List of special elections to the United States Senate

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This is an incomplete list of special elections to the United States Senate. Such elections fill the vacancies that occur when a member of the Senate dies or resigns before the biennial general election which precedes the end of his or her six-year term. Winners of these special elections typically serve the remaining two or four years plus two months of that six-year term. General elections to the U.S. Congress are held in November of even-numbered years. New Congresses convened on March 4 of the following year until 1934. Since 1934, new Congresses have begun on January 3 of the following year.

Some states, such as Texas, allow for special elections to the Senate that occur separate from a general election (similar to special elections to the U.S. House), while most wait to hold them in conjunction with the next general election.

Appointments by Governors[edit]

Prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, most state legislatures elected U.S. Senators. The Seventeenth Amendment states that special elections will be held to fill vacant Senate seats, but that state legislatures may empower the governor of the state to fill the seat by an appointment between the time that it becomes vacant and the time that the winner of the special election is certified. As of 2009, four states, Massachusetts, Oregon, Wisconsin and Oklahoma require special elections, Oklahoma permitting its governor to appoint only the winner of a special election.[1] Alaska in 2004 enacted legislation and a separate ballot referendum law that took effect on the same day, that conflict. It is uncertain if the Alaska governor may successfully appoint an interim Senator to serve until the mandated special election occurs 60 to 90 days after the vacancy happens. The ballot-approved law fails to specifically authorize the governor to appoint, though the legislative law does.[1]

Since 1913, 184 senators have been appointed to fill vacancies. Of those, 63 did not later run for election; 56 ran and lost the subsequent special election; and 60 ran and won the election.[2]

List of special elections[edit]

This list only includes vacancies that were filled by special election. Not included are those situations in which vacancies were only filled by appointment or general election, or new seats.

This list is sorted by the date of the special election.

State (Class) Original Appointee Winner Term ending
Senator Vacancy event Senator Date Senator Date ↑
Virginia
(Class 1)
William Grayson (A) Died March 12, 1790 John Walker (P) March 31, 1790 James Monroe (A) November 9, 1790 March 4, 1793
New Jersey
(Class 2)
William Paterson (P) Resigned November 13, 1790 No appointment Philemon Dickinson (P) November 23, 1790 March 4, 1793
Connecticut
(Class 1)
William S. Johnson (P) Resigned March 4, 1791 No appointment Roger Sherman (P) June 13, 1791 March 4, 1795
New York
(Class 3)
Rufus King (F) Resigned May 23, 1796 No appointment John Laurance (F) November 9, 1796 March 4, 1801
New York
(Class 1)
Philip Schuyler (F) Resigned January 3, 1798 No appointment John Sloss Hobart (F) January 11, 1798 March 4, 1803
New York
(Class 1)
John Sloss Hobart (F) Resigned April 16, 1798 William North (F) May 5, 1798 James Watson (F) August 17, 1798 March 4, 1803
New York
(Class 1)
James Watson (F) Resigned March 19, 1800 No appointment Gouverneur Morris (F) April 3, 1800 March 4, 1803
New York
(Class 3)
John Laurance (F) Resigned August 1800 No appointment John Armstrong, Jr. (DR) November 6, 1800 March 4, 1801
New York
(Class 3)
John Armstrong, Jr. (DR) Resigned February 5, 1802 No appointment DeWitt Clinton (DR) February 9, 1802 March 4, 1807
New York
(Class 1)
Theodorus Bailey (DR) Resigned January 16, 1804 No appointment John Armstrong, Jr. (DR) February 3, 1804 March 4, 1807
New York
(Class 3)
John Armstrong, Jr. (DR) Resigned February 23, 1804 No appointment John Smith (DR) February 3, 1804 March 4, 1807
New York
(Class 1)
