List of sports terms named after people

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This is a list of eponyms in sports, i.e. sports terms named after people.

American football[edit]

  • Cleveland Browns: The Cleveland Browns were named after their first coach, Paul Brown. Brown would later become the first coach of the Cincinnati Bengals, which shared the same color scheme as the Browns in part due to Brown.

Artistic gymnastics[edit]

  • Amanar (vault) – Yurchenko family vault, roundoff on and 2½ twists off, after Simona Amânar (Romania)
  • Belyavskiy (parallel bars (dismount)) – double front salto dismount in piked position, after David Belyavskiy (Russia)
  • Blanik (vault) – handspring forward on – piked double salto forward off, after Polish artistic gymnast Leszek Blanik (Poland)
  • Borden (balance beam) – straddled piked jump from a sideways position or side split jump done on the balance beam with a ½ or ¾ turn, after Amanda Borden (USA)[1]
  • Bhardwaj (uneven bars) – a backward flip (Pak salto) on the high bar with full-twist and then catches the low bar, after Mohini Bhardwaj (USA)[2]
  • Bhavsar (still rings) – pull through momentary, front lever press to Maltese, after Raj Bhavsar (USA)
  • Bhavsar (parallel bars) – long hang swing forward, straddle cut backward, and regrasp with straight body at horizontal (Tippelt to long hang swing), after Raj Bhavsar (USA)
  • Bi turn (uneven bars) – after Bi Wenjing (China)
  • Biles (floor exercise) – double layout with ½ turn, after Simone Biles (USA)
  • Brause (uneven bars) – done from the low bar facing away from the high bar with a cast to front salto forward and catching the high bar, after Doris Fuchs-Brause (USA)
  • Bretschneider (horizontal bar) – release with double-twisting double back tucked somersault over bar before regrasp, after Andreas Bretschneider (Germany)
  • Bretschneider II (horizontal bar) – only skill with highest unofficial D-score assignment of "I" in gymnastics, variant of the "Bretschneider" where somersaults are in laid out position, after Andreas Bretschneider (Germany)
  • Bryan (pommel horse) – scissors with ½ turn to handstand, ½ pirouette and straddle back down, after Casey Bryan (USA)
  • Bulimar (floor exercise) – a Johnson leap (switch leap with ¼ turn to side position) with additional full turn, after Diana Bulimar (Romania)
  • Cassina (horizontal bar) – full-twisting double layout somersault over bar, after Igor Cassina (Italy)
  • Cheng (vault) – Yurchenko ½ on – 1½ twists off, after Cheng Fei (China)
  • Chusovitina (floor exercise) – full-twisting double layout salto, after Oksana Chusovitina (USSR, Germany, Uzbekistan)
  • Chusovitina (vault) – handspring forward on – piked salto with full twist off, after Oksana Chusovitina (USSR, Germany, Uzbekistan)
  • Chow-Khorkina or Khorkina-Chow (unven bars) – Stalder 1½ pirouette, after Amy Chow (USA, also first performed by Svetlana Khorkina (Russia))
  • Chow II (uneven bars) – Stalder to Shaposhnikova, after Amy Chow (USA)
  • Comaneci salto (uneven bars) – front support on high bar, cast with salto forward straddle to hang on high bar, after Nadia Comăneci (Romania)
  • Daggett (pommel horse) – scissor backward with ½ counterturn, after Tim Daggett (USA)
  • Dalton (parallel bars) – roll backward with ½ turn tuck or Harada to hang, after Jacob Dalton (USA)
  • Dawes (uneven bars) – back giant with 1½ turn in handstand, after Dominique Dawes (USA)
  • Diomidov (parallel bars) – swing forward with a full turn on one arm to handstand, after Sergei Diomidov (USSR)[1]
  • Dos Santos (floor exercise) – Arabian double pike (½ turn to double front somersault in piked position), after Daiane dos Santos (Brazil)
  • Dos Santos II (floor exercise) – Arabian double layout (½ turn to double front somersault laid out position), after Daiane dos Santos (Brazil)
  • Dowell (floor exercise) - front double piked salto Brenna Dowell (USA)
  • Drăgulescu (vault) – handspring double front tucked somersault with ½ turn, after Marian Drăgulescu (Romania)
  • Drăgulescu piked (vault) – one of 4 vaults with highest official numeric D-score designation of 6.4, variant of Drăgulescu where somersaults are done in piked position, after Marian Drăgulescu (România)
  • Erceg (balance beam (mount)) – round off Arabian front tuck onto the end of the beam, after Tina Erceg (Croatia)
