List of state leaders in the 4th and 3rd millennia BC

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State leaders in the 20th century BCState leaders by year

This is a list of state leaders in the 4th and 3rd millennium BC (4000–2001 BC).

Africa: Northeast[edit]

Lower Egypt[edit]

Type Name Title Royal house From To Refs
Sovereign Hsekiu Pharaoh ? ?
Sovereign Khayu Pharaoh ? ?
Sovereign Tiu Pharaoh ? ?
Sovereign Thesh Pharaoh ? ?
Sovereign Neheb Pharaoh ? ?
Sovereign Wazner Pharaoh Around 3100 BC?
Sovereign Mekh Pharaoh ? ?

Upper Egypt[edit]

Type Name Title Royal House From To Refs
Sovereign Scorpion I Pharaoh Around 3200 BC?
Sovereign Iry-Hor Pharaoh Around 3150 BC?
Sovereign Ka Pharaoh Around 3150 BC?
Sovereign Scorpion Pharaoh Around 3150 BC?
Sovereign Narmer Pharaoh Around 3150 BC?

Egypt united: Old Kingdom[edit]

Type Name Title Royal house From To Refs
Sovereign Narmer Pharaoh First dynasty 3150 BC? 3125 BC? [1]
Sovereign Hor-Aha Pharaoh First dynasty Around 3050 BC?
Sovereign Djer Pharaoh First dynasty 41–54 years
Sovereign Djet Pharaoh First dynasty 10–23 years
Sovereign Merneith Regent First dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Den Pharaoh First dynasty 14–42 years
Sovereign Anedjib Pharaoh First dynasty 8–10 years
Sovereign Semerkhet Pharaoh First dynasty 8.5–9 years
Sovereign Qa'a Pharaoh First dynasty 2916 BC? 2890 BC? [2]
Sovereign Hotepsekhemwy Pharaoh Second dynasty 2890 BC? 2853 BC? [2]
Sovereign Raneb Pharaoh Second dynasty 10–39 years
Sovereign Nynetjer Pharaoh Second dynasty 40–45 years
Sovereign Weneg Pharaoh Second dynasty 8 years
Sovereign Senedj Pharaoh Second dynasty 20 years
Sovereign Seth-Peribsen Pharaoh Second dynasty 17 years
Sovereign Sekhemib-Perenmaat Pharaoh Second dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Khasekhemwy Pharaoh Second dynasty 17–18 years 2686 BC?
Sovereign Sanakht Pharaoh Third dynasty 2686 BC 2668 BC
Sovereign Djoser Pharaoh Third dynasty 2668 BC 2649 BC [3][4]
Sovereign Sekhemkhet Pharaoh Third dynasty 2649 BC 2643 BC [5]
Sovereign Khaba Pharaoh Third dynasty 2643 BC 2637 BC
Sovereign Huni Pharaoh Third dynasty 2637 BC 2613 BC [6]
Sovereign Sneferu Pharaoh Fourth dynasty 2613 BC 2589 BC
Sovereign Khufu Pharaoh Fourth dynasty 2589 BC 2566 BC
Sovereign Djedefre Pharaoh Fourth dynasty 2566 BC 2558 BC
Sovereign Khafra Pharaoh Fourth dynasty 2558 BC 2532 BC
Sovereign Menkaure Pharaoh Fourth dynasty 2532 BC 2503 BC
Sovereign Shepseskaf Pharaoh Fourth dynasty 2503 BC 2498 BC
Sovereign Userkaf Pharaoh Fifth dynasty 2498 BC or 2494 BC 2491 BC or 2487 BC
Sovereign Sahure Pharaoh Fifth dynasty 2490 BC or 2487 BC 2477 BC or 2475 BC
Sovereign Neferirkare Kakai Pharaoh Fifth dynasty 2477 BC or 2475 BC 2467 BC or 2455 BC
Sovereign Neferefre Pharaoh Fifth dynasty 2460 BC 2458 BC or 2425 BC
Sovereign Shepseskare Pharaoh Fifth dynasty 2467 BC or 2455 BC 2460 BC or 2448 BC
Sovereign Nyuserre Ini Pharaoh Fifth dynasty 2445 BC or 2425 BC 2422 BC or 2421 BC
Sovereign Menkauhor Kaiu Pharaoh Fifth dynasty 2422 BC or 2421 BC 2414 BC
Sovereign Djedkare Isesi Pharaoh Fifth dynasty 2414 BC 2375 BC
Sovereign Unas Pharaoh Fifth dynasty 2375 BC 2375 BC
Sovereign Teti Pharaoh Sixth dynasty 2345 BC 2333 BC
Sovereign Userkare Pharaoh Sixth dynasty 2333 BC 2332 BC
Sovereign Pepi I Meryre Pharaoh Sixth dynasty 2332 BC 2283 BC
Sovereign Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pharaoh Sixth dynasty 2283 BC 2278 BC
Sovereign Pepi II Neferkare Pharaoh Sixth dynasty 2278 BC 2184 BC
Sovereign Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Pharaoh Sixth dynasty 2184 BC [7]
Sovereign Neitiqerty Siptah Pharaoh Sixth dynasty 2184 BC 2181 B

First Intermediate Period of Egypt[edit]

