election to the term ending March 4, 1919 No appointment Joseph Taylor Robinson (D) January 27, 1913
Illinois
(Class 3)
William Lorimer (R) Election declared invalid
July 13, 1912
No appointment Lawrence Yates Sherman (R) March 26, 1913
Seventeenth Amendment ratified April 8, 1913. All subsequent Senate elections are by popular vote.
Maryland
(Class 1)
Isidor Rayner (D) Died November 25, 1912 William P. Jackson (R) November 29, 1912 Blair Lee (D) November 4, 1913
Alabama
(Class 3)
Joseph F. Johnston (D) Died August 8, 1913 No appointment Francis S. White (D) May 11, 1914
Georgia
(Class 2)
Augustus Octavius Bacon (D) Died February 14, 1914 William S. West (D) March 1, 1914 Thomas W. Hardwick (D) November 3, 1914
Kentucky
(Class 3)
William O. Bradley (R) Died May 23, 1914 Johnson N. Camden (D) June 16, 1914 Johnson N. Camden (D) November 3, 1914
Maine
(Class 2)
Edwin C. Burleigh (R) Died June 16, 1916 No appointment Bert M. Fernald (R) September 11, 1916
Indiana
(Class 3)
Benjamin F. Shively (D) Died March 14, 1916 Thomas Taggart (D) March 20, 1916 James Eli Watson (R) November 7, 1916
Arkansas
(Class 3)
James Paul Clarke (D) Died October 1, 1916 No appointment William F. Kirby (D) November 7, 1916
Wisconsin
(Class 3)
Paul O. Husting (D) Died October 21, 1917 No appointment Irvine L. Lenroot (R) April 18, 1918
Oregon
(Class 2)
Harry Lane (D) Died May 23, 1917 Charles L. McNary (R) May 29, 1917 Frederick W. Mulkey (R) November 5, 1918
Nevada
(Class 3)
Francis G. Newlands (D) Died December 24, 1917 Charles B. Henderson (D) January 12, 1918 Charles B. Henderson (D) November 5, 1918
Idaho
(Class 3)
James H. Brady (R) Died January 13, 1918 John F. Nugent (D) January 22, 1918 John F. Nugent (D) November 5, 1918
New Jersey
(Class 2)
William Hughes (D) Died January 30, 1918 David Baird (R) February 23, 1918 David Baird (R) November 5, 1918
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Robert F. Broussard (D) Died April 12, 1918 Walter Guion (D) April 22, 1918 Edward Gay (D) November 5, 1918
Missouri
(Class 3)
William J. Stone (D) Died April 14, 1918 Xenophon P. Wilfley (D) April 30, 1918 Selden P. Spencer (R) November 5, 1918
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Benjamin R. Tillman (D) Died July 3, 1918 Christie Benet (D) July 6, 1918 William P. Pollock (D) November 5, 1918
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Jacob H. Gallinger (R) Died August 17, 1918 Irving W. Drew (R) September 2, 1918 George H. Moses (R) November 5, 1918
Virginia
(Class 2)
Thomas S. Martin (D) Died November 12, 1919 Carter Glass (D) November 18, 1919 Carter Glass (D) November 2, 1920
Alabama
(Class 3)
John H. Bankhead (D) Died March 1, 1920 B. B. Comer (D) March 5, 1920 J. Thomas Heflin (D) November 2, 1920
Delaware
(Class 1)
Josiah O. Wolcott (D) Resigned July 2, 1921 T. Coleman du Pont (R) July 7, 1921 Thomas F. Bayard Jr. (D) November 7, 1922
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Philander C. Knox (R) Died October 12, 1921 William E. Crow (R) October 17, 1921 – August 2, 1922 (died) David A. Reed (R) November 7, 1922
David A. Reed (R) August 8, 1922
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Boies Penrose (R) Died December 31, 1921 George W. Pepper (R) January 9, 1922 George W. Pepper (R) November 7, 1922
Iowa
(Class 2)
William S. Kenyon (R) Resigned February 24, 1922 Charles A. Rawson (R) February 24, 1922 Smith W. Brookhart (R) November 7, 1922
