List of stadtholders for the Low Countries provinces

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This is a list of stadtholders for the Low Countries provinces.

Stadtholders of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht[edit]

Stadtholder originally was the representative of the Burgundy and later Habsburg monarchs in the seventeen provinces. After the Northern Netherlands revolted against the Spanish crown, the function was kept to honor the nobles which represented the Dutch Republic, without allowing the nobles to become monarchs. Each province chose/elected their own Stadtholder. During the 80 years wars some areas had two stadholders: those nominated by the Habsburg monarchy and those elected by the individual provinces of the Dutch republic.

The stadtholdership of Holland and Zealand has always been combined. Since the office was instituted there in 1528, the stadtholder of Utrecht has been the same as the one of Holland, with one exception.

In 1572, William of Orange was elected as the stadtholder, although Philip II had appointed a different one.

For Burgundy:

For Habsburg:

Under the Dutch Republic:

First Stadtholderless Period, 1650–1672

Second Stadtholderless Period, 1702–1747

During the Stadtholderless Eras, the provinces of Holland, Zealand and Utrecht were governed by their States free from autocratic intervention. The Second Stadtholderless Era in Holland ended when the Frisian stadtholder became hereditary stadtholder for all provinces of the Dutch Republic.

Stadtholders of Friesland[edit]

For Habsburg:

Under the Dutch Republic:

Stadtholders of Gelre (Guelders)[edit]

  • Guelders independent, 1492–1504
  • Guelders independent, 1511–1543

Under control of the Dutch Republic :

Under control of Spain :

Under control of the Dutch Republic :

First Stadtholderless Era, 1650–1675 (this lasted longer than in Holland and Zeeland)

Second Stadtholderless Era, 1702–1722

Stadtholders of Upper Guelders[edit]

Stadtholders of Groningen[edit]

  • Cristoffel van Meurs, 1519–1522
  • Jasper van Marwijck, 1522–1530
  • Charles of Guelders, 1530–1536
  • Ludolf Coenders, 1536

The Lordship of Groningen under Habsburg rule

From 1584 to 1594, there were two stadtholders: one appointed by the King of Spain, whose authority was only recognized in the city of Groningen, and one on the side of the United Provinces.

Albertine Agnes of Nassau, regentess for Hendrick Casimir II, 1664–1673

Henriette Amalia von Anhalt, regentess for Johan Willem Friso, 1696–1707

Marie Louise von Hessen-Kassel, regentess for William IV, 1711–1729

Stadtholders of Overijssel[edit]

First Stadtholderless Period (1650 – 1675, this lasted longer than in Holland and Zeeland)

Second Stadtholderless Period (1702–1747)

Stadtholders of Luxembourg[edit]

Stadtholders of Hainaut[edit]

(General) Hereditary Stadtholders of the United Provinces[edit]

The style was changed from 22 November 1747, when the office was enacted as hereditary in every province, to Stadhouder-generaal [Hereditary] 'General Stadholder'

  • William IV of Orange, 1747–1751 (had been Stadtholder for all provinces except Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht for some time)

Anne, Princess Royal, regentess for William V, 1751–1759
Marie Louise von Hessen-Kassel, regentess for William V, 1759–1765
Carolina of Orange-Nassau, regentess for William V, 1765–1766

On 16 February 1795, office of stadholder was abolished by the Staten-Generaal (now styled Algemene Staten, a Dutch purism, also translating as 'General Estates').

See also[edit]

External link[edit]