John Armstrong, Jr. (DR) Resigned June 30, 1804 No appointment Samuel L. Mitchill (DR) November 9, 1804 March 4, 1809
Alabama
(Class 3)
John Williams Walker (DR) Resigned December 12, 1822 No appointment William Kelly (DR) December 12, 1822 March 4, 1825
Delaware
(Class 1)
Caesar A. Rodney (DR) Resigned January 29, 1823 No appointment Thomas Clayton (F) January 8, 1824 March 4, 1827
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Henry Johnson (DR) Resigned May 27, 1824 No appointment Charles Bouligny (DR) November 19, 1824 March 4, 1829
Illinois
(Class 3)
Ninian Edwards (DR) Resigned March 4, 1824 No appointment John McLean (DR) November 24, 1824 March 4, 1825
Georgia
(Class 2)
Nicholas Ware (DR) Died January 29, 1823 No appointment Thomas W. Cobb (F) December 6, 1824 March 4, 1829
Virginia
(Class 2)
John Taylor (DR) Died August 21, 1824 No appointment Littleton Tazewell (DR) December 7, 1824 March 4, 1829
Alabama
(Class 3)
Henry H. Chambers (DR) Died January 24, 1826 Israel Pickens (DR) February 17, 1826 John McKinley (J) November 27, 1826 March 4, 1831
New York
(Class 1)
Martin Van Buren (DR) Resigned December 20, 1828 No appointment Charles E. Dudley (D) January 15, 1829 March 4, 1833
New York
(Class 3)
William L. Marcy (D) Resigned January 1, 1833 No appointment Silas Wright (D) January 4, 1833 March 4, 1837
Alabama
(Class 3)
John McKinley (D) Resigned April 22, 1837 Clement Comer Clay (D) June 19, 1837 Arthur P. Bagby (D) November 24, 1841 March 4, 1843
Arkansas
(Class 2)
William S. Fulton (D) Died August 15, 1844 No appointment Chester Ashley (D) November 8, 1844 March 4, 1847
New York
(Class 1)
Nathaniel P. Tallmadge (W) Resigned June 17, 1844 Daniel S. Dickinson (D) November 30, 1844 Daniel S. Dickinson (D) January 18, 1845 March 4, 1845
New York
(Class 3)
Silas Wright (D) Resigned November 26, 1844 Henry A. Foster (D) November 30, 1844 John Adams Dix (D) January 18, 1845 March 4, 1849
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Chester Ashley (D) Died April 29, 1848 William K. Sebastian (D) May 12, 1848 William K. Sebastian (D) November 17, 1848 March 4, 1853
Alabama
(Class 2)
Dixon Hall Lewis (D) Died October 24, 1848 Benjamin Fitzpatrick (D) November 25, 1848 Jeremiah Clemens (D) November 30, 1849 March 4, 1853
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
James Bell (R) Died May 26, 1857 No appointment Daniel Clark (R) June 26, 1857 March 4, 1861
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Vacant Failure to elect successor prior March 4, 1857 Andrew Johnson (D) October 8, 1857 March 4, 1863
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Andrew Butler Died May 25, 1857 No appointment James Henry Hammond (D) December 6, 1857 March 4, 1861
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Asa Biggs Resigned May 5, 1858 after being appointed judge of US District Court of NC Thomas Lanier Clingman (D) May 7, 1858 Thomas Lanier Clingman (D) November 23, 1858 March 4, 1861
California
(Class 3)
David C. Broderick (D) Died September 16, 1859 Henry P. Haun (D) November 3, 1859 Milton S. Latham (D) January 11, 1860 March 4, 1863
California
(Class 1)
Eugene Casserly (D) Resigned November 29, 1873 No appointment John S. Hager (D) December 23, 1873 March 4, 1873
Alabama
(Class 3)
George S. Houston (D) Died December 31, 1879 Luke Pryor (D) January 7, 1880 James L. Pugh (D) November 24, 1880 March 4, 1885
New York
(Class 1)
Thomas C. Platt (R) Resigned May 16, 1881 No appointment Warner Miller (R) July 16, 1881 March 4, 1887
New York
(Class 3)
Roscoe Conkling (R) Resigned May 16, 1881 No appointment Elbridge G. Lapham (R) July 22, 1881 March 4, 1885
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Augustus Garland (D) Resigned March 6, 1885 No appointment James H. Berry (D) March 20, 1885 March 4, 1889
California
(Class 1)
John Franklin Miller (R) Died March 8, 1886 George Hearst (D) March 23, 1886 Abram P. Williams (R) August 4, 1886 March 4, 1887
California
(Class 1)
George Hearst (D) Died February 28, 1891 No appointment Charles N. Felton (R) March 19, 1891 March 4, 1893
California
(Class 3)