Georgia
(Class 3)
Thomas E. Watson (D) Died September 26, 1922 Rebecca Felton (D) November 21, 1922 Walter F. George (D) November 7, 1922
Colorado
(Class 2)
Samuel D. Nicholson (R) Died March 24, 1923 Alva B. Adams (D) May 17, 1923 Rice W. Means (R) November 4, 1924
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Frank B. Brandegee (R) Died October 14, 1924 No appointment Hiram Bingham III (R) December 16, 1924
Arkansas
(Class 3)
Thaddeus H. Caraway (D) Died November 6, 1931 Hattie Caraway (D) December 9, 1931 Hattie Caraway (D) January 12, 1932
New Jersey
(Class 2)
Dwight Morrow (R) Died October 5, 1931 William Warren Barbour (R) December 1, 1931 William Warren Barbour (R) November 2, 1932
Georgia
(Class 3)
William J. Harris (D) Died April 18, 1932 John S. Cohen (D) April 25, 1932 Richard Russell Jr. (D) November 2, 1932
Vermont
(Class 3)
Porter H. Dale (R) Died October 6, 1933 Ernest W. Gibson (R) November 21, 1933 Ernest W. Gibson (R) January 16, 1934
Montana
(Class 3)
Thomas J. Walsh (D) Died March 4, 1933 John E. Erickson (D) March 13, 1933 James E. Murray (D) November 6, 1934
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Cordell Hull (D) Resigned March 4, 1933
Appointed U.S. Secretary of State
Nathan L. Bachman (D) March 4, 1933 Nathan L. Bachman (D) November 6, 1934
New Mexico
(Class 2)
Sam G. Bratton (D) Resigned June 24, 1933
Appointed as a federal judge
Carl A. Hatch (D) October 10, 1933 Carl A. Hatch (D) November 6, 1934
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Huey Long (D) Died September 10, 1935 Rose Long (D) January 31, 1936 Rose Long (D) April 21, 1936
Arkansas
(Class 3)
Joseph T. Robinson (D) Died July 14, 1937 No appointment John E. Miller (D) November 15, 1937
Alabama
(Class 3)
Hugo Black (D) Resigned August 19, 1937
Appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court
Dixie Graves (D) August 20, 1937 Lister Hill (D) April 26, 1938
Lister Hill (D) January 11, 1938
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Nathan L. Bachman (D) Died April 23, 1937 George L. Berry (D) May 6, 1937 Tom Stewart (D) November 8, 1938
New York
(Class 1)
Royal Copeland (D) Died June 17, 1938 No appointment James M. Mead (D) November 8, 1938
South Dakota
(Class 3)
Herbert E. Hitchcock (D) Resigned November 8, 1938 No appointment Gladys Pyle (R) November 9, 1938
Texas
(Class 2)
Morris Sheppard (D) Died April 9, 1941 Andrew Houston (D) April 21, 1941 W. Lee O'Daniel (D) June 28, 1941
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Pat Harrison (D) Died June 22, 1941 James Eastland (D) June 30, 1941 Wall Doxey (D) September 23, 1941
South Carolina
(Class 2)
James F. Byrnes (D) Resigned July 17, 1941
Appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court
Alva Lumpkin (D) July 22, 1941 Burnet Maybank (D) November 5, 1941
Roger Peace (D) August 5, 1941
Colorado
(Class 3)
Alva B. Adams (D) Died December 1, 1941 Eugene Millikin (R) December 20, 1941 Eugene Millikin (R) November 3, 1942
West Virginia
(Class 2)
Matthew M. Neely (D) Resigned January 12, 1941
Elected Governor of West Virginia
Joseph Rosier (D) January 13, 1941 Hugh Ike Shott (R) November 3, 1942
Nevada
(Class 1)
Key Pittman (D) Died November 10, 1940 Berkeley Bunker (D)[n 2] November 27, 1940 James G. Scrugham (D) November 3, 1942
Indiana
(Class 3)
