List of military special forces units

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of special forces units)
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of active military special forces units. Several NATO documents use the term special forces.

Definition[edit]

NATO Allied Joint Publication (AJP) 3.5 defines special operations as "Special operations are military activities conducted by specially designated, organized, trained, and equipped forces, manned with selected personnel, using unconventional tactics, techniques, and modes of employment. These activities may be conducted across the full range of military operations, independently or with conventional forces, to help achieve the desired end-state. Politico-military considerations may require clandestine or covert techniques and the acceptance of a degree of political or military risk not associated with operations by conventional forces. Special Operations deliver strategic or operational-level results or are executed where significant political risk exists.'

The NATO-Russia Glossary of Contemporary Political and Military Terms does not contain any definition for special forces. It does have a definition for "special operations forces" and "special operations force":[1]

special forces
Strategic formations and units of the armed forces, whose role is to conduct sabotage, reconnaissance, subversive and other special operations on the territory of foreign countries. In wartime they may also be assigned tasks such as intelligence-gathering, the seizure or destruction of key installations, the conduct of psychological operations or the organization of insurgencies in the enemy's rear area. The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation have separate special-operations forces brigades, battalions and companies which are integrated with the intelligence assets of military districts, fronts, fleets, armies or corps.

special-operations force
Designated special groups of selected servicemen which provide NATO with unique capabilities of special reconnaissance, direct action and military assistance in order to undertake difficult, dangerous and sometimes politically sensitive missions for the theatre commander.

In the book No Ordinary Men: Special Operations Forces Missions in Afghanistan by Colonel Bernd Horn defines SOF as below:

special-operations forces
Organizations containing specially trained personnel that are organized, equipped and trained to conduct high-risk, high value, special operations to achieve military, political, economic, or international objectives by using special and unique operational methodologies in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive area to achieve desired tactical operational, and/or strategic effects in times of peace, conflict, or war.

"":[2]

These are distinct from special-purpose infantry units such as the Royal Marine Commandos.

Other potential sources of a good definition for special forces or special operations forces include the Department of Defense Dictionary (Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms) and the 24th Special Tactics Squadron memoir No Room for Error by Col. John T. Carney, and Benjamin F. Schemmer.

For other units, see:

Albania Albania[edit]

Albanian Armed Forces

Afghanistan Afghanistan[edit]

Afghan National Army Special Operations Command[4]

Angola Angola[edit]

Angolan Armed Forces
  • Special Forces Brigade — reported 2007, located at Cabo Ledo region, northern Bengo Province.[7]

Armenia Armenia[edit]

Armenian Army
  • one spetsnaz regiment (Source IISS).[8] A special forces presence was reported in the Russian-language internet at Nubarashen district, part of Yerevan, in 2012.[9]

Azerbaijan Azerbaijan[edit]

Azerbaijani Armed Forces
  • Special Forces of Azerbaijan The Special Forces of Azerbaijan is a military unit of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It was established in 1999 under the Ministry of Defense. Typically 30 out of 500 candidates earn the "Maroon beret" certificate.

Australia Australia[edit]

Special Operations Command (Army)[10]
Royal Australian Air Force

Austria Austria[edit]

Austrian Army
  • Jagdkommando[13][14]
    • 1st Special Operations Task Group
    • 2nd Special Operations Task Group
    • 3rd Special Operations Task Group (Reserve)

Bangladesh Bangladesh[edit]

Bangladesh Armed Forces

Belarus Belarus[edit]

Armed Forces of Belarus

Belgium Belgium[edit]

Belgian Land Component

Botswana Botswana[edit]

Brazil Brazil[edit]

Brazilian Army
Brazilian Air Force
Brazilian Navy

Brunei Brunei[edit]

Bulgaria Bulgaria[edit]

 Cambodia[edit]

Canada Canada[edit]

Canadian Special Operations Forces Command

Chile Chile[edit]

China China[edit]

People's Liberation Army Marine Corps[30]
  • Special Operations Battalion
  • Special Forces Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion
People's Liberation Army Ground Force