Leland Stanford (R) Died June 21, 1893 George C. Perkins (R) July 26, 1893 George C. Perkins (R) March 4, 1897
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Edward C. Walthall (D) Resigned January 24, 1894[n 1] No appointment Anselm J. McLaurin (D) February 7, 1894 March 4, 1895
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Edward D. White (D) Resigned March 12, 1894[n 2] Newton C. Blanchard (D) March 12, 1894 Newton C. Blanchard (D) March 4, 1897
Georgia
(Class 2)
Alfred H. Colquitt (D) Died March 26, 1894 Patrick Walsh (D) April 2, 1894 Patrick Walsh (D) March 4, 1895
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Zebulon B. Vance Died April 14, 1894 Thomas J. Jarvis (D) April 19, 1894 Jeter C. Pritchard (D) January 23, 1895 March 4, 1897
Michigan
(Class 1)
Francis B. Stockbridge (R) Died April 3, 1894 John Patton, Jr. (R) May 5, 1894 Julius C. Burrows (R) January 24, 1895 March 4, 1899
Montana
(Class 1)
Vacant Failure to elect Lee Mantle (R) January 16, 1895 March 4, 1899
Wyoming
(Class 1)
Vacant Failure to elect Clarence D. Clark (R) January 23, 1895
Washington
(Class 1)
Vacant Failure to elect John L. Wilson (R) February 19, 1895
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Edward C. Walthall (D) Died April 21, 1898 William V. Sullivan (D) May 31, 1898 William V. Sullivan (D) March 4, 1901
Alabama
(Class 3)
Edmund Pettus (D) Died July 27, 1907 No appointment Joseph F. Johnston (D) August 6, 1907 March 4, 1909
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Philander C. Knox (R) Resigned March 4, 1909 No appointment George T. Oliver (R) March 17, 1909 March 4, 1911
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Anselm J. McLaurin (D) Died December 22, 1909 James Gordon (D) December 27, 1909 LeRoy Percy (D) February 22, 1910 March 4, 1913
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Samuel D. McEnery (D) Died June 28, 1910 John Thornton (D) August 27, 1910 John Thornton (D) December 6, 1910 March 4, 1915
North Dakota
(Class 3)
Martin N. Johnson (R) Died October 12, 1909 Fountain L. Thompson (D) November 10, 1909 Asle Gronna (R) February 1, 1911 March 4, 1915
William E. Purcell (D) February 1, 1910
West Virginia
(Class 2)
Stephen Benton Elkins (R) Died January 4, 1911 Davis Elkins (R) January 9, 1911 Clarence Wayland Watson (D) February 1, 1911 March 4, 1913
Iowa
(Class 3)
Jonathan P. Dolliver (R) Died October 15, 1910 Lafayette Young (R) November 4, 1910 William S. Kenyon (R) April 11, 1911 March 4, 1913
Georgia
(Class 3)
Alexander S. Clay (D) Died November 13, 1910 Joseph M. Terrell (D) November 17, 1910 M. Hoke Smith (D) July 12, 1911 March 4, 1915
Maine
(Class 2)
William P. Frye (R) Died August 8, 1911 No appointment Obadiah Gardner (D) September 22, 1911 March 4, 1913
Colorado
(Class 3)
Charles J. Hughes, Jr. (D) Died January 11, 1911 No appointment Charles S. Thomas (D) January 15, 1913 March 4, 1915
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Robert Love Taylor (D) Died March 31, 1912 Newell Sanders (R) April 11, 1912 William R. Webb (D) January 23, 1913 March 4, 1913
Nevada
(Class 1)
George S. Nixon (R) Died June 5, 1912 William A. Massey (R) July 1, 1912 Key Pittman (D) January 23, 1913 March 4, 1917
Texas
(Class 2)
Joseph Weldon Bailey (D) Resigned January 3, 1913 Rienzi Melville Johnston (D) January 4, 1913 Morris Sheppard (D) January 23, 1913 March 4, 1913
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Jeff Davis Died January 3, 1913 John N. Heiskell (D) January 6, 1913 William Marmaduke Kavanaugh (D) January 23, 1913 March 4, 1913
Idaho
(Class 3)
Weldon B. Heyburn (R) Died October 17, 1912 Kirtland Irving Perky (D) November 18, 1912 James H. Brady (R) January 24, 1913 March 4, 1915
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Vacant from beginning of term, March 4, 1913[n 3] No appointment Joseph Taylor Robinson (D) January 27, 1913 March 4, 1919
Illinois
(Class 3)
William Lorimer (R) July 13, 1912[n 4] No appointment Lawrence Yates Sherman (R) March 26, 1913 March 4, 1915
Seventeenth Amendment ratified April 8, 1913. All subsequent Senate elections are by popular vote.