Frederick Van Nuys (D) Died January 25, 1944 Samuel D. Jackson (D) January 28, 1944 William E. Jenner (R) November 7, 1944
Oregon
(Class 2)
Charles L. McNary (R) Died February 25, 1944 Guy Cordon (R) March 4, 1944 Guy Cordon (R) November 7, 1944
New Jersey
(Class 1)
William Warren Barbour (R) Died November 22, 1943 Arthur Walsh (D) November 26, 1943 H. Alexander Smith (R) November 7, 1944
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R) Resigned February 3, 1944
Military deployment
Sinclair Weeks (R) February 8, 1944 Leverett Saltonstall (R) November 7, 1944
Alabama
(Class 2)
John H. Bankhead II (D) Died June 12, 1946 George R. Swift (D) June 15, 1946 John Sparkman (D) November 5, 1946
California
(Class 1)
Hiram Johnson (R) Died August 6, 1945 William F. Knowland (R) August 26, 1945 William F. Knowland (R) November 5, 1946
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Francis T. Maloney (D) Died January 16, 1945 Thomas C. Hart (R) February 15, 1945 Raymond E. Baldwin (R) November 5, 1946
Idaho
(Class 2)
John W. Thomas (R) Died November 10, 1945 Charles C. Gossett (D) November 17, 1945 Henry Dworshak (R) November 5, 1946
Kentucky
(Class 2)
Happy Chandler (D) Resigned November 1, 1945
Appointed Commissioner of Baseball
William A. Stanfill (R) November 19, 1945 John Sherman Cooper (R) November 5, 1946
North Dakota
(Class 2)
John Moses (D) Died March 3, 1945 Milton R. Young (R) March 12, 1945 Milton R. Young (R) November 5, 1946
Ohio
(Class 1)
Harold H. Burton (R) Resigned September 30, 1945
Appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court
James W. Huffman (D) October 8, 1945 Kingsley A. Taft (R) November 5, 1946
Virginia
(Class 2)
Carter Glass (D) Died May 28, 1946 Thomas G. Burch (D) May 31, 1946 A. Willis Robertson (D) November 5, 1946
Mississippi
(Class 1)
Theodore G. Bilbo (D) Died August 24, 1947 No appointment John C. Stennis (D) November 5, 1947
South Dakota
(Class 2)
Harlan J. Bushfield (R) Died September 27, 1948 Vera C. Bushfield (R) October 6, 1948 Karl E. Mundt (R) December 31, 1948
New York
(Class 3)
Robert F. Wagner (D) Resigned June 28, 1949 John Foster Dulles (R) July 7, 1949 Herbert Lehman (D) November 8, 1949
North Carolina
(Class 2)
J. Melville Broughton (D) Died March 6, 1949 Frank Porter Graham (D) March 29, 1949 Willis Smith (D) November 7, 1950
Kansas
(Class 3)
Clyde M. Reed (R) Died November 8, 1949 Harry Darby (R) December 2, 1949 Frank Carlson (R) November 7, 1950
Idaho
(Class 2)
Bert H. Miller (D) Died October 8, 1949 Henry Dworshak (R) October 14, 1949 Henry Dworshak (R) November 7, 1950
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Brien McMahon (D) Died July 28, 1952 William A. Purtell (R) August 29, 1952 Prescott Bush (R) November 4, 1952
Kentucky
(Class 2)
Virgil Chapman (D) Died March 8, 1951 Thomas R. Underwood (D) March 19, 1951 John Sherman Cooper (R) November 4, 1952
Michigan
(Class 1)
Arthur Vandenberg (R) Died April 18, 1951 Blair Moody (D) April 23, 1951 Charles E. Potter (R) November 4, 1952
Nebraska
(Class 2)
Kenneth S. Wherry (R) Died November 29, 1951 Fred A. Seaton (R) December 10, 1951 Dwight Griswold (R) November 4, 1952
California
(Class 3)
Richard Nixon (R) Resigned January 1, 1953
Elected Vice President
Thomas Kuchel (R) January 2, 1953 Thomas Kuchel (R) November 2, 1954
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Clyde R. Hoey (D) Died May 12, 1954 Sam Ervin (D) June 5, 1954 Sam Ervin (D) November 2, 1954
Nebraska