Democratic Republic of the CongoCongo Democratic Republic of[edit]

  • 391st Commando battalion URR[32]

Croatia Croatia[edit]

Special Operations Battalion (BSD)

Czech Republic Czech Republic[edit]

Army of the Czech Republic (ACR)

Denmark Denmark[edit]

A brief from the Royal Danish Defence College listed two Danish special operations units:[34]

Two other Danish units have some claim to special forces status. The Danish Home Guard's Special Support and Reconnaissance Company is capable of behind-the-lines stay-behind reconnaissance, similar to the Cold War role of the British 21 and 23 SAS Regiments.[37] The Royal Danish Navy also maintains a unique ski patrol unit that conducts dog patrols of Greenland throughout the year. This unit, the Sirius Patrol, maintains a combat capability.

Egypt Egypt[edit]

Sa'ka Forces Thunderbolt Forces

Egyptian Paratroopers

Navy Special Operations Brigade

Estonia Estonia[edit]

Ethiopia Ethiopia[edit]

  • Agazi Commando Division[38]
  • 205th/206th Commando Brigade
  • Anti-Terrorism Battalion
  • ESOF(400 men detachment)

Finland Finland[edit]

Finnish Army
Finnish Navy

The conscript-training units Parachute Jaeger Company (Finnish: Laskuvarjojääkärikomppania) of Utti Jaeger Regiment,[40] the Diver School (Finnish: Sukeltajakoulu) of the Coastal Brigade[41] and the Special Border Jaeger Company (Finnish: Erikoisrajajääkärikomppania) of the Finnish Border Guard Border and Coast Guard School[42] are called in common parlance special forces. While they are volunteer-only, they are not standing professional formations like the others mentioned, but units training conscripts to serve as reservists in special operations forces during a crisis.[43]

Thus, some official Finnish Defence Forces sources[44] state that the only special forces in Finland are the Special Jaeger Company and the Special Action Detachment.

France France[edit]

Special Operations Command

Gabon Gabon[edit]

  • Commandos Fusiliers Marins (COFUSMA)
  • Presidential Guard Unit[citation needed]

Georgia (country) Georgia[edit]

Georgian Army
  • Special Operations Brigade[46]
    • 1st Special Operations Group
    • Naval Group Special Operations
    • Iverioni Mountain-Reconnaissance Battalion
    • Support-Maintenance Battalion

Germany Germany[edit]

German Army
German Navy
German Air Force

Greece Greece[edit]

Hellenic Army

Hungary Hungary[edit]

India India[edit]

Indian Army
Indian Navy
Indian Air Force

Indonesia Indonesia[edit]

Indonesian Army
Indonesian Navy
  • Frogman Kopaska,[58][59] reconnaissance battalion Taifib and counter-terrorism unit Denjaka which its personnel are recruited from both Kopaska and Taifib
Indonesian Air Force

Iran Iran[edit]

Iraq Iraq[edit]

The Iraqi Counter Terrorism Bureau reports to the Prime Minister directly. The Iraqi CTB oversees the Iraqi Counter Terrorism Command, a formation that includes all Iraqi Special Operations Forces (two brigades, according to the IISS 2013). As of 30 June 2009, there had been legislation in progress for a year to make the Iraqi CTB a separate ministry.[63]

Republic of Ireland Ireland[edit]

Irish Army

Israel Israel[edit]

See also: Sayeret
Israeli Air Force
Israeli Army
Israeli Navy

Italy Italy[edit]

Italian Army
Italian Navy
Italian Air Force
Carabinieri

JapanJapan[edit]

Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force

Jordan Jordan[edit]

Joint Special Operations Command

Kenya Kenya[edit]

Kuwait Kuwait[edit]

Malaysia Malaysia[edit]

Malaysian Army
Royal Malaysian Air Force
Royal Malaysian Navy

Mexico Mexico[edit]

Morocco Morocco[edit]

Royal Moroccan Army
Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie

Namibia Namibia[edit]

Netherlands Netherlands[edit]