Maryland
(Class 1)
Isidor Rayner (D) Died November 25, 1912 William P. Jackson (R) November 29, 1912 Blair Lee (D) November 4, 1913 March 4, 1917
Alabama
(Class 3)
Joseph F. Johnston (D) Died August 8, 1913 No appointment Francis S. White (D) May 11, 1914 March 4, 1915
Georgia
(Class 2)
Augustus Octavius Bacon (D) Died February 14, 1914 William S. West (D) March 1, 1914 Thomas W. Hardwick (D) November 3, 1914 March 4, 1919
Kentucky
(Class 3)
William O. Bradley (R) Died May 23, 1914 Johnson N. Camden (D) June 16, 1914 Johnson N. Camden (D) November 3, 1914 March 4, 1915
Maine
(Class 2)
Edwin C. Burleigh (R) Died June 16, 1916 No appointment Bert M. Fernald (R) September 11, 1916 March 4, 1919
Indiana
(Class 3)
Benjamin F. Shively (D) Died March 14, 1916 Thomas Taggart (D) March 20, 1916 James Eli Watson (R) November 7, 1916 March 4, 1921
Arkansas
(Class 3)
James Paul Clarke (D) Died October 1, 1916 No appointment William F. Kirby (D) November 7, 1916 March 4, 1921
Wisconsin
(Class 3)
Paul O. Husting (D) Died October 21, 1917 No appointment Irvine L. Lenroot (R) April 18, 1918 March 4, 1921
Oregon
(Class 2)
Harry Lane (D) Died May 23, 1917 Charles L. McNary (R) May 29, 1917 Frederick W. Mulkey (R) November 5, 1918 March 4, 1919
Nevada
(Class 3)
Francis G. Newlands (D) Died December 24, 1917 Charles B. Henderson (D) January 12, 1918 Charles B. Henderson (D) November 5, 1918 March 4, 1921
Idaho
(Class 3)
James H. Brady (R) Died January 13, 1918 John F. Nugent (D) January 22, 1918 John F. Nugent (D) November 5, 1918 March 4, 1921
New Jersey
(Class 2)
William Hughes (D) Died January 30, 1918 David Baird (R) February 23, 1918 David Baird (R) November 5, 1918 March 4, 1919
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Robert F. Broussard (D) Died April 12, 1918 Walter Guion (D) April 22, 1918 Edward Gay (D) November 5, 1918 March 4, 1921
Missouri
(Class 3)
William J. Stone (D) Died April 14, 1918 Xenophon P. Wilfley (D) April 30, 1918 Selden P. Spencer (R) November 5, 1918 March 4, 1921
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Benjamin R. Tillman (D) Died July 3, 1918 Christie Benet (D) July 6, 1918 William P. Pollock (D) November 5, 1918 March 4, 1919
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Jacob H. Gallinger (R) Died August 17, 1918 Irving W. Drew (R) September 2, 1918 George H. Moses (R) November 5, 1918 March 4, 1921
Virginia
(Class 2)
Thomas S. Martin (D) Died November 12, 1919 Carter Glass (D) November 18, 1919 Carter Glass (D) November 2, 1920 March 4, 1925
Alabama
(Class 3)
John H. Bankhead (D) Died March 1, 1920 B. B. Comer (D) March 5, 1920 J. Thomas Heflin (D) November 2, 1920 March 4, 1925
Delaware
(Class 1)
Josiah O. Wolcott (D) Resigned July 2, 1921 T. Coleman du Pont (R) July 7, 1921 Thomas F. Bayard, Jr. (D) November 7, 1922 March 4, 1923
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Philander C. Knox (R) Died October 12, 1921 William E. Crow (R) October 17, 1921 – August 2, 1922 (died) David A. Reed (R) November 7, 1922 March 4, 1923
David A. Reed (R) August 8, 1922
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Boies Penrose (R) Died December 31, 1921 George W. Pepper (R) January 9, 1922 George W. Pepper (R) November 7, 1922 March 4, 1927
Iowa
(Class 2)
William S. Kenyon (R) Resigned February 24, 1922 Charles A. Rawson (R) February 24, 1922 Smith W. Brookhart (R) November 7, 1922 March 4, 1925
Georgia
(Class 3)
Thomas E. Watson (D) Died September 26, 1922 Rebecca Felton (D) November 21, 1922 Walter F. George (D) November 7, 1922 March 4, 1927
Colorado
(Class 2)
Samuel D. Nicholson (R) Died March 24, 1923 Alva B. Adams (D) May 17, 1923 Rice W. Means (R) November 4, 1924 March 4, 1927