(Class 1)
Hugh Butler (R) Died July 1, 1954 Sam Reynolds (R) July 7, 1954 Roman Hruska (R) November 2, 1954
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Willis Smith (D) Died June 26, 1953 Alton Lennon (D) July 15, 1953 Kerr Scott (D) November 2, 1954
Nebraska
(Class 2)
Dwight Griswold (R) Died April 12, 1954 Eva Bowring (R) April 26, 1954 Hazel Abel (R) November 2, 1954
Kentucky
(Class 2)
Alben Barkley (D) Died April 30, 1956 Robert Humphreys (D) June 25, 1956 John Sherman Cooper (R) November 6, 1956
West Virginia
(Class 1)
Harley M. Kilgore (D) Died February 28, 1956 William Laird III (D) March 13, 1956 W. Chapman Revercomb (R) November 6, 1956
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Strom Thurmond (D) Resigned April 4, 1956 Thomas A. Wofford (D) April 5, 1956 Strom Thurmond (D) November 6, 1956
Texas
(Class 1)
Price Daniel (D) Resigned January 14, 1957
Elected Governor of Texas
William Blakley (D) January 17, 1957 Ralph Yarborough (D) April 2, 1957
Wisconsin
(Class 1)
Joseph McCarthy (R) Died May 2, 1957 No appointment William Proxmire (D) August 27, 1957
West Virginia
(Class 1)
Matthew M. Neely (D) Died January 18, 1958 John D. Hoblitzell Jr. (R) January 25, 1958 Jennings Randolph (D) November 4, 1958
North Carolina
(Class 2)
W. Kerr Scott (D) Died April 16, 1958 B. Everett Jordan (D) April 19, 1958 B. Everett Jordan (D) November 4, 1958
North Dakota
(Class 1)
William Langer (R) Died November 8, 1959 Clarence Brunsdale (R) November 19, 1959 Quentin Burdick (D-NPL) June 28, 1960
Missouri
(Class 1)
Thomas C. Hennings Jr. (D) Died September 13, 1960 Edward V. Long (D) September 23, 1960 Edward V. Long (D) November 8, 1960
Oregon
(Class 2)
Richard Neuberger (D) Died March 9, 1960 Hall Lusk (D) March 16, 1960 Maurine Neuberger (D) November 8, 1960
Texas
(Class 2)
Lyndon Johnson (D) Resigned January 3, 1961
Elected Vice President
William Blakley (D) January 3, 1961 John Tower (R) May 27, 1961
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
John F. Kennedy (D) Resigned December 22, 1960
Elected President
Benjamin Smith II (D) December 27, 1960 Ted Kennedy (D) November 6, 1962
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Styles Bridges (R) Died November 26, 1961 Maurice Murphy Jr. (R) December 7, 1961 Thomas McIntyre (D) November 6, 1962
Kansas
(Class 2)
Andrew Schoeppel (R) Died January 21, 1962 James Pearson (R) January 31, 1962 James Pearson (R) November 6, 1962
Idaho
(Class 2)
Henry Dworshak (R) Died July 23, 1962 Len Jordan (R) August 6, 1962 Len Jordan (R) November 6, 1962
Wyoming
(Class 2)
Senator-elected Edwin Keith Thomson (R) died December 9, 1960 John J. Hickey (D) January 3, 1961 Milward L. Simpson (R) November 6, 1962
New Mexico
(Class 1)
Dennis Chavez (D) Died November 18, 1962 Edwin Mechem (R) November 30, 1962 Joseph Montoya (D) November 3, 1964
Oklahoma
(Class 2)
Robert S. Kerr (D) Died January 1, 1963 J. Howard Edmondson (D) January 6, 1963 Fred R. Harris (D) November 3, 1964
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Estes Kefauver (D) Died August 10, 1963 Herbert Walters (D) August 20, 1963 Ross Bass (D) November 3, 1964
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Olin Johnston (D) Died April 18, 1965 Donald Russell (D) April 22, 1965 Ernest Hollings (D) November 8, 1966
Virginia
(Class 1)
Harry F. Byrd Sr. (D) Resigned November 10, 1965 Harry F. Byrd Jr. (D) November 12, 1965 Harry F. Byrd Jr. (D) November 8, 1966
