List of steam car makers

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The steam car manufacturers listed here were mostly active during the first period of volume production, roughly 1860–1930, with a peak around 1900. From 1940 onwards, steam cars have tended to be either prototypes or experimental.

The first experimental steam-powered vehicles were built in the 17th and 18th centuries, but it was not until after Richard Trevithick had developed the use of high-pressure steam, around 1800, that mobile steam engines became a practical proposition. The first half of the 19th century saw great progress in steam vehicle design, and by the 1850s it was viable to produce them on a commercial basis. The next sixty years saw continuing improvements in vehicle technology and manufacturing techniques and steam road vehicles were used for many applications. In the 20th century, the rapid development of internal combustion engine technology led to the demise of the steam engine as a source of propulsion of vehicles on a commercial basis prior to World War II. Since then there have been sporadic resurgences of interest in steam, particularly in the late 1960s in California to address air pollution issues and later in response to the 1973 oil crisis.

1800s – Pioneers[edit]

Make Country Years active Comments
Aiken United States 1882 A steam car built by Dr William E Aiken of the University of Maryland[1]
Austin England 1863 The Austin steamer was made in 1863.[2]
Blackburn England 1878 A steam powered dog-cart.[3]
Blanchard USA 1825 A steam powered wagon created by Thomas Blanchard of Springfield, Massachusetts[4]
Bollée France 1878
Bollee mancel.jpg

In 1878, Amédée père Bollée designed the Mancelle, which is regarded as the first automobile to be put into series production, 50 being manufactured in all.

Božek Poland/Czech Republic 1815
Bozek's steam automobile.jpg
Josef Božek began construction of a steam carriage in 1814 and completed it 1815. Božek is considered one of the founders of Czech mechanics.[5]
Callihan USA 1884
1884 Callihan vehicle.jpg
Designed by Edward Scott Callihan, it was a tricycle layout with a single spoked wheel in front and two at the rear. The driver sat behind the steam boiler on a seat from a reaper. It was steered it with levers. The top speed was 15 mph. Only one was built.[6]
Catley and Ayres England 1863 A small three-wheeled vehicle propelled by a horizontal twin cylinder engine which drove the rear axle by spur-gearing; only one rear wheel was driven, the other turning freely on the axle.
Carhart USA 1871 A steam buggy made by Dr J W Carhart of Rancine, Wisconsin.
Copeland USA 1887 (catalogue published)
Steam Tricycle in Front of North Entrance to Smithsonian Institution Building 1888.jpg
Made a steam powered bicycle and three wheeler. Only prototypes made.[7]
Curtis USA 1867 In 1866 Francis Curtis, Newburyport, Massachusetts invented a steam engine attached to a piece of fire fighting equipment. Curtis demonstrated it to Nehemiah Bean who went on to design the steam powered Amoskeag fire wagon. The following year Curits built a steam passenger carriage for an unnamed client. The client didn't pay and Curits made the first repossession in American history. During the initial testing of the carriage a warrant was issued for Curtis' arrest. To escape the arresting officer Curtis made the first getaway by car in American history.[8]
De Dion-Bouton et Trepardoux France 1883–1904
Marquise 1884.jpg
The company was renamed De Dion-Bouton, possibly as a result of Trepardoux resigning in 1894 over the use of petrol engines. The last steam powered cars were made in 1904. The company lasted until the 1950s.[7][9]
Dudgeon USA 1859
Dudgeon Steam Automobile 1857.jpg
Robert Dudgeon of New York made a steam powered carriage to take his family to church. The carriage was described as noisey and costly to run. It was abandoned.[10][11]
Field USA 1879 A seam car built by Edwin F Field of Lewiston who later went on to superintend the Skene American Automobile Company[12][12]
Fisher USA 1859
PSM V12 D286 Fisher steam carriage 1870.jpg
A one off steam carriage designed by J H Fisher and built by Danforth, Cooke & Co. Fisher continued to work on the carriage until his death in 1873[13]
Grenville England 1875
Beaulieu National Motor Museum 18-09-2012 (8516778752).jpg
It was designed about 1875 by Robert Grenville of Glastonbury with some assistance from his friend George Churchward.
Hills Fleetwood USA 1868 A steam powered buggy later converted to petrol made by James Hill of Fleetwood.[14]
Holt England 1866 H P Holt made a three-wheel light steam carriage.[15]
Jacquot France 1878
Jacquot Tonneau A Vapeur 1878 Mulhouse FRA 001.JPG
Designed and built by Louis Lejeune
Long USA 1880
Long steam tricycle patent drawing.jpg
The Long steam tricycle was built by George A. Long around 1880 and patented in 1883. One example was built.
Manzetti Italy 1864 In 1864, Italian inventor Innocenzo Manzetti, associated with Serpolett, built a road-steamer.[16] It had the boiler at the front and a single-cylinder engine.[16]
Manton USA 1866 experimental coal burning steamer built by Joseph P Manton of Providence, Rhode Island.[17]
Mason USA 1885, 1897 William B Mason of the Mason Regulator Company (now a subsidiary of Dresser Industries made his first steam carriage in 1885. He made a second car in July 1897. Both these vehicles were used as test beds for his steam engines.[8]
Mérelle France 1889 Fernand Mérelle was the concessionaire for De Dion and Bouton at the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris and cars were sold under that name.[9][18]
Olds USA 1886–1894 Ransom Old's is reputed to have made his first steam powered car in 1886. He did make the first car exported from the United States in 1893. It was steam powered and destined for India. However, the ship sank and the car was never delivered.[19]
Peugeot France 1889 The first Peugeot automobile, a three-wheeled, steam-powered car designed by Léon Serpollet, was produced in 1889; only four examples were made.
Rickett England 1860 Rickett made ploughs and steam engines. In 1858 he created a steam powered plought. This inspired the Marquess of Stafford to order a steam carriage. This vehicle had three wheels, the single wheel at the front, and a rear-mounted coal-fired boiler and two-cylinder engine. He made a second vehicle for the Earl of Caithness in 1860. These were potentially Englands first cars.
Roberts USA 1884 A steam car made by John H Roberts of Providence, Rhode Island[17]
Scott New Zealand 1881 Robert Julian Scott's steam powered buggy built by Cutten and Co, Dunedin
Roper USA 1861–1894
Sylvester Roper steam carriage of 1870.jpg
Sylvester H. Roper drove around Boston, Massachusetts on a steam carriage he invented in 1863.[20][21][22][23][24] One of his 1863 carriages went to the Henry Ford Museum, where, in 1972, it was the oldest car in the collection.[12][22][23][25][8]
Santler England 1889 In 1887 the Santler brothers designed a small steam engine which they had running in 1889 and installed in a four-wheeled chassis.
Serpollet France 1887–1898
Léon Serpollet's first steam cars were sold under his own name, before the partnership as Gardner-Serpollet. Serpollet is credited with inventing the flash boiler.
Spencer USA 1862-1904 Christopher Spencer built a steam buggy in Connecticut. He continued making steam vehicles with his last being delivery vans for a New York dairy[26]
Taylor Canada 1867
Henry Seth Taylor Steam Buggy at 2015 CIAS.JPG
The Henry Seth Taylor steam buggy was the first known car built in Canada. It was built by Henry Seth Taylor, a watchmaker and jeweller in Stanstead, Quebec in 1867. It was unveiled at the Stanstead Fall Fair that year.[27][28]
Thury Switzerland 1879
Rene Thury steam tricycle.jpg
In 1879 René Thury made a steam powered tricycle.
Whitney USA 1885–1898 George Eli Whitney of the East Boston Whitney Motor Wagon Company began to make a steam motor-vehicles in 1885 when he partly built one machine. In 1895 he began again and completed the 650 lb carriage in October 1896. He built several more machines after that date. Whitney had gained experience while working on the Roper steam velocipede. For a short time Whitney's were manufactured by the Stanley Manufacturing Company as Stanley-Whitney's and by Everett Motor Carriage Company as Everett's[8] In 1899 Whitney sold the rights to a higher powered version of his car to Brown Brothers of England.[29]