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Frank B. Brandegee (R) Died October 14, 1924 No appointment Hiram Bingham III (R) December 16, 1924 March 4, 1927
Arkansas
(Class 3)
Thaddeus H. Caraway (D) Died November 6, 1931 Hattie Caraway (D) December 9, 1931 Hattie Caraway (D) January 12, 1932 March 4, 1933
New Jersey
(Class 2)
Dwight Morrow (R) Died October 5, 1931 William Warren Barbour (R) December 1, 1931 William Warren Barbour (R) November 2, 1932 January 3, 1937
Georgia
(Class 3)
William J. Harris (D) Died April 18, 1932 John S. Cohen (D) April 25, 1932 Richard Russell, Jr. (D) November 2, 1932 January 3, 1937
Vermont
(Class 3)
Porter H. Dale (R) Died October 6, 1933 Ernest W. Gibson (R) November 21, 1933 Ernest W. Gibson (R) January 16, 1934 January 3, 1937
Montana
(Class 3)
Thomas J. Walsh (D) Died March 4, 1933 John E. Erickson (D) March 13, 1933 James E. Murray (D) November 6, 1934 January 3, 1937
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Cordell Hull (D) Resigned March 4, 1933 Nathan L. Bachman (D) March 4, 1933 Nathan L. Bachman (D) November 6, 1934 January 3, 1937
New Mexico
(Class 2)
Sam G. Bratton (D) Resigned June 24, 1933 Carl A. Hatch (D) October 10, 1933 Carl A. Hatch (D) November 6, 1934 January 3, 1937
Arkansas
(Class 3)
Joseph T. Robinson (D) Died July 14, 1937 No appointment John E. Miller (D) November 15, 1937 January 3, 1943
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Nathan L. Bachman (D) Died April 23, 1937 George L. Berry (D) May 6, 1937 Tom Stewart (D) November 8, 1938 January 3, 1943
New York
(Class 1)
Royal Copeland (D) Died June 17, 1938 No appointment James M. Mead (D) November 8, 1938 January 3, 1941
Texas
(Class 2)
Morris Sheppard (D) Died April 9, 1941 Andrew Houston (D) April 21, 1941 W. Lee O'Daniel (D) June 28, 1941 January 3, 1943
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Pat Harrison (D) Died June 22, 1941 James Eastland (D) June 30, 1941 Wall Doxey (D) September 23, 1941 January 3, 1943
South Carolina
(Class 2)
James F. Byrnes (D) Resigned July 17, 1941 Alva Lumpkin (D) July 22, 1941 Burnet Maybank (D) November 5, 1941 January 3, 1945
Roger Peace (D) August 5, 1941
Colorado
(Class 3)
Alva B. Adams (D) Died December 1, 1941 Eugene Millikin (R) December 20, 1941 Eugene Millikin (R) November 3, 1942 January 3, 1945
West Virginia
(Class 2)
Matthew M. Neely (D) Resigned January 12, 1941 Joseph Rosier (D) January 13, 1941 Hugh Ike Shott (R) November 3, 1942 January 3, 1943
Nevada
(Class 1)
Key Pittman (D) Died November 10, 1940 Berkeley Bunker (D)[n 5] November 27, 1940 James G. Scrugham (D) November 3, 1942 January 3, 1947
Indiana
(Class 3)
Frederick Van Nuys (D) Died January 25, 1944 Samuel D. Jackson (D) January 28, 1944 William E. Jenner (R) November 7, 1944 January 3, 1945
Oregon
(Class 2)
Charles L. McNary (R) Died February 25, 1944 Guy Cordon (R) March 4, 1944 Guy Cordon (R) November 7, 1944 January 3, 1949
New Jersey
(Class 1)
William Warren Barbour (R) Died November 22, 1943 Arthur Walsh (D) November 26, 1943 H. Alexander Smith (R) November 7, 1944 January 3, 1947
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (R) Resigned February 3, 1944 Sinclair Weeks (R) February 8, 1944 Leverett Saltonstall (R) November 7, 1944 January 3, 1949
Alabama
(Class 2)
John H. Bankhead II (D) Died June 12, 1946 George R. Swift (D) June 15, 1946 John Sparkman (D) November 6, 1946 January 3, 1951
California
(Class 1)
Hiram Johnson (R) Died August 6, 1945 William Knowland (R) August 26, 1945 William Knowland (R) November 5, 1946 January 3, 1947
Mississippi
(Class 1)
Theodore G. Bilbo (D) Died August 24, 1947 No appointment John C. Stennis (D) November 5, 1947 January 3, 1953