Alaska
(Class 2)
Bob Bartlett (D) Died December 11, 1968 Ted Stevens (R) December 24, 1968 Ted Stevens (R) November 3, 1970
Illinois
(Class 3)
Everett Dirksen (R) Died September 7, 1969 Ralph Tyler Smith (R) September 17, 1969 Adlai Stevenson III (D) November 3, 1970
Vermont
(Class 1)
Winston L. Prouty (R) Died September 10, 1971 Robert Stafford (R) September 16, 1971 Robert Stafford (R) January 7, 1972
Georgia
(Class 2)
Richard Russell (D) Died January 21, 1971 David Gambrell (D) February 1, 1971 Sam Nunn (D) November 7, 1972
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Norris H. Cotton (R) Resigned December 31, 1974 Louis C. Wyman (R) December 31, 1974 Seat declared vacant
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Seat declared vacant from beginning of term, January 3, 1975, due to a failure to elect a senator[n 3] Norris H. Cotton (R) August 8, 1975 John A. Durkin (D) September 16, 1975
Minnesota
(Class 1)
Hubert Humphrey (D) Died January 13, 1978 Muriel Humphrey (D) January 25, 1978 David Durenberger (R) November 7, 1978
Alabama
(Class 3)
James Allen (D) Died June 1, 1978 Maryon Allen (D) June 8, 1978 Donald Stewart (D) November 7, 1978
Washington
(Class 1)
Henry "Scoop" Jackson (D) Died September 1, 1983 Dan Evans (R) September 8, 1983 Dan Evans (R) November 8, 1983
North Carolina
(Class 3)
John East (R) Died June 29, 1986 Jim Broyhill (R) July 14, 1986 Terry Sanford (D) November 4, 1986
Indiana
(Class 3)
Dan Quayle (R) Resigned January 3, 1989
Elected Vice President
Dan Coats (R) January 3, 1989 Dan Coats (R) November 6, 1990
Hawaii
(Class 1)
Spark Matsunaga (D) Died April 15, 1990 Daniel Akaka (D) May 16, 1990 Daniel Akaka (D) November 6, 1990
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
John Heinz III (R) Died April 4, 1991 Harris Wofford (D) May 9, 1991 Harris Wofford (D) November 5, 1991
California
(Class 1)
Pete Wilson (R) Resigned January 7, 1991
Elected Governor of California
John Seymour (R) January 10, 1991 Dianne Feinstein (D) November 3, 1992
North Dakota
(Class 1)
Quentin Burdick (D) Died September 8, 1992 Jocelyn Burdick (D) September 16, 1992 Kent Conrad (D) December 4, 1992
Texas
(Class 1)
Lloyd Bentsen (D) Resigned January 20, 1993
Appointed U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Bob Krueger (D) January 21, 1993 Kay Bailey Hutchison (R) June 5, 1993
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Al Gore (D) Resigned January 3, 1993
Elected Vice President
Harlan Mathews (D) January 3, 1993 Fred Thompson (R) November 8, 1994
Oklahoma
(Class 2)
David Boren (D) Resigned November 15, 1994 No appointment Jim Inhofe (R) November 8, 1994
Oregon
(Class 3)
Bob Packwood (R) Resigned October 1, 1995 No appointment Ron Wyden (D) January 30, 1996
Kansas
(Class 3)
Bob Dole (R) Resigned June 11, 1996
To run for President
Sheila Frahm (R) June 11, 1996 Sam Brownback (R) November 5, 1996
Georgia
(Class 3)
Paul Coverdell (R) Died July 18, 2000 Zell Miller (D) July 24, 2000 Zell Miller (D) November 7, 2000
Missouri
(Class 1)
Mel Carnahan (D) died October 16, 2000 and was elected posthumously Jean Carnahan (D) January 3, 2001 Jim Talent (R) November 5, 2002
Wyoming
(Class 1)
Craig Thomas (R) Died June 4, 2007 John Barrasso (R) June 25, 2007 John Barrasso (R) November 4, 2008
Mississippi
(Class 1)