1890s – Commercial manufacture[edit]

Make Country Years active Comments
American Waltham USA 1898–1899 The American Waltham was produced from 1898 to 1899 by the American Waltham Manufacturing Co., a bicycle firm based in Waltham, Massachusetts. It was a typical light steam buggy, with a two-cylinder engine under the seat, tiller steering and cycle-type wheels.[12]
Baldwin USA 1899–1905 The Baldwin Automobile Manufacturing Company made steam runabouts at Connellsville from at least July 1899. By 1901 the company was in receivership, but continued trading till about 1905. The relationship between these cars and Leo Baldwin's is unknown, although they may be the same.[7][30]
Baldwin USA 1899–1901 A steam buggy made by Leo F N Baldwin's Baldwin Automobile Company, of Providence. He moved to Connellsville in March 1900 and built the Baldwin there until 1901. He then returned to Providence and continued manufacturing under the Baldwin Motor Wagon Company until 1902. Closing his factory that year, Leo Baldwin went on to sell steamers and later race Stanley's.[8][17] Also see Cross and Cruickshank - below.
Best USA 1898 Daniel Best of the Best Manufacturing Company, San Leandro made an experimental automobile in 1898 but decided not to put it into production. He also built a runabout for personal use. The company made traction engines; its factory was later sold to Holt—now part of Caterpillar.[31]
Black USA 1891 In 1891 Charles H Black completed and tested his first steam-powered "chug buggy". However, he rejected the steam engine for use in an automobile as being "too cumbersome and hard to manage" and continued to search for a more suitable engine.
Brown-Whitney England 1899–1900 See Whitney
Buard France 1896–1914 Concentrated on steam powered bicycles[7]
Burgett and West USA 1899 C E Burgett and William S West of Middleburgh, New York made a steam car prototype. This vehicle was exhibited in 1901 at the Schoharie County Fairgrounds. No more were known to have been made.[7][32]
Cameron USA 1899 An alternative name for the Eclipse[33]
Cederholm Sweden 1892
Cederholms bil.jpg
Painter Joens Cederholm and his brother, André, a blacksmith, designed their first car, a two-seater, introducing a condensor in 1894. It was not a success.[34]
Century USA 1899–1903
Century-autos 1902-0615.jpg
Century Motor Vehicle Company (1899–1903) was a manufacturer of electric and steam automobiles in Syracuse, New York. The company switched to gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engine-powered automobiles in January 1903, and went out of business later that year.[12]
Clark USA 1895–1909 Edward S Clark made several experimental steam powered wagons in Boston before in 1900 he began manufacturing steam cars at Dorchester. His steam engine was a horizontally-opposed 20 hp 4-cylinder engines of 20 hp which was centrally mounted and had the flash boiler located at the front. He also made steam powered delivery wagons.[12][35]
Clarkson England 1899–1902 [36]
Cross USA 1897 Only one Cross was made. L F N Baldwin of the Cruickshank Engine Works, Providence, Rhode Island made the steam engine, Alonza Cross of the Cross Writing Instrument Company made the chassis, and the body was made H M Howe, a carriage maker. It was the first car made in Rhode Island. Construction began in October 1897 and its first trial run was March 1898.[7][8]
Crouch USA 1897–1899 Three steam powered cars are believed to have been made by W E Crouch, a machinist from New Brighton, Pennsylvania. His third and final car made in Baltlimore still exists and is believed to have been made from parts used in his first two vehicles. The steam engine is thought to be a converted marine engine. The cars body was an angle iron frame with aluminum cladding.[12][37]
Cruickshank USA 1896 Cruickshank Engine Company made steam carriages to order. Alonza Cross' Cross was probably a Cruickshank's as Leo F N Baldwin who constructed the engine was employed by them. Baldwin went on to set up his own firm in 1899.[17]
Dyke USA 1899–1904 A steam kit car produced by A L Dyke Auto Supply Company of St. Louis. When the company ceased making steam cars, it became a publisher [38]
Ernest and Ofeldt USA 1898 see Ofeldt
Eclipse USA 1899–1903 Eclipse Automobile Company bodies were made in Amesbury by Currier, Cameron, and Company.[33]
Electrobat USA 1895–1897 see Morris and Salom
Ellis England 1899–1902 Probably prototypes only.[7]
Europeenne France 1899–1901 (possibly as late as 1905) In early 1899 La Societe Europeene d' Automobiles made a two-seat runabout and a four-seat dogcart. The patent was in the names of Tatin and Taniere.[7][39]
Everett USA 1899 See Whitney
Fawcett-Folwer England 1897 A steam car produced by Fawcett Preston & Co. Ltd[40]
Gaeth USA 1898 An experimental steam car. Paul Gaeth went on to make petrol engined cars at Cleveland, Ohio from 1902 to 1911.[7][12]