Netherlands Army
Netherlands Navy
Royal Marechaussee

New Zealand New Zealand[edit]

Special Operations Command

Nigeria Nigeria[edit]

Norway Norway[edit]

Norwegian Armed Forces

Pakistan Pakistan[edit]

Pakistan Army
  • Special Service Group (SSG)
  • Special Response Force (SRF) was created in April 2012 to strengthen the security of strategic nuclear assets.[95]
Pakistan Navy
Pakistan Air Force

Philippines Philippines[edit]

Philippine Air Force
Philippine Army Special Operations Command
Philippine Marine Corps
Philippine Navy
Philippine National Police

Poland Poland[edit]

[102] [103][104] [105] [106]

Portugal Portugal[edit]

Portuguese Army
Portuguese Navy
Portuguese Air Force

Romania Romania[edit]

Ministry of Defense

Russia Russia[edit]

Main article: Spetsnaz
Special Operations Forces, subordinate directly to the MoD[113][114]
  • Special Operations Command (KSO)[115]
Russian Ground Forces[117]
Russian Airborne Troops[118]
Russian Navy[119]

South Korea Republic of Korea[edit]

Republic of Korea Army
  • Republic of Korea Army Special Warfare Command[120]
    • 1st Special Forces Brigade (Eagle)
    • 3rd Special Forces Brigade (Flying Tiger)
    • Oversea Deployment Group (Whole World) (Formerly 5th Special Mission Group 'Black Dragon')
    • 7th Special Forces Brigade (Pegasus)
    • 9th Special Forces Brigade (Ghost)
    • 11th Special Forces Brigade (Golden Bat)
    • 13th Special Forces Brigade (Black Panther)
    • 707th Special Mission Battalion (White Tiger)
Republic of Korea Navy[121]
  • Special Warfare Flotilla:[122][123]
    • 1st Battalion (main strike force divided into four specialized units)
      • Special Warfare Squadron (SEAL)
      • Underwater Demolition Team (UDT)
      • Explosive Ordnance Disposal Team (EOD)
      • Maritime Rescue/Counter Terrorism Unit (CT/VBSS)
    • 3rd Battalion (Support)
    • 5th Battalion (Support)
  • 5th Flotilla:[124]
    • 55th Salvage Squadron
      • Ship Salvage Unit (SSU)
Republic of Korea Air Force[125]
  • Combat Control Team (CCT)
  • 6th Search and Rescue Group
    • 233rd Rescue Battalion
    • 235th Rescue Battalion

Serbia Serbia[edit]

Slovakia Slovakia[edit]

Military of Slovakia

South Africa South Africa[edit]

South African National Defence Force

Spain Spain[edit]

Defence Staff (Joint Operations Command)
Spanish Army
Spanish Navy
Spanish Air Force
  • Airborne Combat Parachute Engineers Squadron (Escuadrón de Zapadores Paracaidistas (EZAPAC))[131]

Sri Lanka Sri Lanka[edit]

Sri Lanka Army
Sri Lanka Navy

Sweden Sweden[edit]

Swedish Armed Forces
Swedish Army
Swedish Royal Navy

Switzerland Switzerland[edit]

Swiss Army

Kommando Spezialkräfte KSK (Special Forces Command)

Professional units

Militia units

  • Grenadier Battalion 20
  • Grenadier Battalion 30
  • Grenadier Battalion 40 (Reserve)
  • Fallschirmaufklärer Kompanie 17 (Parachute Reconnaissance Company 17)

Turkey Turkey[edit]

Combined Arms
Turkish Naval Forces
Turkish Air Force
Gendarmerie General Command

Thailand Thailand[138][edit]

Royal Thai Army
Royal Thai Navy
Royal Thai Marine Corps
Royal Thai Air Force
  • Special Operations Regiment

Ukraine Ukraine[edit]