Trent Lott (R) Resigned December 18, 2007 Roger Wicker (R) December 31, 2007 Roger Wicker (R) November 4, 2008
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Ted Kennedy (D) Died August 25, 2009 Paul G. Kirk (D) September 24, 2009 Scott Brown (R) January 19, 2010
Illinois
(Class 3)
Barack Obama (D) Resigned November 16, 2008
Elected President
Roland Burris (D) January 12, 2009 Mark Kirk (R) November 2, 2010
Delaware
(Class 2)
Joe Biden (D) Resigned January 15, 2009
Elected Vice President
Ted Kaufman (D) January 16, 2009 Chris Coons (D) November 2, 2010
New York
(Class 1)
Hillary Clinton (D) Resigned January 21, 2009
Appointed U.S. Secretary of State
Kirsten Gillibrand (D) January 27, 2009 Kirsten Gillibrand (D) November 2, 2010
West Virginia
(Class 1)
Robert Byrd (D) Died June 28, 2010 Carte Goodwin (D) July 20, 2010 Joe Manchin (D) November 2, 2010
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
John Kerry (D) Resigned February 1, 2013
Appointed U.S. Secretary of State
Mo Cowan (D) February 1, 2013 Ed Markey (D) June 25, 2013
New Jersey
(Class 2)
Frank Lautenberg (D) Died June 3, 2013 Jeffrey Chiesa (R) June 10, 2013 Cory Booker (D) October 16, 2013
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Jim DeMint (R) Resigned January 1, 2013 Tim Scott (R) January 2, 2013 Tim Scott (R) November 4, 2014
Hawaii
(Class 3)
Daniel Inouye (D) Died December 17, 2012 Brian Schatz (D) December 26, 2012 Brian Schatz (D) November 4, 2014
Oklahoma
(Class 3)
Tom Coburn (R) Resigned January 3, 2015 No appointment James Lankford (R) November 4, 2014
Alabama
(Class 2)
Jeff Sessions (R) Resigned February 8, 2017
Appointed U.S. Attorney General
Luther Strange (R) February 9, 2017 Doug Jones (D) December 12, 2017
Minnesota
(Class 2)
Al Franken (D) Resigned January 2, 2018 Tina Smith (D) January 3, 2018 TBD November 6, 2018
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Thad Cochran (R) Resigned April 1, 2018 Cindy Hyde-Smith (R) April 2, 2018 TBD November 6, 2018
Arizona
(Class 3)
John McCain (R) Died August 25, 2018 Jon Kyl (R) September 4, 2018 TBD November 3, 2020
State Senator Vacancy event Senator Date Senator Date ↑
Original Appointee Election winner

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Resigned due to ill health.
  2. ^ Senator Bunker was appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the November 10, 1940 death of Key Pittman, who had just won re-election. Bunker was appointed both to complete the term that would end January 3, 1941 and to begin the term that would end January 3, 1947.
  3. ^ The 1974 election result was contested. Eventually, the Senate declared the seat vacant. Norris Cotton, who had retired at the election, was subsequently appointed to the seat until a special election could be held.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "No special election to replace Sessions; Bentley says move could save $16 million". Al.com. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  2. ^ "Governor Ivey Moves US Senate Special Election to Adhere with State Law". Office of the Governor of Alabama. April 18, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  3. ^ "Alabama Senate race: Trump records message for Roy Moore". BBC. December 12, 2017.
  4. ^ a b Neale, Thomas H. (March 10, 2009). "Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 19, 2011.
  5. ^ "Closest election in Senate history". Senate Historical Office.

External links[edit]