Gardner-Serpollet (see Serpollet) France 1899–1907
Serpollet's were made up to 1899, when the Frank Gardner became involved and the make changed to Gardner-Serpollet. The first cars sold under the new name were in 1900.[7]
Gautier–Wehrlé France 1894–1898 Their first cars were steam powered but by 1898 they were using petrol engines.[7]
Grout USA 1899–1905 Their first cars were called New Home. Manufacturing was located in Orange, Massachusetts and the company run by Carl, Fred and C.B. Grout in partnership with Thomas H White. William H Grout, their father, set up the company. The name changed to Grout in 1899.[12]
Hartley USA 1895–1899 The Harley Power Supply Company made a cart powered by a rotary steam engine. IT participated in the 1895 Chicago Times Herald motor race. The company withdrew from vehicle manufacture in 1899.[7][12][41]
House England 1899–1902 See Lifu
Hughes and Atkin USA 1899–1903 Made by William Hughes Joseph W Atkin of the Rhode Island Auto Carriage Company; made about 14 steam powered carriages[17]
Kensington USA 1899–1902 The Kensington Automobile Manufacturing Company manufactured steam cars until 1902. In 1903 the company went out of business after unsuccessfully seeking a licence to manufacture Darracq's.[7][12][42]
Keystone Steamer USA 1899–1900 The Keystone Match and Machine Company of Lebanon, Pennsylvania made three cylinder steam powered car until 1900, when it returned to manufacturing matches and manufacturing machinery.[12][43]
Lamplough England 1896 A shaft driven steamer created by Frederick Lamplough, who went on to make a steam powered car in 1903 for Albany Manufacturing.
Lane USA 1899–1910 Manufactured in Poughkeepsie, New York.[7][12] The Lane Motor Vehicle Company initially produced a 30 horsepower vehicle that could carry six people. The vehicle weighed 3,200 pounds, had a steel frame, a detachable aluminum body, and could obtain a speed of 15 mph. Manufacturing of the vehicle began in 1902 at a price of $2,250. In 1909, Lane sold 150 vehicles. Production of the vehicles ended in 1912 due to high cost of production and the company focused on its primary products which included barn door hangers and automobile jacks.[44]
Leach USA 1899–1901 A 2 or 4 seat buggy for use on good roads.[12]
Lifu England 1899–1902
1901 Lifu Steam Car.jpg
Lifu and House steam cars designed by Henry Alonzo House were manufactured by Liquid Fuel Engineering Company of East Cowes, Isle of Wight. The cars may have been manufactured under license. Most Lifu steam powered vehicles were commercial trucks, buses, and vans. House had made a steam carriage with his brother in 1866.[7][45][46][47]
Locomobile USA 1899–1903
Locomobile acquired the right to make Stanley's in 1899. They were a well-known lightweight and relatively low-cost steam car, although widely criticised for poor performance. In 1904 Locomobile switched to gasoline engines. The company remained in business until the 1920s.[12][48]
Loomis USA 1896 A single steam powered car made by Gilbert J Loomis. In 1900 Loomis went on to build a line of gasoline powered cars.[49]
Malden USA 1898 Light steam cars made by the Malden Automobile Company of Malden[12]
Malevez Belgium 1898–1908 Malevez were agents for Lifu commercial steam powered vehicles. They are known to have manufactured cars, but sources do not state their motive power.[7]
Marlboro USA 1899–1902 The Marlboro Steam Stanhope was built by Orrin P Walker of Boston with assistance from William B Mason who provided the engines. The car was similar in design to Stanley's and Locomobile's of the period. After an initial period of success the company ceased trading in 1903.[12][50][51]
Marsh USA 1899 Marsh Motor Carriage Co, Brockton, Massachusetts[52]
Mason USA 1898–1899 William B Mason of Milton, Massachusetts[52]
Miesse Belgium 1896–1926 The first Miesse steam car La Torpille was made in 1896 by Jules Miesse. In 1903 the company licensed Turner's of England to manufacture its cars under licence. These were marketed as Turner-Miesse. In 1910 the company branched into steam powered commercial vehicles. The final steam cars were made in 1926, and many were used as taxis in Brussels. From that point forward the focus was on petrol and diesel engine commercial vehicles.[7][53][54]
Mobile USA 1899–1903
Mobile steam car 1900 (1351558466).jpg
The Mobile Company of America was founded by John B Walker in 1899 after a fallout with Locomobile's Amzi L Barber, whose financing had earlier allowed Walker to purchase the Stanley Steamer concern. By 1903, the Mobile Company of America was out of business.[12][55]
Montier & Gillet France 1897 The Montier & Gillet was a French automobile manufactured only in 1897. A steam Wagonette steered by a tiller, it featured an odd-looking boiler.
Morris and Salom USA 1895 1897 Morris and Salom Philidelpia[52]