Ministry of Internal Affairs units
[139]
  • Omega: Stationed in Kyiv the unit has been active in the 2014 War in Donbass. Designed to combat terrorism, often works along with Vega special forces unit.
  • Scorpion: Specializes in the defense of Ukraine's nuclear facilities
  • Falcon: Stationed in Kyiv and designed to battle organized crime
  • Griffin: Tasked with protecting courts, ensure the safety of judges
  • Jaguar: Regiment tasked with stopping hooliganism, cease riots, suppressing riots in prisons.
  • Titan: Ensuring the safety of foreign deputies, investigating fraud and counter-fitting rings.
  • Vega: Combat terrorism, works closely with the Omega unit.
Ministry of Defense Units

United Kingdom United Kingdom[edit]

British Army
Royal Air Force/British Army
Royal Navy

United States United States[edit]

Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC)
United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC)[157]
Naval Special Warfare Command (NSWC)[157]
Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC)[157]
United States Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC)[157]

Venezuela Venezuela[edit]

Venezuelan Air Force
  • Special Operations Air Group 10[158]
  • Special Operations Air Group 15[158]
  • Special Operations Air Group 17[158]

Vietnam Vietnam[edit]

Under the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army (Bộ Tổng Tham mưu Quân đội Nhân dân Việt Nam)

  • Commando (Binh chủng Đặc công),[159] including:
    • Land commando (Đặc công bộ)[160]
    • Naval commando (Đặc công nước or Đặc nhiệm Hải quân)[161]
    • Airborne commando (Đặc công dù)[162]
  • Special reconnaissance (Trinh sát Đặc nhiệm): the reconnaissance force is not a separate branch, every armed branch has a reconnaissance team.[163]

Zimbabwe Zimbabwe[edit]

Non-combat special units[edit]

While the Submarine Parachute Assistance Group is a relatively overt unit, references to the JSOC units below are rare. Possibly the only authoritative source is Ambinder, Marc, and D. B. Grady The Command: Deep Inside the President's Secret Army, John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

References[edit]