  • Ferrari (floor exercise) – a ring tour jete with ½ turn and a landing on both feet, after Vanessa Ferrari (Italy)
  • Fontaine (uneven bars dismount) – double somersaulting dismount is a back tuck with ½ twist into a front tuck, after Larissa Fontaine (USA)
  • Galante (balance beam) – 1½ turns with leg held in split position, after Paola Galante (Italy)
  • Garrison (floor exercise) – cat leap forward with bent legs and 1½ turn, after Kelly Garrison (USA)
  • Garrison (balance beam) – free shoulder roll forward to stand or tuck stand without hand support, after Kelly Garrison (USA)
  • Garrison II (balance beam) – starts from an extended tuck sit, Valdez swing over backward through horizontal plane with support on one arm, after Kelly Garrison (USA)
  • Garrison III (balance beam) – round-off, tucked full mount, after Kelly Garrison (USA)
  • Gatson (parallel bars) – a swing backward with full turn hop to handstand, after Jason Gatson (USA)
  • Gaylord I (horizontal bar) – front giant into a 1½-twisting front salto over the bar to regrasp – a front somersault in tucked, piked or straddled position over the bar, after Mitch Gaylord (USA)
  • Gaylord II (horizontal bar) – back giant into a layout Gienger (back salto ½ turn) over the bar to regrasp – a back somersault over the bar, after Mitch Gaylord (USA)[3]
  • Gebeshian (uneven bars) – 360° turn from low to high bar known as a full twisting jump Hecht mount (uneven bars), after Houry Gebeshian (Armenia)[4]
  • Gienger salto (horizontal bar, uneven bars) – after Eberhard Gienger (Germany)
  • Gómez (floor exercise) – quadruple spin, after Elena Gómez (Spain)
  • Grigoraş (balance beam) – after Cristina Elena Grigoraş (Romania)
  • Hayden (horizontal bar) – a double salto backwards in layout, with full twist over the bar, after Daniel Hayden (USA)
  • Henrich (balance beam) – a stag-split, split-leap or jump forward with ½ turn, landing on both feet or in a one-two step-out or a split jump in side position with bending of rear leg backward upward that starts from a cross stand, after Christy Henrich (USA)
  • Hindorff (uneven bars) – cleat hip circle to immediate Tkatchev release, after Sylvia Hindorff (East Germany)[1]
  • Huang (uneven bars) – a stalder forward in L-grip with full turn to handstand, initiated on one arm before handstand, after Huang QiuShuang (China)
  • Humphrey (floor exercise) – switch split leap forward with a ¼ turn to side split leap or straddle pike position, after Terin Humphrey (USA)
  • Humphrey (balance beam/floor exercise) – 2½ turn (900°) on one leg, in tuck stand, with free leg optional, after Terin Humphrey (USA)
  • Hypolito (floor exercise) – Arabian double pike with a full twist, after Diego Hypólito (Brazil)
  • Jäger salto (horizontal bar, uneven bars) – swing backwards and salto forwards to catch high bar again, after Bernd Jäger (East Germany)[1]
  • Janz salto (uneven bars) – after Karin Janz (East Germany)
  • Johnson (floor exercise) – a switch-split leap forward with leg change and ¼ turn to side split leap or straddle pike position, after Brandy Johnson (USA)
  • Kasamatsu (vault) – after Shigero Kasamatsu (Japan)[5]
  • Kim (floor exercise) – double tucked back salto, after Nellie Kim (USSR)
  • Kim-Shirai or Shirai-Kim (vault) – round-off, back-handspring, triple-twisting layout, after Kim Hee Hoon (Republic of Korea, also first performed by Kenzo Shirai (Japan))
  • Khorkina (uneven bars) – back uprise and straddle flight over high bar with ½ turn to hang, after Svetlana Khorkina (Russia)
  • Khorkina II (uneven bars) – inner front support on low bar, clear hip circle through handstand with ½ turn in flight to hang on high bar, after Svetlana Khorkina (Russia)
  • Khorkina (balance beam) – gainer back-handspring with full twist before hand support, after Svetlana Khorkina (Russia)
  • Khorkina II (balance beam (dismount)) – gainer 2½-twisting back layout dismount to side or at the end of beam, after Svetlana Khorkina (Russia)
  • Khorkina-Chow or Chow-Khorkina (uneven bars) – Stalder 1½ pirouette, after Svetlana Khorkina (Russia, also first performed by Amy Chow (USA))
  • Khorkina (floor exercise) – hop with 1½ turns to front lying support, after Svetlana Khorkina (Russia)
  • Khorkina (vault) – round-off, back-handspring with ½ turn on, ½ turn into back pike off, after Svetlana Khorkina (Russia)