New York
(Class 3)
Robert F. Wagner (D) Resigned June 28, 1949 John Foster Dulles (R) July 7, 1949 Herbert Lehman (D) November 8, 1949 January 3, 1951
North Carolina
(Class 2)
J. Melville Broughton (D) Died March 6, 1949 Frank Porter Graham (D) March 29, 1949 Willis Smith (D) November 7, 1950 January 3, 1955
Kansas
(Class 3)
Clyde M. Reed (R) Died November 8, 1949 Harry Darby (R) December 2, 1949 Frank Carlson (R) November 7, 1950 January 3, 1967
Idaho
(Class 2)
Bert H. Miller (D) Died October 8, 1949 Henry Dworshak (R) October 14, 1949 Henry Dworshak (R) November 7, 1950 January 3, 1955
California
(Class 3)
Richard Nixon (R) Resigned January 1, 1953[n 6] Thomas Kuchel (R) January 2, 1953 Thomas Kuchel (R) November 2, 1954 January 3, 1957
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Clyde R. Hoey (D) Died May 12, 1954 Sam Ervin (D) June 5, 1954 Sam Ervin (D) November 2, 1954 January 3, 1957
Nebraska
(Class 1)
Hugh Butler (R) Died July 1, 1954 Sam Reynolds (R) July 7, 1954 Roman Hruska (R) November 2, 1954 January 3, 1959
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Willis Smith (D) Died June 26, 1953 Alton Lennon (D) July 15, 1953 Kerr Scott (D) November 2, 1954 January 3, 1955
Nebraska
(Class 2)
Dwight Griswold (R) Died April 12, 1954 Eva Bowring (R) April 26, 1954 Hazel Abel (R) November 2, 1954 January 3, 1955
Kentucky
(Class 2)
Alben Barkley (D) Died April 30, 1956 Robert Humphreys (D) June 25, 1956 John Sherman Cooper (R) November 6, 1956 January 3, 1961
West Virginia
(Class 1)
Harley M. Kilgore (D) Died February 28, 1956 William R. Laird, III (D) March 13, 1956 W. Chapman Revercomb (R) November 6, 1956 January 3, 1959
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Strom Thurmond (D) Resigned April 4, 1956 Thomas A. Wofford (D) April 5, 1956 Strom Thurmond (D) November 6, 1956 January 3, 1961
Texas
(Class 1)
Price Daniel (D) resigned January 14, 1957 William Blakley (D) January 17, 1957 Ralph Yarborough (D) April 2, 1957 January 3, 1959
Wisconsin
(Class 1)
Joseph McCarthy (R) Died May 2, 1957 No appointment William Proxmire (D) August 27, 1957 January 3, 1959
West Virginia
(Class 1)
Matthew M. Neely (D) Died January 18, 1958 John D. Hoblitzell, Jr. (R) January 25, 1958 Jennings Randolph (D) November 4, 1958 January 3, 1961
North Carolina
(Class 2)
W. Kerr Scott (D) Died April 16, 1958 B. Everett Jordan (D) April 19, 1958 B. Everett Jordan (D) November 4, 1958 January 3, 1961
North Dakota
(Class 1)
William Langer (R) Died November 8, 1959 Clarence Brunsdale (R) November 19, 1959 Quentin Burdick (D-NPL) June 28, 1960 January 3, 1965
Missouri
(Class 1)
Thomas C. Hennings, Jr. (D) Died September 13, 1960 Edward V. Long (D) September 23, 1960 Edward V. Long (D) November 8, 1960 January 3, 1963
Oregon
(Class 2)
Richard Neuberger (D) Died March 9, 1960 Hall Lusk (D) March 16, 1960 Maurine Neuberger (D) November 8, 1960 January 3, 1961
Texas
(Class 2)
Lyndon Johnson (D) Resigned January 3, 1961 William Blakley (D) January 3, 1961 John Tower (R) May 27, 1961 January 3, 1967
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
John Kennedy (D) Resigned December 22, 1960 Benjamin Smith II (D) December 27, 1960 Ted Kennedy (D) November 6, 1962 January 3, 1965
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Styles Bridges (R) Died November 26, 1961 Maurice Murphy, Jr. (R) December 7, 1961 Thomas McIntyre (D) November 6, 1962 January 3, 1967
Kansas
(Class 2)
Andrew Schoeppel (R) Died January 21, 1962 James Pearson (R) January 31, 1962 James Pearson (R) November 6, 1962 January 3, 1967
Idaho
(Class 2)