Miscellaneous Notes
  1. ^ The Japanese Special Forces Group is the current name of the former Japanese Special Operations Group, following a name change.
  1. ^ http://www.nato.int/docu/glossary/eng/15-main.pdf
  2. ^ No Ordinary Men: Special Operations Forces Missions in Afghanistan by Colonel Bernd Horn
  3. ^ http://www.mod.gov.al/eng/index.php/newsroom/photos/431-the-departure-of-30-albanian-commandos-on-resolute-support-mission-in-kabul-afghanistan
  4. ^ Afghan National Army update, May 2011. The Long War Journal (2011-05-09). Retrieved on 2011-12-27.
  5. ^ NPR: New Afghan Commandos Take to the Frontlines
  6. ^ Afghan special forces expand to handle night raids, delicate missions, but training takes time. The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2012-01-01.
  7. ^ Army Special Forces Celebrate Years, 3 May 2007.
  8. ^ IISS Military Balance 2013, p.215. See also http://desantura.ru/am/
  9. ^ "Международные связи - NCCA". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c Thomson, Mark; Davies, Andrew (2008). "ADF capability review: Australian Army". Australian Strategic Policy Institute. p. 3. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  11. ^ "Commando". Defence Jobs. Australian Army. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  12. ^ "Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Combat Controllers". 2 Commando Regiment. Australian Defence Force. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  13. ^ Österreichs Bundesheer – Jagdkommando. Bmlv.gv.at. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  14. ^ Das Jagdkommando (JaKdo). Doppeladler.com. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  15. ^ "Events - The Official Internet Portal of the President of the Republic of Belarus". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  16. ^ Composante Terre Unités Special Forces Group. Mil.be. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  17. ^ [1] Archived 21 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ IISS Military Balance 2013, p.495
  19. ^ a b http://www.bdaopesp.eb.mil.br/
  20. ^ https://www.boppsico.eb.mil.br/
  21. ^ http://www.ciaprecpqdt.eb.mil.br/
  22. ^ "Marinha do Brasil". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  23. ^ "Defesa Aérea & Naval " Notícias Aéreas e Navais " GRUMEC – as Forças Especiais da Marinha do Brasil". Defesa Aérea & Naval. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  24. ^ Brunei Special Forces Regiment Joint Exercise with 1st Commando Regiment Australia
  25. ^ "อวดขีปนาวุธ..สอย F16 ได้จริง ฮุนเซน ไม่ได้โม้!! - IndoChina - Manager Online". Manager.co.th. Retrieved 2015-02-20. 
  26. ^ Khy Sovuthy (January 29, 2014). "Another Military Official Accuses Opposition Party of Causing Chaos". Cambodian Daily. 
  27. ^ http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/427soas-427eosa/index-eng.asp/
  28. ^ Canadian Special Operations Regiment | Régiment d'opérations spéciales du Canada. Csor.forces.gc.ca. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  29. ^ Joint Task Force Two | La Deuxième Force opérationnelle interarmées. Jtf2.forces.gc.ca. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  30. ^ IISS Military Balance 2013, 291
  31. ^ PLA Special Operations Forces. SinoDefence.com (30 August 2008). Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  32. ^ Eric Elliott (20 September 2010). "750 Congolese Soldiers Graduate from U.S.-led Military Training, Form Light Infantry Battalion". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  33. ^ "102. pzpr aktuálně - 102. průzkumný prapor Prostějov". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  34. ^ Special operations - myths and facts, p.7
  35. ^ Forside. Forsvaret.dk. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  36. ^ Kongsøre. Forsvaret.dk (24 September 2010). Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  37. ^ Hjemmeværnet – SSR – Særlig Støtte og Rekognoscering. Hjv.dk. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  38. ^ Ethiopia: Commando Division Officer Dupes 1.2 Mil. Br., http://allafrica.com/stories/200508180226.html
  39. ^ a b Suomen erikoisjoukot pidetään piilossa julkisuudelta – tällaisia taistelijat ovat Helsingin Sanomat 2015-03-07. Retrieved 2015-06-09. ((Finnish))
  40. ^ Erikoisjääkäripataljoona. Utti Jaeger Regiment 2013-10-03. Retrieved 2015-06-09. (Finnish). The reference calls the training given in Laskuvarjojääkärikomppania "special forces training"
  41. ^ Ei mitään mammanpoikia. Iltalehti. 2013-10-10. Retrieved 2015-06-09. (Finnish). The reference uses the term erikoisjoukko of the conscript combat divers.
  42. ^ Kutsunnat 2015. Special leaflet of te Ruotuväki magazine of the Finnish Defence Forces. Part of the issue number 13/2015. 2015-07-16. P. 9. (Finnish).