  • Khorkina II (vault) – round-off, back-handspring with ½ turn on, 1½-twisting front tuck off, after Svetlana Khorkina (Russia)
  • Kolman (horizontal bar) – a full-twisting Kovacs with two back somersaults and one full twist over the bar, after Alojz Kolman (Slovenia)[3]
  • Komova (uneven bars) – clear pike circle backward through handstand with flight and ½ turn (180°) to hang on high bar (uneven bars), after Viktoria Komova (Russia)
  • Komova II (uneven bars) – clear pike circle backwards through handstand with flight to hang on high bar, after Viktoria Komova (Russia)
  • Kononenko (uneven bars) – counter straddle hecht with ½ turn to hang on high bar in mixed L-grip, after Natalia Kononenko (Ukraine)
  • Kotchetkova (balance beam) – full-twisting back handspring, after Dina Kotchetkova (Russia)
  • Korbut flip (balance beam) – standing back somersault to swing down on beam, after Olga Korbut (USSR)
  • Korbut flip (uneven bars) – standing on the high bar, does back flip, then catches the bar, after Olga Korbut (USSR)
  • Kovacs (horizontal bar) – double back somersault over bar, after Péter Kovács (Hungary)[1]
  • Liukin (floor exercise) – one of only two skills with highest D-score assignment of "H" (other is the "Shirai III") in men's floor exercise, triple back tucked somersault, after Valeri Liukin (USSR)
  • Liukin (horizontal bar) – Tkatchev with full-twisting layout, after Valeri Liukin (USSR)
  • Liukin (balance beam) – salto front pike, take off from one leg to one foot landing to scale, hold for two seconds, after Nastia Liukin (USA)
  • Li Li German Giant (uneven bars) – after Li Li (China)
  • Li Li (balance beam) – 1¼ turns on back (balance beam), after Li Li (China)
  • Li Ya salto (uneven bars) – straddled Jaeger caught in a mixed grip, after Li Ya (China)
  • Li Ya (uneven bars (dismount)) – backward giant into an Arabian double front pike, after Li Ya (China)
  • Liu Xuan salto (uneven bars) – giant circle backward to handstand on one arm, after Liu Xuan (China)
  • Magyar traverse (pommel horse) – after Zoltán Magyar (Hungary)
  • Magyar spindle (pommel horse) – after Zoltán Magyar (Hungary)
  • Maloney (uneven bars) – a piked sole circle backward to handstand with a 360° turn after the handstand phase to mixed-L or L-grip, after Kristen Maloney (USA)
  • Maloney (uneven bars) – begins from inner front support on low bar and consists of piked sole circle backward through handstand with flight to hang on high bar, after Kristen Maloney (USA)
  • Ma dismount (uneven bars) – a hecht-front-salto-full, after Ma Yanhong (China)
  • McCool (balance beam) – the beam mount approaches toward the end of the beam and is a flyspring forward with flight before and after the hand support on the beam and lands on both feet – approach at end of beam, after Courtney McCool (USA)
  • McNamara (uneven bars (mount)) – a jump to hang on the high bar into a free hip circle to handstand with ½ turn in the handstand, after Julianne McNamara (USA)
  • Melissanidis (vault) – a round off entry onto the vault table followed by a 2½-twisting back tucked or piked somersault, after Ioannis Melissanidis (Greece)
  • Memmel (floor exercise) – double turn with leg held in split position (double Y-turn), after Chellsie Memmel (USA)
  • Memmel (balance beam) – front flip with ½ turn (Barani) in piked position, after Chellsie Memmel (USA)
  • Miller (uneven bars) – cast to handstand with 1½ turn after handstand to mixed-L grip, after Shannon Miller (USA)
  • Mitchell (floor exercise, balance beam) – triple turn (1080°) in tuck stand on one leg - free leg optional, after Lauren Mitchell (Australia)
  • Mo salto (uneven bars) – Gaylord II (front tuck over high bar, starting and ending in a mixed grip), after Mo Huilan (China)[2]
  • Moors (uneven bars) – from underswing, with feet on bar, salto forward stretched with ½ turn, after Victoria Moors (Canada)
  • Moors (floor exercise) – only skill with highest phonetic D-score designation of "I" in women's floor exercise, double-twisting double back layout, after Victoria Moors (Canada)
  • Mostepanova (floor exercise) – front handspring with full twist before hand support, after Olga Mostepanova (USSR)
  • Mukhina salto (floor exercise) – double salto backwards tucked or piked, with full 360 twist and Mukhina (uneven bars) - Korbut flip with full twist – after Elena Mukhina (USSR)
