Standard Gibbs free energy of formation

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The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of a compound is the change of Gibbs free energy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 1 bar of pressure and the specified temperature, usually 298.15 K or 25 °C).

The table below lists the Standard Gibbs function of formation for several elements and chemical compounds and is taken from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry. Note that all values are in kJ/mol. Far more extensive tables can be found in the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics and the NIST JANAF tables.[1] The NIST Chemistry WebBook (see link below) is an online resource that contains standard standard enthalpy of formation for various compounds along with the standard absolute entropy for these compounds from which the Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation can be calculated.

Species Phase (Matter) Chemical Formula ΔGfo (kJ/mol)
Aluminum
Aluminum Solid Al 0
Aluminum Chloride Solid AlCl3 -628.9
Aluminum Oxide Solid Al2O3 -1582.3
Barium
Barium Solid Ba 0
Barium Chloride Solid BaCl2 -806.7
Barium Carbonate Solid BaCO3 -1134.4
Barium Oxide Solid BaO -520.4
Barium Sulfate Solid BaSO4 -1362.2
Beryllium
Beryllium Solid Be 0
Beryllium Hydroxide Solid Be(OH)2 -815.0
Boron
Boron Trichloride Solid BCl3 -388.7
Bromine
Bromine Liquid Br2 0
Bromine Trifluoride Gas BrF3 -229.4
Hydrobromic Acid Gas HBr -53.4
Calcium
Calcium Solid Ca 0
Calcium carbide Solid CaC2 -64.9
Calcium Carbonate (Calcite) Solid CaCO3 -1129.1
Calcium Chloride Solid CaCl2 -748.8
Calcium Chloride Aqueous CaCl2 -816.05
Calcium Hydride Solid CaH2 -142.5
Calcium hydroxide Solid Ca(OH)2 -897.5
Calcium Oxide Solid CaO -603.3
Calcium Sulfate Solid CaSO4 -1309.1
Calcium Sulfide Solid CaS -477.4
Carbon
Carbon (Graphite) Solid C 0
Carbon (Diamond) Solid C 2.900
Carbon Dioxide Gas CO2 -394.39
Carbonic acid Aqueous H2CO3 -623.1
Bicarbonate Aqueous HCO3 -586.85
Carbonate ion Aqueous CO32− -527.8
Carbon disulfide Gas CS2 67.1
Carbon Monoxide Gas CO -137.16
Glucose Solid C6H12O6 -910.56
Ethanol Liquid C2H5OH -174.8
Carbonyl Chloride (Phosgene) Gas COCl2 -204.9
Caesium
Caesium Solid Cs 0
Caesium chloride Solid CsCl -414.4
Chlorine
Chlorine Gas Cl2 0
Chromium
Chromium Solid Cr 0
Copper
Copper Solid Cu 0
Copper(I) sulfide Solid Cu2S -86.2
Fluorine
Fluorine Gas F2 0
Hydrogen
Hydrogen Gas H2 0
Water Liquid H2O -237.14
Water Gas H2O -228.61
Hydrogen Peroxide Liquid H2O2 -120.42
Hydrogen Cyanide Gas HCN +124.7
Hydrogen Iodide Gas HI +1.3
Hydrogen Fluoride Gas HF -275.4
Hydrogen Chloride Gas HCl -95.30
Iodine
Iodine Solid I2 0
Iodine Gas I2 19.37
Iron
Lead
Lithium
Magnesium
Magnesium Carbonate Solid MgCO3 -1012.1
Magnesium Chloride Solid MgCl2 -591.8
Magnesium hydroxide Solid Mg(OH)2 -833.7
Magnesium hydroxide Aqueous Mg(OH)2 -769.4
Magnesium Oxide Solid MgO -596.3
Magnesium sulfate Solid MgSO4 -1170.6
Manganese
Manganese(II) oxide Solid MnO -362.9
Manganese(IV) Oxide Solid MnO2 -465.2
Mercury
Mercury(II) Oxide (red) Solid HgO -58.49
Mercury Sulfide (red, cinnabar) Solid HgS -50.6
Nickel
Nitrogen
Ammonia Aqueous NH3 -26.57
Ammonia Gas NH3 -16.4
Ammonium Chloride Solid NH4Cl -203.89
Nitrogen Dioxide Gas NO2 51.3
Nitrogen Monoxide Gas NO 87.60
Oxygen
Monatomic oxygen Gas O 231.7
Dioxygen Gas O2 0
Ozone Gas O3 163.2
Hydroxide Aqueous OH -157.2
Phosphorus
Phosphorus trichloride Liquid PCl3 -272.4
Potassium
Potassium Bromide Solid KBr -380.7
Potassium Chlorate Solid KClO3 -296.31
Potassium chloride Solid KCl -408.5
Potassium Fluoride Solid KF -537.8
Potassium Perchlorate Solid KClO4 -303.1
Silicon
Silica (Quartz) Solid SiO2 -856.4
Silver
Silver Bromide Solid AgBr -96.90
Silver Chloride Solid AgCl -109.8
Silver Iodide Solid AgI -66.19
Silver Oxide Solid Ag2O -11.21
Silver Sulfide Solid Ag2S -40.67
Sodium
Sodium Carbonate Solid Na2CO3 -1044.4
Sodium Carbonate Aqueous Na2CO3 -1051.6
Sodium chloride Aqueous NaCl -393.17
Sodium chloride Solid NaCl -384.1
Sodium Fluoride Solid NaF -546.3
Sodium Hydroxide Aqueous NaOH -419.2
Sodium Hydroxide Solid NaOH -379.4
Sodium nitrate Aqueous NaNO3 -373.21
Sodium nitrate Solid NaNO3 -367.06
Sulfur
Hydrogen Sulfide Gas H2S -33.4
Sulfur Dioxide Gas SO2 -300.13
Sulfur trioxide Gas SO3 -370.4
Sulfuric acid Liquid H2SO4 -689.9
Tin
Titanium
Zinc

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ M.W. Chase, NIST - JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 4th Edition, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Monograph 9, 1998

External links[edit]