New England USA 1899–1900 The New England Motor Carriage Company made a steam powered runabout. It was lever steered. The company began manufacturing Comet bicycles and sold the steam car business to Stanton Company.[12]
New Home USA 1897–1898 See Grout
Ofeldt USA 1899–1902 F. W. Ofeldt and Sons built steam cars in Brooklyn, New York from 1899 to 1900 and Newark, New Jersey from 1901 to 1902. The first cars were also known as Ernest and Ofeldt.[7]
Orient USA 1898–1899 A steam buggy made by Waltham's.[56]
Ovenden USA 1899 W C Ovenden of West Boylston made a light steam buggy. Only one was sold.[7]
Overman USA 1899–1904 Overman Wheel Company, later the Overman Automobile Company of Chicopee Falls MA[52] See Victor.
Rand & Harvey USA 1899 A light steam buggy made in Lewiston. Probably only a prototype.[7]
Salvason Scotland 1897
Salvesen 1897 Steam Cart on London to Brighton VCR 2008.jpg
A one off steam cart made for a Norwegian who commissioned it for use around his Scottish estate near Grangemouth [57]
Schöche Germany 1895
Dresden verkehrsmuseum Schöche Dampfwagen 01.JPG
Gustav Adolf Schöche in 1895 designed a steam car.[58]
Scotte France 1892–1901
Petit Journal 22 7 1894 Scotte Steam voiture completes Paris-Rouen.jpg
A steam car that competed in the 1894 Paris ro Rouen car race. No further detail is known.
Shaver USA 1895 A steam buggy made by Joseph Shaver of Milawaukee. Only one was made.[31]
Shearer Australia 1898
1898 Shearer steam car.jpg
Australia's first indigenous automobile
Simmonds USA 1893 A two-seat steam carriage that ran on bicycle wheels.[8]
Simpson England 1897–1904 A series of experimental vehicles made by John Simpson of Stirling.[7][59]
Squier USA 1899 A small steam carriage built by W E Squier of Virginia City.[7][12][60]
Stanley USA 1897–1924
1908 Stanley K Raceabout.JPG
Twins Francis E Stanley and Freelan O Stanley produced their first car in 1897. During 1898 and 1899, they produced and sold over 200 cars then selling to rights to Locomobile. In 1902 they formed the Stanley Motor Carriage Company which operated from 1902 to 1924. The cars made by the company were colloquially called Stanley Steamers, although several different models were produced.[12] A Stanley Steamer set the world record for the fastest mile in an automobile (28.2 seconds) in 1906. The record for steam-powered automobiles was not broken until 2009.[61]
Stanley-Whitney (normally called Whitney) USA 1899 See Whitney[7]
Strathmore USA 1899–1902 Two types of car were made by the Strathmore Automobile Company of Boston. The company was founded as the International Automobile Company but changed its name in 1901.[7][12][33]
Sweany USA 1895 Only a prototype was made by Charles S Caffrey Co for Dr F L Sweaney of Philadelphia. The car had four small steam motors, one driving each wheel, that could be driven individually or in combination. One, two, three, or four wheel drive could be selected by moving a lever. The car weighed 1350 pounds. It had a foot brake that also cut off steam and steam power steering.[7][62][63]
Terwilliger USA 1898–1903 A series of prototypes made by William H. Terwilliger prior to launching the Empire Auto Company of Amsterdam, New York in 1904.[7][12]
Thomson Australia 1896–1901 Herbert Thomson of Armadale, Melbourne, built steam cars around 1900. He tested them on the hill of Kooyong Road in nearby Caulfield, where in 1971 the Pritchard steam car was also tested.[7][64]
Tinker and Piper USA 1898–1899 See Waltham
Toward & Philipson England 1897 A coke-fired wagonette with a three-stage tubular boiler, and that could seat six. It made in a joint venture between Toward and Company, engineers, of St Lawrence, and Atkinson and Philipson, Newcastle carriage manufacturers of Tyneside.[65]
Victor USA 1899–1904 In 1899 A H Overman of Chicopee Falls, a bicycle manufacturer, made a steam car called the Victor. Overman named his steam car after the bicycles he made. In 1901 Overman reorganized his company as The Overman Automobile Co and continued to produce the Victor Steam Carriage. About 50 were made by 1901. In 1904 Overman merged with Locomobile.[12][66]
Waltham USA 1898–1903
Waltham 19XX 6HP Spindle-Seat Runabout on London to Brighton VCR 2010.jpg
In 1898 engineers George M Tinker and John W Piper of the Waltham Manufacturing Company build a light steam buggy. It was exhibited at the 1898 Boston Automobile Show in 1898. Two more steam cars were built under the Tinker and Piper name. In 1899 Tinker and Piper set up the Waltham Automobile Company which made steam cars until 1902 or 1903.[7][12]
Waverley USA 1896–1901 and 1909–1916 Waverley Co of Indianapolis became International Motor Car Co in 1901 and revived in 1909[52]
West and Burgett USA 1899 see Burgett and West
Weston England 1897–1905 Rebadged Grout's sold in England under licence.