  • Mustafina (uneven bars (dismount)) – 1½-twisting double back tuck dismount, after Aliya Mustafina (Russia)
  • Mustafina II (uneven bars) – full-twisting Maloney (or Seitz) caught in a mixed grip, after Aliya Mustafina (Russia)
  • Mustafina (floor) – triple Y-turn, after Aliya Mustafina (Russia)
  • Mustafina (vault) – round-off, half turn on, full twisting front off (laid out), after Aliya Mustafina (Russia)
  • Nabieva (uneven bars) – toe-on reverse Hecht (Tkatchev) in the laid out position, named after Tatiana Nabieva (Russia)
  • Nguyen (parallel bars) – a free hip circle mount from the side of the bars with ¾ turn to handstand position, after Marcel Nguyen (Germany)
  • Okino (uneven bars (dismount)) – a free hip underswing with ½ twist to layout back salto, after Elizabeth (Betty) Okino (USA)
  • Okino (balance beam) – triple pirouette (triple turn), after Elizabeth (Betty) Okino (USA)
  • Omelianchik (balance beam) – back handspring with ¾ turn dive to handstand, after Oksana Omelianchik (USSR)
  • Omelianchik (vault) – round-off half on, front pike off, after Oksana Omelianchik (USSR)
  • O'Neill (still rings) – a stretched double feige backward to a hang, after Paul O'Neill (USA)
  • Onodi (balance beam) – back handspring with ½ turn, after Henrietta Ónodi (Hungary)[1]
  • Pak salto (uneven bars) – does a backward flip on the high bar and then catches the low bar, after Gyong Sil Pak (North Korea)[2]
  • Patterson (balance beam (dismount)) – an Arabian double front dismount, after Carly Patterson (USA)
  • Pegan (horizontal bar) – double front salto with ½ turn – 180°, after Aljaž Pegan (Slovenia)
  • Phelps (vault) – ½ turn onto the vault (Tsukahara) to a laid out backflip with ½ turn, after Jaycie Phelps (USA)
  • Phillps (balance beam) – a handstand straddle split, with a 90° backbend, originally performed on the balance beam and press to side handstand, front walkover to side stand on both legs, after Kristie Phillps (USA)
  • Preziosa (balance beam) – full turn with free leg held backwards with both hands, after Elisabetta Preziosa (Italy)
  • Podkopayeva (vault) – round-off, half twist on, front piked somersault with ½ turn off, after Lilia Podkopayeva (Ukraine)
  • Podkopayeva (floor) – double front somersault with a ½ twist, after Lilia Podkopayeva (Ukraine)[1]
  • Popa (floor exercise) – straddle pike jump with full turn (360°), after Celestina Popa (Romania)[1]
  • Produnova (vault) – only skill with highest D-score assignment of 6.4 in women's vault, 1st of only 5 women to land this in competition, front handspring on and double front somersault off, after Elena Produnova (Russia)
  • Ray I (uneven bars) – a Stalder backwards with release and counter movement forward to catch the high bar, after Elise Ray (USA)
  • Ray II (uneven bars) – a handstand on the high bar to a pike sole circle backward into a backward counter straddle-reverse hecht over the high bar and a rematch, after Elise Ray (USA)
  • Ray III (uneven bars (dismount)) – a double-twisting double layout uneven bar dismount, after Elise Ray (USA)
  • The Retton Flip (uneven bars) – a transition (front flip) from low to highbar, resulting in the gymnast perched or "sitting" on top of the high bar, after Mary Lou Retton (USA)
  • Roth (pommel horse) – from cross support, rearways, reverse Stockli, wendeswing forward to reverse Stockli to cross support forward on other end, not touch pommel, after Bill Roth (USA)
  • Semenova (floor exercise) – a double spin with the leg in back attitude, after Ksenia Semenova (Russia)
  • Semenova (balance beam) – full spin with leg in back attitude, after Ksenia Semenova (Russia)
  • Seitz (uneven bars) – in the low bar, pike sole circle through handstand with flight to hang on the high bar with full twist during flight phase, after Elisabeth Seitz (Germany)
  • Shaham (horizontal bar) – 1½-twisting double back somersault over bar, after Noam Shaham (Israel)
  • Shaposhnikova (uneven bars) – on the low bar, free hip circle with flight to hang on high bar, after Natalia Shaposhnikova (USSR)[2]
  • Shewfelt (vault) – Yurchenko stretched with 2½ twists, after Kyle Shewfelt (Canada)
  • Shirai or Shirai-Nguyen (floor exercise) – quadruple-twisting layout backwards, after Kenzo Shirai (Japan, also first performed by Nguyen Tuan Dat (Vietnam))