Henry Dworshak (R) Died July 23, 1962 Len Jordan (R) August 6, 1962 Len Jordan (R) November 6, 1962 January 3, 1967
Wyoming
(Class 2)
Vacant from beginning of term, January 3, 1961[n 7] John J. Hickey (D) January 3, 1961 Milward L. Simpson (R) November 6, 1962 January 3, 1967
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Estes Kefauver (D) Died August 10, 1963 Herbert Walters (D) August 20, 1963 Ross Bass (D) November 3, 1964 January 3, 1967
Oklahoma
(Class 2)
Robert S. Kerr (D) Died January 1, 1963 J. Howard Edmondson (D) January 6, 1963 Fred R. Harris (D) November 3, 1964 January 3, 1967
New Mexico
(Class 1)
Dennis Chavez (D) Died November 18, 1962 Edwin Mechem (R) November 30, 1962 Joseph Montoya (D) November 3, 1964 January 3, 1965
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Olin Johnston (D) Died April 18, 1965 Donald Russell (D) April 22, 1965 Ernest Hollings (D) November 8, 1966 January 3, 1969
Virginia
(Class 1)
Harry F. Byrd, Sr. (D) Resigned November 10, 1965 Harry F. Byrd, Jr. (D) November 12, 1965 Harry F. Byrd, Jr. (D) November 8, 1966 January 3, 1971
Alaska
(Class 2)
Bob Bartlett (D) Died December 11, 1968 Ted Stevens (R) December 24, 1968 Ted Stevens (R) November 3, 1970 January 3, 1973
Illinois
(Class 3)
Everett Dirksen (R) Died September 7, 1969 Ralph Tyler Smith (R) September 17, 1969 Adlai Stevenson III (D) November 3, 1970 January 3, 1975
Vermont
(Class 1)
Winston L. Prouty (R) Died September 10, 1971 Robert Stafford (R) September 16, 1971 Robert Stafford (R) January 7, 1972 January 3, 1977
Georgia
(Class 2)
Richard Russell (D) Died January 21, 1971 David Gambrell (D) February 1, 1971 Sam Nunn (D) November 7, 1972 January 3, 1973
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Vacant from beginning of term, January 3, 1975[n 8] Norris H. Cotton (R) August 8, 1975 John A. Durkin (D) September 16, 1975 January 3, 1981
Minnesota
(Class 1)
Hubert Humphrey (D) Died January 13, 1978 Muriel Humphrey (D) January 25, 1978 David Durenberger (R) November 7, 1978 January 3, 1983
Alabama
(Class 3)
James Allen (D) Died June 1, 1978 Maryon Allen (D) June 8, 1978 Donald Stewart (D) November 7, 1978 January 3, 1981
Washington
(Class 1)
Henry "Scoop" Jackson (D) Died September 1, 1983 Dan Evans (R) September 8, 1983 Dan Evans (R) November 8, 1983 January 3, 1989
North Carolina
(Class 3)
John East (R) Died June 29, 1986 Jim Broyhill (R) July 14, 1986 Terry Sanford (D) November 4, 1986 January 3, 1987
Indiana
(Class 3)
Dan Quayle (R) Resigned January 3, 1989 Dan Coats (R) January 3, 1989 Dan Coats (R) November 6, 1990 January 3, 1993
Hawaii
(Class 1)
Spark Matsunaga (D) Died April 15, 1990 Daniel Akaka (D) May 16, 1990 Daniel Akaka (D) November 6, 1990 January 3, 1995
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
John Heinz III (R) Died April 4, 1991 Harris Wofford (D) May 9, 1991 Harris Wofford (D) November 5, 1991 January 3, 1995
California
(Class 1)
Pete Wilson (R) Resigned January 7, 1991 John Seymour (R) January 10, 1991 Dianne Feinstein (D) November 3, 1992 January 3, 1995
North Dakota
(Class 1)
Quentin Burdick (D) Died September 8, 1992 Jocelyn Burdick (D) September 16, 1992 Kent Conrad (D) December 4, 1992 January 3, 1995
Texas
(Class 1)
Lloyd Bentsen (D) Resigned January 20, 1993 Bob Krueger (D) January 21, 1993 Kay Bailey Hutchison (R) June 5, 1993 January 3, 1995
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Al Gore (D) Resigned January 3, 1993 Harlan Mathews (D) January 3, 1993 Fred Thompson (R) November 8, 1994 January 3, 1997
Oklahoma
(Class 2)
David Boren (D) Resigned November 15, 1994 No appointment Jim Inhofe (R) November 8, 1994 January 3, 1997
Oregon
(Class 2)
Bob Packwood (R) Resigned October 1, 1995 No appointment Ron Wyden (D) January 30, 1996 January 3, 1999