Type Name Title Royal house From To Refs
Sovereign Neferkara I Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Netjerkare Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Menkare Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Neferkare II Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Neferkare Neby Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Djedkare Shemai Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Neferkare Khendu Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Merenhor Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Neferkamin Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Nikare Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Neferkare Tereru Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Neferkahor Pharaoh Seventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Neferkare Pepiseneb Pharaoh Eighth dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Neferkamin Anu Pharaoh Eighth dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Qakare Ibi Pharaoh Eighth dynasty 2169 BC 2167 BC
Sovereign Neferkaure II Pharaoh Eighth dynasty 2167 BC 2163 BC
Sovereign Neferkauhor Pharaoh Eighth dynasty 2163 BC 2161 BC
Sovereign Neferirkare Pharaoh Eighth dynasty 2161 BC 2160 BC
Sovereign Neferkare III Pharaoh Ninth dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Senenh/Setut Pharaoh Ninth dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Mer[ibre Khety] Pharaoh Ninth dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Shed— Pharaoh Ninth dynasty ? ?
Sovereign H— Pharaoh Ninth dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Meryhathor Pharaoh Tenth dynasty 2130 BC ?
Sovereign Neferkare IV Pharaoh Tenth dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Wahkare Khety I Pharaoh Tenth dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Merikare Pharaoh Tenth dynasty ? 2040 BC
Sovereign Mentuhotep I Pharaoh Eleventh dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Intef I Pharaoh Eleventh dynasty 2134 BC 2118 BC or 2117 BC
Sovereign Intef II Pharaoh Eleventh dynasty 2117 BC or 2112 BC 2069 BC or 2063 BC
Sovereign Intef III Pharaoh Eleventh dynasty 2069 BC 2061 BC or 2060 BC
Sovereign Mentuhotep II Pharaoh Eleventh dynasty 2061 BC or 2060 BC 2040 BC

Egypt reunited: Middle Kingdom[edit]

Asia: West[edit]

Assyria[edit]

Kings who Lived in Tents
Type Name Title Royal house From To Refs
Sovereign Tudiya King 23rd century BC?
Sovereign Adamu King ? ?
Sovereign Yangi King ? ?
Sovereign Suhlamu King ? ?
Sovereign Harharu King ? ?
Sovereign Mandaru King ? ?
Sovereign Imsu King ? ?
Sovereign Harsu King ? ?
Sovereign Didanu King ? ?
Sovereign Hanu King ? ?
Sovereign Zuabu King ? ?
Sovereign Nuabu King ? ?
Sovereign Abazu King ? ?
Sovereign Belu King ? ?
Sovereign Azara King ? ?
Sovereign Ushpia King Around 2030 BC?
Sovereign Apiashal King ? ?
Kings whose Fathers Are Known
Type Name Title Royal house From To Refs
Sovereign Apiashal King ? ?
Sovereign Hale King ? ?
Sovereign Samani King ? ?
Sovereign Hayani King ? ?
Sovereign Ilu-Mer King ? ?
Sovereign Yakmesi King ? ?
Sovereign Yakmeni King ? ?
Sovereign Yazkur-el King ? ?
Sovereign Ila-kabkabu King ? ?
Sovereign Aminu King ? ?
Kings whose Eponyms Are not Known
Type Name Title Royal house From To Refs
Sovereign Sulili King 21st century BC?
Sovereign Kikkiya King 21st century BC?
Sovereign Akiya King 21st century BC or early 20th century BC?

Elam[edit]

Type Name Title Royal house From To Refs
Sovereign Humbaba ? Around 2700 BC Around 2680 BC
Sovereign Humban-Shutur ? ? ?
Sovereign The unnamed king of Awan King of Awan Awan dynasty Around 2580 BC ?
Sovereign ...Lu King of Awan Awan dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Kur-Ishshak King of Awan Awan dynasty ? Around 2550 BC
Sovereign Peli King of Awan Awan dynasty Around 2500 BC ?
Sovereign Tata I King of Awan Awan dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Ukku-Tanhish King of Awan Awan dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Hishutash King of Awan Awan dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Shushun-Tarana King of Awan Awan dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Napi-Ilhush King of Awan Awan dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Kikku-Siwe-Temti King of Awan Awan dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Hishep-Ratep I King of Awan Awan dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Luh-Ishshan King of Awan Awan dynasty ? Around 2325 BC
Sovereign Hishep-Ratep II King of Awan Awan dynasty Around 2325 BC ?
Sovereign Emahsini King of Awan Awan dynasty Around 2315 BC 2311 BC
Sovereign Helu King of Awan Awan dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Hita King of Awan Awan dynasty Around 2270 BC
Sovereign Kutik-Inshushinak King of Awan Awan dynasty Around 2100 BC
Sovereign The unnamed king of Simashki King of Simashki Simashki dynasty ? Around 2100 BC
Sovereign Gir-Namme I King of Smiashki Simashki dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Tazitta I King of Simashki Simashki dynasty Around 2040 BC Around 2037 BC
Sovereign Eparti I King of Simashki Simashki dynasty ? Around 2033 BC
Sovereign Gir-Namme II King of Simashki Simashki dynasty Around 2033 BC ?
Sovereign Tazitta II King of Simashki Simashki dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Lurak-Luhhan King of Simashki Simashki dynasty Around 2028 BC 2022 BC
Sovereign Hutran-Temti King of Simashki Simashki dynasty ? ?
Sovereign Indattu-Inshushinak I King of Simashki Simashki dynasty ? 2016 BC
Sovereign Kindattu King of Simashki Simashki dynasty Before 2006 BC After 2005 BC

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Grimal, Nicolas-Christophe. A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, USA: Blackwell, 1992, p. 389, ISBN 978-0-631-17472-1.
  2. ^ a b Bard, Kathryn A. Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. London; New York: Routledge, 1999, p. 27, ISBN 978-0-415-18589-9.
  3. ^ Toby Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, 1999, pp.83 & 95
  4. ^ Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, pp.79 & 258
  5. ^ Clayton (1994) p.32
  6. ^ Clayton (1994) p.42
  7. ^ Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.73

Literature[edit]

  • Clayton, Peter A. (1995). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. The Chronicles Series (Reprinted ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3. 
  • Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3