  • Shirai II (floor exercise) – triple-twisting layout forwards, after Kenzo Shirai (Japan)
  • Shirai III (floor exercise) – one of only two skills with highest official D-score assignment of "H" (other is the "Liukin") in men's floor exercise, triple-twisting double layout backwards, after Kenzo Shirai (Japan)
  • Shirai or Shirai-Kim (vault) – round-off, back-handspring, triple-twisting layout, after Kenzo Shirai (Japan, also first performed by Kim Hee Hoon (Republic of Korea))
  • Shirai II (vault) – one of 4 vaults with highest official numeric D-score designation of 6.4, round-off, back-handspring, 3½-twisting layout, after Kenzo Shirai (Japan, 1st successful attempt in competition – 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro)
  • Shushunova (floor exercise) – straddle jump to lay on front support, after Yelena Shushunova (Russia)
  • Shushunova (uneven bars) – full-twisting Tkachev, after Yelena Shushunova (Russia)
  • Silivaş (balance beam (mount)) – after Daniela Silivaş (Romania)
  • Silivaş (floor) – double twisting double back tucked, after Daniela Silivaş (Romania)[1]
  • Stalder (horizontal bar) – free circle backwards in straddle or legs together through handstand Josef Stalder (Switzerland)
  • Stroescu (floor exercise) – stretched forward salto with 2½ twists, mistakenly named after Silvia Stroescu (Romania)
  • Strong (uneven bars) – shoot over to low bar with 1½ twists, after Lori Strong (Canada)
  • Strong (Lori) hop (balance beam) – after Lori Strong (Canada)
  • Strug (floor exercise) – a tour jete with additional ½ turn and landing on both feet, after Kerri Strug (USA)[1]
  • Talavera (balance beam) – pommel horse-like move with the circle done like a flair, after Tracee Talavera (USA)
  • Teza (balance beam) – Yurchenko loop is performed with a full-twisting handspring, after Elvire Teza (France)[1]
  • Thomas flair (pommel horse, floor exercise) – after Kurt Thomas (USA)
  • Thomas salto (floor exercise) – salto backwards in a tucked or piked position with 1½ twists, after Kurt Thomas (USA)
  • Thomas salto (floor exercise) – salto backwards in a laid out (straight) position with 1½ twists, after Kurt Thomas (USA)
  • Tkachev (uneven bars) – reverse hecht, can be performed in straddled, piked, tucked or laid out, after Aleksandr Tkachyov (USSR)[2]
  • Tsukahara (vault) – involving a ¼ or ½ turn onto the vault and back salto off, after Mitsuo Tsukahara (Japan)[3]
  • Tweddle (uneven bars) – sole circle backward with counter straddle hecht with ½ turn to hang on high bar in mixed L-grip, after Beth Tweddle (Great Britain)
  • Urzică (parallel bars) – salto forwards to full turn to upper arm hang rated, after Marius Urzică (Romania)
  • van Leeuwen (uneven bars) – in the low bar, piked sole circle through handstand with flight to hang on high bar with ½ twist during flight phase, after Laura van Leeuwen (Netherlands)
  • Wang Huiying (vault) – front handspring layout Barani, after Wang Huiying (China)
  • Wells (parallel bars) – a giant swing backwards with in-locate forwards, after Trent Wells (USA)
  • Wevers turn (balance beam) – a double turn on beam with leg held horizontally, after Sanne Wevers (Netherlands)
  • White (uneven bars) – a front stalder into an L-grip to handstand with ½ turn in handstand, after Morgan White (USA)
  • Wong (balance beam) – salto forward tucked with ½ turn mount, after Hiu Ying Angel Wong (China – Hong Kong)
  • Yang (vault) – one of 4 vaults with highest official numeric D-score designation of 6.4, handspring triple twist, after Yang Hak-Seon (South Korea)
  • Yang Bo (balance beam) – stag ring jump with head tilted back, losing sight of the beam, after Yang Bo (China)[1]
  • Yurchenko (vault) – round-off, back-handspring onto the vaulting table, after Natalia Yurchenko (USSR)
  • Yurchenko loop (balance beam) – on side position, back-handspring to backward hip circle, after Natalia Yurchenko (USSR)[3]
  • Zamolodchikova (vault) – Tsukahara stretched with double turn (720°) off, after Elena Zamolodchikova (Russia)
  • Zamolodchikova (balance beam) – flic-flac with full twist to hip circle backwards, after Elena Zamolodchikova (Russia)
  • Yarotska (uneven bars) – Stalder hecht from low bar to high bar, after Irina Yarotska (Ukraine)
  • Zonderland (parallel bars) – 1¼ Diamadov to one bar immediate ¾ Healy to both bars, after Epke Zonderland (Netherlands)