Kansas
(Class 3)
Bob Dole (R) Resigned June 11, 1996 Sheila Frahm (R) June 11, 1996 Sam Brownback (R) November 5, 1996 January 3, 1999
Georgia
(Class 3)
Paul Coverdell (R) Died July 18, 2000 Zell Miller (D) July 24, 2000 Zell Miller (D) November 7, 2000 January 3, 2005
Missouri
(Class 1)
Vacant from beginning of term, January 3, 2001[n 9] Jean Carnahan (D) January 3, 2001 Jim Talent (R) November 5, 2002 January 3, 2007
Wyoming
(Class 1)
Craig Thomas (R) Died June 4, 2007 John Barrasso (R) June 25, 2007 John Barrasso (R) November 4, 2008 January 3, 2013
Mississippi
(Class 1)
Trent Lott (R) Resigned December 18, 2007 Roger Wicker (R) December 31, 2007 Roger Wicker (R) November 4, 2008 January 3, 2013
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Ted Kennedy (D) Died August 25, 2009 Paul G. Kirk (D) September 24, 2009 Scott Brown (R) January 19, 2010 January 3, 2013
Illinois
(Class 3)
Barack Obama (D) Resigned November 16, 2008 Roland Burris (D) January 12, 2009 Mark Kirk (R) November 2, 2010 January 3, 2011
Delaware
(Class 2)
Joe Biden (D) Resigned January 15, 2009 Ted Kaufman (D) January 16, 2009 Chris Coons (D) November 2, 2010 January 3, 2015
New York
(Class 1)
Hillary Clinton (D) Resigned January 21, 2009 Kirsten Gillibrand (D) January 27, 2009 Kirsten Gillibrand (D) November 2, 2010 January 3, 2013
West Virginia
(Class 1)
Robert Byrd (D) Died June 28, 2010 Carte Goodwin (D) July 20, 2010 Joe Manchin (D) November 2, 2010 January 3, 2013
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
John Kerry (D) Resigned February 1, 2013 Mo Cowan (D) February 1, 2013 Ed Markey (D) June 25, 2013 January 3, 2015
New Jersey
(Class 2)
Frank Lautenberg (D) Died June 3, 2013 Jeffrey Chiesa (R) June 10, 2013 Cory Booker (D) October 16, 2013 January 3, 2015
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Jim DeMint (R) Resigned January 1, 2013 Tim Scott (R) January 2, 2013 Tim Scott (R) November 4, 2014 January 3, 2017
Hawaii
(Class 3)
Daniel Inouye (D) Died December 17, 2012 Brian Schatz (D) December 26, 2012 Brian Schatz (D) November 4, 2014 January 3, 2017
Oklahoma
(Class 3)
Tom Coburn (R) Resigned January 3, 2015 No appointment James Lankford (R) November 4, 2014 January 3, 2017
State Senator Vacancy event Senator Date Senator Date ↑ Term ending
Original Appointee Winner

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Resigned due to ill health.
  2. ^ Resigned to take up appointment as a justice of the U. S. Supreme Court.
  3. ^ Jeff Davis (D) was elected posthumously.
  4. ^ Lorimer's election was declared invalid.
  5. ^ Senator Bunker was appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the November 10, 1940 death of Key Pittman, who had just won re-election. Bunker was appointed both to complete the term that would end January 3, 1941 and to begin the term that would end January 3, 1947.
  6. ^ Nixon resigned after being elected vice president.
  7. ^ Edwin Keith Thomson (R) died December 9, 1960, after his election but before taking his seat.
  8. ^ The 1974 election result was contested. Eventually, the Senate declared the seat vacant. Norris Cotton, who had retired at the election, was subsequently appointed to the seat until a special election could be held.[3]
  9. ^ Mel Carnahan had been elected posthumously.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Neale, Thomas H. (March 10, 2009). "Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. p. 8. 
  2. ^ Bill Schneider (February 5, 2009). "Senate appointments highlight messy process". CNN. 
  3. ^ "Closest election in Senate history". Senate Historical Office. 

External links[edit]