  43. ^ Conscript 2015, p. 53. Finnish Defence Forces. ISBN 978-951-25-2598-0. Retrieved 2015-06-09. The reference calls the three mentioned conscript outfits "special operations forces".
  44. ^ Suomessa. NLGB11. Finnish Defence Forces. 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2015-06-09. (Finnish). The reference claims that all other units in Finland are only specially-trained forces, not special forces.
  45. ^ a b c d e f "Ministère de la Défense, Les unités des forces spéciales" (in French). 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2014. .
  46. ^ "საქართველოს შეიარაღებული ძალების გენერალური შტაბის სპეციალური ოპერაციების ძალების დებულების დამტკიცების შესახებ". LEPL Legislative Herald of Georgia. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  47. ^ Einheiten – KSK – Kommando Spezialkräfte (KSK) . Sondereinheiten.de. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  48. ^ Einheiten – Kampfschwimmer. Sondereinheiten.de. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  49. ^ Greek Raiders, Special Weapons Magazine, October 2013
  50. ^ Special Operation Forces Of Hungary: Is A Transformation Necessary? p. 47 Retrieved on 2015-03-16.
  51. ^ Special Operation Forces Of Hungary: Is A Transformation Necessary? p. 57 Retrieved on 2015-03-16.
  52. ^ Special Operation Forces Of Hungary: Is A Transformation Necessary? p. 66 Retrieved on 2015-03-16.
  53. ^ https://web.archive.org/20081105144117/http://www.bharat-rakshak.com:80/LAND-FORCES/Special-Forces/Para.html. Archived from the original on 5 November 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  54. ^ https://web.archive.org/20080415114107/http://www.bharat-rakshak.com:80/LAND-FORCES/index.php?page=shop.browse&category_id=197&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=26. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  55. ^ https://web.archive.org/20080415114149/http://www.bharat-rakshak.com:80/LAND-FORCES/index.php?page=shop.browse&category_id=85&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=26. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2008.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  56. ^ Lowry, Bob (1996). The Armed Forces of Indonesia. The Armed Forces of Asia. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. pp. 86–89. ISBN 1-86448-144-7. 
  57. ^ Kingsbury, Damien (2003). Power politics and the Indonesian military. Routledge. pp. 93–109. ISBN 978-0-415-29729-5. 
  58. ^ Bennett, Richard M. (2003). Elite Forces. The World's Most Formidable Secret Armies. London: Virgin Books. pp. 102–103. ISBN 0-7535-0823-0. 
  59. ^ Kingsbury, Damien (2003). Power politics and the Indonesian military. Routledge. pp. 110–111. ISBN 978-0-415-29729-5. 
  60. ^ Conboy, Kenneth (2012). South-East Asian Special Forces. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-780-967653. Retrieved October 15, 2015. 
  61. ^ http://www.specialoperations.com/Foreign/Indonesia/default.htm
  62. ^ Power politics and the Indonesian military By Damien Kingsbury
  63. ^ D.J. Elliot, Iraqi Counter Terrorism Bureau, Montrose Toast, 30 June 2009
  64. ^ ARW | Organisation | Army | Defence Forces. Military.ie. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  65. ^ a b Katz, Yaakov (13 August 2006). "Commandos out in the open". USA Today. Retrieved 8 May 2010. 
  66. ^ First female Arab soldier joins elite unit 669 – Israel News, Ynetnews. Ynet.co.il (20 June 1995). Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  67. ^ http://www.specops-dhp.com/defense-news/new-israeli-special-operations-infantry-brigade/
  68. ^ The Israeli Special Forces Database™ – Sayeret, Commando, Special Operations. isayeret.com (6 May 1967). Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  69. ^ a b c d http://cca.analisidifesa.it/downloads/8542322026_it.pdf
  70. ^ a b c http://www.difesa.it/smd/casmd /investiresicurezza/moltiplicatori_strategici.htm
  71. ^ http://www.esercito.difesa.it/root/unita_Sez/unita_ftrpar_9_colmo_voglio.asp
  72. ^ http://www.aeronautica.difesa.it/sitoam/Default.asp?idsez=250&idente=1687
  73. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20081226160323/http://www.difesa.it:80/approfondimenti/festa-repubblica/2giugno08/rivista-militare/sfilamento-reparti/compagnia+g.i.s.+(cc).htm. Archived from the original on 26 December 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  74. ^ "Japanese Special Operations Group". discovermilitary.  and IISS 2013, p.306.
  75. ^ "Special MSDF unit eyed to fight piracy". Satellite.TMCnet.com. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved September 26, 2015. 
  76. ^ http://www.mcmfamily.com/pdfs/SpecialOpsReportJordanTac50.pdf
  77. ^ http://www.jambonewspot.com/licensed-to-kill-the-world-of-kenyas-elite-forces/