1900 to 1913 – Volume production[edit]

The early years of the 20th century, prior to World War I, were the heyday of the steam car.

Make Country Years active Comments
Albany-Lamplough England 1903 Designed by Frederick Lamplough and better known as the Lamplough-Albany, it was only made in 1903. Albany also made petrol powered cars.[7]
Altmann Germany 1905–1907 The Altmann was an automobile made by Kraftfahrzeug-Werke GmbH, Brandenburg/Havel from 1905 to 1907. See also the American Aultman[7]
AMC England 1900-1910 The Automobile Manufacturing Company (AMC) was a short-lived British steam car manufactured in London around 1900[67] to 1910.
Anderson USA 1901–1902 Steam cars made by the Anderson Steam Carriage Company of Anderson[7][68]
Arden England 1908 Steam cars made by the Arden Steam Car Company, Halifax probably not produced commercially [7]
Artzberger USA 1903–1905 See Foster[7]
Aultman USA 1901–1902 The Aultman was a 1901 American automobile manufactured in Canton, Ohio[7]
Ball USA 1902 Miami Cycle and Manufacturing Company Middletown Ohio[52]
Barton USA 1903 Barton Boiler Company Chicago, Illinois made steam cars to order[52]
Binney-Burnham USA 1901–1902 A steam automobile built in Boston from 1901 to 1902 by James L Binney and John Appleton Burnham.[12]
Bliss USA 1901 A steam car made by the Bliss Chainless Automoile Company of Attenborough. The drive train was spur geared to the rear axle rather than chain drive.[7][69]
Bolsover England 1902 Only made a prototype. No production model made. Best known as makers of the Bolsover Express boiler, used for steam launches and as a replacement boiler for Stanley steam cars.[7][70]
Bon-Car England 1905–1907 No series production cars made.[7][70]
Boss USA 1903–1907 A steam car made by the Boss Knitting Machine Works of Reading[7][69]
Brecht USA 1901–1903 Steam powered cars made by the Brecht Automobile Company of St Louis[7][69]
Breer USA 1900
1901 Breer steam car.jpg
A steam powered car made by Carl Breer, an engineer who later went on to work for Chrysler and is credited with providing much of the aerodynamic design to the Chrysler Airflow.[69]
Buffard France 1900–1902 Details unknown—named in list of steam car makes[7]
California USA 1903–1905 Maker of steam, electric, and gasoline automobiles based in San Francisco[7]
Campbell Australia 1901 A steam car made by Archie M Campbell of Liverpool Street, Hobart[71]
Cannon USA 1902–1906 Details unknown—named in list of steam car makes.[7]
Capitol USA 1902–1903 A steam built by the Capitol Automobile Company of Washington DC and based on a Frank Goodwin model developed from experiments that commenced in 1889.[12][69]
Central USA 1905–1906 A rotary steam engine powered vehicle made by the Central Automobile Company of Providence, Rhode Island.[69]
Chaboche France 1901–1906
Chaboche steam system AMJ 19030516.jpg
Chaboche made steam cars and a steam wagon with a 2.5 ton carrying capacity.[7][72]
Chautauqua USA 1911 A car made by the Chautauqua Motor Company, Dunkirk, New York[7]
Chelmsford England 1901–1903 The company exhibited two cars and a van at the 1903 motor show. They were made at the Moulsham Works in Chelmsford.[7][73] Chelmsford also built many steam buses.
Chicago USA 1905–1907 A steam car made by the Chicago Automobile Company.[7][69]
Cincinnati USA 1903–1905 A two-seat steam powered car made by the Cincinnati Automobile Company of Ohia.[7][12][69]
Clark USA 1900–1909 Advanced flash boiler steam cars made by Edward S Clark Steam Automobiles of Dorchester.[7][69]
Cloughley USA 1902–1903 A four-seat steam powered surray made by the Coughley Motoer Vehicle Company of Parsons[12][69]
Connor Switzerland 1903 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Conrad USA 1900–1924 A variety of 2 and 4 seat models plus a dos-a-dos [7][12][74]
Cook England 1901–1902 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Cotta USA 1901–1903 A 4-wheel drive and steering steam car made by Charles Cotta's Cotta Autombobile Company of Lanark, Illinois.[12][75]
Covert USA 1901–1907 B. V. Covert and Company was a manufacturer of automobiles in Lockport, New York from 1901 to 1907. The company started as a manufacturer of steam-powered cars, but later switched to gas-powered vehicles. Some Coverts were exported to England as Covert-Jacksons.[7]
Cremorne England 1903–1904 A steam car made by the Cremorne Motor Manufacturing Company of Chelsea[7][70]
Crompton USA 1903–1905 A steam car made by the Crompton Motor Carriage Comoany of Worcester [7][12]
Dawson USA 1900–1902 A steam car made by George Dawson's Dawson Manufacturing Company at Waynesboro (then known as Basic City). Only one was completed and sold.[7][12][76]
Desberon USA 1901–1904 The Desberon was an American automobile manufactured from 1901 until 1904. The company initially built steam trucks, and later branched out into making 4 hp gas-driven "pleasure carriages" built along "French lines".[7]
Doble USA 1906–1930
1924 Doble Model E at Henry Ford Museum.jpg
The first Doble was made from wrecked White with a Doble steam engine. Two more prototypes were made with production starting with the Model B. The most technically sophisticated of the steam car manufacturers. Even after they had been supplanted by petrol engines for use in automobiles, Abner Doble continued to sell his experience in designing water-tube boilers to railway locomotive manufacturers, such as Sentinel.[12]
Eastman USA 1900–1903 Henry Eastman and Jay Hayes formed the Eastman Automobile Company in Cleveland to make steam cars. At the end of 1900 Eastman and Hayes sold the company to the Benson Automobile Company.[12]
Eclipse USA 1900–1903 Eclipse Automobile Company Boston[52]
E.J.Y.R England 1907 see Rutherford
Elberon USA 1903 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7][12]
Electronomic USA 1900–1901 The Electromagnetic Steamer was manufactured by the Simplex Motor Vehicle Company. The company was incorporated in 1900, but made its first car in 1899.[7][33]
Elite USA 1900–1901 A model built by D B Smith and Company, Utica, New York[12][74]
Empire USA 1901 Built by Empire Manufacturing Company of Stirling, Illionois also known as the Stirling steam car[7][74]
Empire USA 1904–1905 A steam-driven car designed by William H Terwilliger of the Empire Auto Company of Amsterdam, New York. Several experimental models were made from 1898 but production only started in 1904.[12]
English Mechanic England 1900–1905
--English Mechanic 1904 on London to Brighton VCR 1995.jpg
Do-it-yourself steam car and tricycle designed by Thomas Hyler White for The English Mechanic and World of Science magazine. He also designed petrol cars—pictured.[7]
Essex USA 1905–1906 A 4-cylinder steam car made by the Essex Motor Car Company of Boston[7][12][33]
Fawcett-Fowler England 1907–1909 [36]
Federal USA 1901–1903 A steam car made by Federal Motor Vehicle Company of Brooklyn, New York [7][12]
Fidelia France 1905–1906 A steam car produced by Voitures Fidelia of Angers, Maine-et-Loire; France[7]
Filtz France 1901–1910 Mostly commercial vehicles[7]
Foster USA 1900–1903
Foster steam car 1901 (6467281375).jpg
The Foster Automobile Manufacturing Company of Rochester, New York produced 165 vehicles before bankruptcy in 1903. One of the investors in the company William H. Artzberger, an artist of Allegheny acquired the rights, and founded the Artzberger Automobile Company. Re-launching the cars as improved Foster's in 1903. The company ceased auto production in 1905.[12][77]
Frazer England 1911 Possibly only a prototype made[7][70]
Friedmann USA 1900–1903 A steam car made by the Friedmann Auotmobile Company of Chicago[7]
Gage USA 1903 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Geneva USA 1901–1904 The Geneva Steamer was made in 1901 by the Geneva Automobile and