Association football[edit]

Athletics[edit]

Baseball[edit]

Brazilian Jiu Jitsu[edit]

Boxing[edit]

Cricket[edit]

Croquet[edit]

  • Duffer tice – a tice positioned, usually a yard or so North, and a touch East, of Hoop 6, laid on the second turn of the game, named after the Irish croquet player Duff Mathews (Ireland)[6]
  • Peel – to send a ball other than the striker's ball through its target hoop, named after Walter Peel (England)[7][8]
  • Solomon grip – the grip used by and named after John Solomon (England)[6]

Figure skating[edit]

Ice hockey[edit]

Motorsport[edit]

Rhythmic gymnastics[edit]

  • The Shugurova – tipping / spinning a rolling hoop with the feet during a leap, after Galina Shugurova (USSR)
  • The Timochenko – after Alexandra Timoshenko (USSR)
  • Backscale Pivots – after Alina Kabaeva (Russia)
  • The Cid Tostado – starting on one knee, leg forward, ball held with the foot. large roll of the ball on both legs, after Almudena Cid Tostado (Spain)
  • The Kabaeva – on floor Back split pivot with hand help, after Alina Kabaeva (Russia)
  • The Tchachina – Switch leap with changing legs, after Irina Tchachina (Russia)
  • Reverse illusion turns – after Irina Tchachina (Russia)
  • The Utyasheva – backsplit to backscale to backsplit pivot with help, after Laysan Utiasheva (Russia)
  • Ring Pivots (ring pivot spiral also known as "Kanaeva Pivot", quadruple/triple ring turn, quadruple queen pivot) – after Evgenia Kanaeva (Russia)
  • Switch Turn – after Evgenia Kanaeva (Russia)
  • Pivot Turn – revolutions (pivot turn with forward free leg to half free leg position), after Daria Kondakova (Russia)
  • Pivot connecting turns (attitude turns + ring pivot turn with help) – after Daria Dmitrieva (Russia)
  • The Staniouta – cossack turn starting on floor + connecting penchee turn, after Melitina Staniouta (Belarus)
  • The Kudry – back bend to roll over apparatus catch, after Yana Kudryavtseva (Russia)

Rugby league[edit]

Skiing[edit]

Tennis[edit]

Henman Hill AKA Aorangi Terrace – after Tim Henman (Great Britain)

Ultimate (Frisbee)[edit]

Weightlifting[edit]

Wrestling[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Joel Alswang (2003). The South African Dictionary of Sport. Spearhead. pp. 140–143. ISBN 9780864865359. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Uneven Bars Skills Terminology". USGym.net. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Gymnastics Glossary". iSport. 
  4. ^ "Gymnast Will Have The Best Souvenir From Rio Olympics". USAToday. 
  5. ^ "Shigeru Kasamatsu". International Gymnastics Hall of Fame. 
  6. ^ a b "Croquet Jargon". The Croquet Association. 28 December 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  7. ^ Laws of Association Croquet, 6th Edition, amended 2008, Croquet Association
  8. ^ Hawkins, James (2010). Complete Croquet: A Guide to Skills, Tactics, and Strategy. Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1-84797-168-5.