  78. ^ "Cartoon - New Straits Times". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  79. ^ "GGK's Long Guns and an RIV too – edited". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  80. ^ "More on Marines Proposal". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  81. ^ "Exercising with allies - Features - The Star Online". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  82. ^ "Malaysian National News Agency :: BERNAMA". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  83. ^ Hardi Effendi Yaacob (November 2010). "High risk of humanitarian aid". Berita Harian online. Retrieved 30 December 2010. 
  84. ^ "Malaysian Special Forces". Tactical Life. Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  85. ^ "Archives". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  86. ^ "Malaysia navy foils ship hijack attempt, seizes pirates". BBC News. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  87. ^ "~ p a s k a l". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  88. ^ "Korps Commandotroepen". Dutch Ministry of Defense. Retrieved 3 January 2015. 
  89. ^ "Korps Mariniers". Dutch Ministry of Defense. Retrieved 3 January 2015. 
  90. ^ "New Zealand's Special Operations Forces Command and Control Diagram". New Zealand Defence Force. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  91. ^ Uja Emmanuel, Makurdi. "Four killed in Benue village attack". The Nation. Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  92. ^ http://www.navy.mil.ng/Deployments#.V4LR76IlrIU
  93. ^ "Marinejegerkommandoen". forsvaret. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  94. ^ "Forsvarets spesialkommando feiret 50-års-jubileum". Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  95. ^ "Strategic assets: Pakistan strengthens security of nuclear assets". 
  96. ^ Special Operations.Com. Special Operations.Com. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  97. ^ A Celebration of the Little Black Dress. Businessmirror.com.ph (17 September 2010). Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  98. ^ Philippine Journals Online. Philjol.info. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  99. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/ga/batwentyone/Spe.html
  100. ^ Web 6 Apr.qxp. (PDF) . Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  101. ^ About Section, Official Force Recon Page.
  102. ^ :: Morska Jednostka Działań Specjalnych – FORMOZA :: STRONA GŁÓWNA ::. Formoza.wp.mil.pl. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  103. ^ [2] Archived 17 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  104. ^ //- Nieoficjalna strona poświęcona Jednostce Wojskowej GROM -//. Grom.mil.pl. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  105. ^ Witamy na stronie 1 PSK. Psk.mil.pl. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  106. ^ Dowództwo Wojsk Specjalnych. Wojskaspecjalne.mil.pl (3 September 2011). Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  107. ^ name="exercito.pt">http://www.exercito.pt/portal/exercito/_specific/public/allbrowsers/asp/default.asp?stage=1
  108. ^ http://www.exercito.pt/portal/exercito/_specific/public/allbrowsers/asp/default.asp?stage=1
  109. ^ "Funcionalidade ou recurso não existe". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  110. ^ "Personalul DSPI, felicitat de ministrul Duşa pentru modul în care îşi face datoria". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  111. ^ "Detasamentul Special de Protectie si Interventie (DSPI)". YouTube. Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  112. ^ Menirea Interventiei Rapide. Presamil.ro. Retrieved on 8 September 2011
  113. ^ "О новом спецназе замолвите слово". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  114. ^ "Lenta.ru: Россия: Общество: В России создали командование сил спецопераций". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  115. ^ Source: Russia Beyond the Headlines - http://rbth.co.uk/articles/2012/12/03/russian_militaries_want_to_create_special_commando_force_20635.html
  116. ^ "Lenta.ru: Оружие: Вооружение: В Кубинке создадут Центр специальных операций". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  117. ^ John Pike. "Spetsnaz Order of Battle". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  118. ^ John Pike. "45th Special Purpose Regiment". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  119. ^ John Pike. "Naval Spetsnaz [Spetsialnaya Razvedha]". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  120. ^ Illustrated Directory of Special Forces, p. 70, at Google Books
  121. ^ "Somali pirates: South Korean commandos storm hijacked tanker and rescue crew - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  122. ^ https://namu.wiki/w/해군%20특수전전단
  123. ^ http://sofrep.com/10163/korean-special-forces-north-vs-south/
  124. ^ https://namu.wiki/w/전단#s-2