Manufacturing Company of Geneva, Ohio. One is on display at the Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan. Geneva also made the Turtle, a racing car. In 1904 the company was sold to the Colonial Brass Co.[12]

Henrietta USA 1901 A steam car made by the Henrietta Motor Company of New York[7]
Hess USA Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[12]
Hidley USA 1901 Between one and four were made by the Hidley Automobile Company of 257 Broadway, Troy, New York
HLB England 1914 Possibly only a prototype made by HLB Motors; Islington Green, London[7][70]
Hoffman USA 1902–1904 A light steam car made by The Hoffman Automobile and Manufacturing Company at Cleveland, Ohio. From 1904 the company switched to petrol powered vehicles, the Royal Tourist.[12]
Holland USA Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[12]
Hood USA 1900–1901 Steam car made by Ralph Hood of Danvers associated with the Simplex Motor car company.[12][33]
Houghton USA 1900–1901 A steam car made by H R Houghton's Houghton Automobile Company of West Newton[7]
Howard USA 1900–1902 Steam cars built by the Howard Automobile Company of Trenton, New Jersey[12]
Howard USA 1901–1903 A chainless steam car built by William S Howard's Trojan Launch and Automobile Works of Troy, New York[78]
Hudson USA 1901–1902 A steam car designed by Howard Coffin and built by Bean-Chamberlain Manufacturing Company [12][74]
Hythe England 1903 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
International USA 1903 In Toledo became the International Motor Car Company for a time before becoming Pope Motor Car Company[12]
Jaxon USA 1903–1904
1903 Jaxon Steam Car.jpg
Steam cars made by Jackson Automobile Company of Jackson, Michigan[12]
Johnson USA 1905–1907 Steam cars made by Professor Warren F Johnson's Johnson Service Company

of Milwaukee until 1907 when the company switched to petrol powered vehicles. The company ceased business after Johnson died in 1912.[7][12]

Keene USA 1900–1901 The Keen Steammobile was built by the Trinity Bicycle Company of Keene. In 1901 the company changed name to the Steammobile Company of America and the cars name also changed to Steammobile.[79]
Keenelet England 1904 Possibly only a prototype built by Keene's Automobile Works of London[7][70][80]
Kellogg USA 1903 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7][12]
Kent's Pacemaker USA 1900 An unusual steam car made by A W Kent's Colonial Company of Boston. It had a wheel for steering at the front and three rear wheels, one of which propelled the car while the other two could be lifted making it more like a motorbike.
Kidder USA 1900–1901 Three styles of Kidder's were made including a delivery wagon.[12][81]
King Steamer USA 1904 One-off steam automobile built for Gilbert M King.[17]
Knoller Austria 1904-1910
TMW - Dampfauto.jpg

Steam cars made by Max Friedmann of Vienna. Very few were made.

Kraft USA 1901 A steam car made in St. Louis, Missouri.[7][12]
L'Autovapeur France 1905–1906 A Parisian steam car make powered by a Gardner-Serpollet engine[7]
Lamplough-Albany England 1903 see Albany-Lamplough
Lane USA 1900 Steam cars made by Lane Motor Vehicle Company of Poughkeepsie, New York[7][74]
Liquid Air USA 1901-1902 Liquid Air Power and Automobile Company Boston[52]
Locke USA 1901 see Puritan [12]
Lozier USA 1901–1902 A Lozier Motor Company prototype steam car. The production cars, commencing in 1905, had petrol engines only.[7]
Lyons USA Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[12]
Maryland Steamer USA 1900–1901 A steam car made by the Maryland Automobile Manufacturing company of Luke, Maryland
MCC England 1902–1904 Motor Construction Company of Nottingham steam cars sold as Vapomobile [7][54][82]
McCurdy USA 1901 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
McKay Steam Buggy USA 1900–1902 Renamed Stanley-Whitney made by Frank Forrester Stanley's Stanley Manufacturing Company. Stanley's reverted to manufacturing shoes and in 1920 were taken over by the A G Walton Shoe Co.[7][12][33]
Meteor USA 1902–1903 Reading steam cars were built by the Meteor Engineering Company from 1902 after the company acquired the Steam Vehicle Company of America[12][83]
Miller USA 1903 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Mills USA Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[12]
Milwaukee USA 1900–1902 A steam stanhope made by the Milwaukee Automobile Company[12][74]
Moncrief USA 1901–1902 James A Moncrief of the Pawtucket Steamboat Company of Pawtucket, Rhode Island made a few steam cars[12][17]
Morriss England 1906–1912 Only four cars were made at Sandringham. Only one survives.[7][70][84]
Morse USA 1904–1909 Made by the Morse Motor Vehicle Company of Springfield. In 1909 the company became the Easton Machine Company, which made a petrol powered vehicle under the Morse name.[7][12][85]
Neff Canada 1901 A steam buggy built Benton Neff of Port Colborne and displayed at the Port Colborne Historical and Marine Museum.[86]
Neustadt-Perry USA 1901–1903 J.H. Neustadt and Perry was partnership. In 1904 Neustadt bought out Perry forming the Neustadt Automobile and Supply Company located in St Louis, Missouri. From 1904 it made petrol powered cars[7][12][87]
New Home USA 1901 See Grout[7]
Ophir USA 1901 Made by the Century Motor Vehicle Company of Syracuse, New York[7]
Ormond USA 1904–1905 Made by United Motor and Vehicle Co of Boston[7][12]
Overholt USA 1909 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7][12]
Oxford USA 1900–1904 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[12]
Paridant Belgium 1903–? Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Parker-Wearwell England 1901 Thomas Hugh Parker of Wearwell Motor Carriage Company, Wolverhampton made a steam car. Only one seems to have been made with Wearwell concentrating on petrol powered motor bikes.[7][88]
Pawtucket USA 1901–1902 A single seat car made by the Pawtucket Steam Boat Company of Providence, Rhode Island[7][12]
Pearson-Cox England 1908–1916
Pearson-Cox steam car (Autocar Handbook, Ninth edition).jpg
Pearson and Cox were steam and petrol powered car makers from Shortlands, Kent[89]
Phelps USA 1901 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Pierce USA 1900 The first car made by George N Pierce and Co was steam powered but a failure. They switched to petrol cars.[49]
Pope USA 1903–1904 The Pope Motor Car Company replaced the International Motor Car Company making Toledo's.[90]
Porter USA 1900–1901 Steam cars made by Porter Motor Company of Boston[12][74]
Prescott USA 1901–1907 The steam cars were made by A L Prestcott's Prescott Automobile Manufacturing Company, 09 Chambers Street, New York. The company closed in 1907 after an employee stole most of its cash.[12][81]
Puritan USA 1902–1903 Albert Locke's Lock Regulator Company of Salem, Massachusetts built a four-passenger steam runabout named the Puritan.[7][12][91]
Ramapaugh USA 1902 Charles A Ball's Miami Cycle and Manufacturing Company decided to build automobiles in 1902. The name Ramapaugh came from an old Indian chief who lived near Ball in New York. Ball bought the first and only vehicle completed.[92]
Randall USA 1902 A steam carriage made by G N Randall[7]
Randolph USA Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[12]