  125. ^ "Korean Special Forces: North vs South". SOFREP. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  126. ^ http://www.vs.rs/eng/jedinice/kov/specijalna_brigada.htm
  127. ^ SA Special Forces League. Recce.co.za. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  128. ^ (Spanish)[3]. www.emad.mde.es (Spanish Defence Staff). Retrieved on 16 May 2015.
  129. ^ Ministerio de Defensa. Nodo de Internet. Ejercito.mde.es. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  130. ^ Presentation – Armada Española. Armada.mde.es. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  131. ^ EZAPAC. ejercitodelaire.mde.es. Retrieved on 16 May 2015.
  132. ^ "Inside Secret Raids Performed By Swedish Special Operators". Business Insider. February 4, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2015. 
  133. ^ (Swedish)Creation of Särskilda operationsgruppen - a new Special Forces Unit from Swedish Army website
  134. ^ http://www.special-ops.org/1016/swedish-coastal-rangers-kustjagarna.html
  135. ^ Since 1 August, Switzerland has had its first professional special forces unit, known as DRA10.. swissinfo (5 September 2007). Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  136. ^ "Fehler 404 - Weltwoche Online – www.weltwoche.ch". Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  137. ^ "Nasıl Bordo Bereli olunur?". Özel Kuvvetler. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  138. ^ "Thailand". Nation, Religion, King. Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  139. ^ "An inside look inside Ukraine's top warriors". Tactical Life. 
  140. ^ "Ukraine Military Dispositions" (PDF). Royal United Services Institute. 
  141. ^ "Волонтеры передали 8-му полку спецназа ВСУ спецсредства на сумму свыше 500 тысяч гривен". censor. 
  142. ^ "КАПИТАН ДАН КОЛЕСНИК: "САМЫЙ ТЯЖЕЛЫЙ БОЙ 140-ГО ЦЕНТРА СИЛ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ ОПЕРАЦИЙ"". Censor. 
  143. ^ "В Николаеве простились с бойцом 73-го морского центра специального назначения, который погиб в зоне АТО". Nikolev City. 
  144. ^ "Regarding accusations against "Alpha" Group, the special ops division of the SBU". Maidan. 
  145. ^ Overstretched SAS calls up part-time troops for Afghanistan, www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 21 February 2014
  146. ^ Gregory 2006, p. 297.
  147. ^ L. Thompson - SAS : Great Britain's Elite Special Air Service (p.11) published by MBI, 1999, 128 pages, ISBN 1610607422 [Retrieved 2015-06-25]
  148. ^ Special Reconnaissance Regiment, publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 21 February 2014
  149. ^ "18 Signal Regiment". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 2013.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  150. ^ "Elite special forces unit set up". BBC News. 20 April 2006. 
  151. ^ a b c http://www.raf.mod.uk/RAFodiham/aboutus/whoisbased.cfm
  152. ^ http://www.veterans-uk.info/pdfs/publications/guides/admin_guide/h_part8.pdf
  153. ^ AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. November 2015. p. 62. 
  154. ^ Gary Parsons (January 2014). "News briefs". AirForces Monthly. Stamford: Key Publishing: pg.7. 
  155. ^ "The secretive sister of the SAS". BBC. 16 November 2001. Retrieved 10 March 2010.  (SBS)
  156. ^ "Special Boat Service (Reserve)". Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  157. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "SOCOM 2013 Factbook" (PDF). 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  158. ^ a b c List of Air Groups in the official website of the Venezuelan Air Force, http://www.aviacion.mil.ve/modules/fmcontent/content.php?topic=aviacion&id=11&page=grupos-aereos
  159. ^ "Ministry of National Defence - Socialist Republic of VietNam". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  160. ^ "Cổng TTĐT Bộ Quốc phòng Việt Nam". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  161. ^ "Cổng TTĐT Bộ Quốc phòng Việt Nam". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  162. ^ "Kiểm tra khả năng cơ động bằng đổ bộ đường không của Đoàn đặc công biệt động 1 và 113". Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  163. ^ "Lính trinh sát đi không dấu, nấu không khói...". Báo điện tử Tiền Phong. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  164. ^ Canadian Joint Incident Response Unit | Unité interarmées d'intervention du Canada. Cjiru-uiic.forces.gc.ca. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
  165. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/defence/10648941/Elite-Navy-rescue-team-always-on-call-to-help-submariners.html, and http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121113105021/youtube.com/user/defenceheadquarters?year=2007&page=13. Also see ARRSE.com
  166. ^ "The most secret of secret units". The Week. Retrieved 25 December 2014. 

External links[edit]