Reading USA 1900–1902 A steam car made by Steam Vehicle Company of America, Reading. The company was sold to Meteor Engineering Co in 1902.[12][93]
Reid New Zealand 1903-1905 Made three steam cars which used engines imported from the United States
Rexer France 1905–1910 see Weyher et Richemond
Richmond USA 1902–1903 A steam car made by the Richmond Automobile Company of Richmond, Indiana[12]
Riley & Cowley USA 1902 A steam car made in Brooklyn, New York[7]
Rochester USA 1900–1901 A steam buggy made by Rochester Carriage Motor Company of Rochester, New York[12]
Ross USA 1905–1909 A steam car made by Louis S Ross of Newtonville[12][74]
Rutherford (also known as E.J.Y.R.) England 1907–1912 The car was designed by E J Y Rutherford and George Hamilton of the Highclere Motor Car Syndicate Ltd, and was first known by Rutherford's initials as the E.J.Y.R.[7]
Safety USA 1901 Safety Steam Automobile Company Boston[52]
Schirmer Switzerland 1903–1904 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Seely USA 1900s A double engined steam car made by F L Seely. Only one is believed to have been built.[74]
Shatswell USA 1901–1903 A kit steam car sold by H K Shatswell and Co Dedham MA[52]
Sheppee England 1912 A steam automobile made in York by Colonel F H Sheppee's Sheppee Motor Company. Only two were made. Prior to this Sheppee made commercial vehicles. The company still exists but no longer makes vehicles[7]
Siemens-Halske Germany 1900–1905 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Simons USA 1903 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7][12]
Simpson India 1903 Samual John Green of Simpson & Co, Madras produced the first Indian steam car in 1903. The made were very few as the company specialised in coachmade bodies for imported motor car chassis.[94][95]
Skene USA 1900–1901 Steam cars made by Skene American Automobile Company of Springfield[12][74]
SM England 1904–1905 A steam car that may never have got beyond prototype.[70]
Springer USA 1904–1906 Steam car made by John H Springer's Springer Motor Vehicle Company of New York[7][12]
Springfield USA 1900–1904 The Springfield Motor Car Company mae a steam powered van in 1901, but no details of a steam powered car found[7][12][96]
Stammobile USA 1902–1905 A steam buggy made by the Stammobile Manufacturing Company of Stamford, Connecticut[7]
Standard USA 1902–1905 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Stanton USA 1901 Stanton Manufacturing Co acquired the New England steam car business in 1901. They continued to make the cars with some improvements but ceased business the same year.[7][12]
Steamobile USA 1901–1902 The renamed Keene. In 1902 the factory closed because of over-production.[7][12][79]
Stearns USA 1900–1904
Stearns-steamer 1902 hickory.jpg
E C Stearns of Syracuse, New York owned a huge automobile parts supply store and as owner of the Stearns Automobile Co made Stearns Steam Carriages. He made the automobile company a subsidiary of E J Pennington's Anglo-American Rapid Transit Co which drained money from Stearns company making it went bankrupt.[12][79]
Sterling USA 1901–1902 see Empire[12]
Stesroc England 1905–1906 A steam car made by Johnson Brothers; Knaresborough, Yorkshire[7]
Stolz Hungary 1911–1915 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Storck USA 1901–1903 Steam cars made by Frank C Storck of Red Bank, New Jersey[7][12][74]
Stringer USA 1901 Prototype only made by Stringer Automobile Company of Marion, Ohio.[7][12]
Strouse USA 1915 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7][12]
Sunset USA 1901–1904 A steam car made by Dorville Libby Junior's Sunset Automobile Company of San Francisco until they switched to petrol engines[12]
Taunton USA 1901–1904 A steam runabout built by Everitt Cameron. Cameron went on to build petrol powered cars under his name.[7][12]
Thompson USA 1900–1902 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7][12] There was a Thompson Automobile Company of Providence Rhode Island that made a six-passenger steam car in 1906[52]
Toledo Steam Carriage USA 1901–1903
Toledo 1902 Steam Dos-à-Dos on London to Brighton VCR 2008 (2996646839).jpg
A steam car first made in September 1900 by the American Bicycle Company of Toledo, Later by the International Motor Car Company, then by Pope in 1903. Production ceased in 1903 and Pope contracted the Manhattan Supply Company to dispose of the remaining cars. The last were sold in 1904 at below cost.[12]
Tractobile USA 1900–1902
1901 Tractobile Tracto-Surrey.jpg
The Tractobile was built by E J Pennington's company of Carlisle between 1900–1902. While a car with that name could be ordered it was more an engine and wheels on a removable frame that could be attached to a carriage instead of horses. Very few were built.[7][12][79]
Trinity USA 1900 Possibly a name for Keene's as they were made by the Trinity Cycle Manufacturing Company[7][12]
Triumph USA 1900 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7]
Turner-Miesse England 1902–1913 Miesse's from Belgium built under licence in England.[7][54][97]
Twombly USA 1904, 1910 The first of Williard Twombly's three attempts to make a car. The steamer was too expensive to produce so he turned to petrol. This to proved two expensive. His 1910 version had a quick replacement engine and a body that could be changed. Unfortunately Twombly could not raise funds to manufacture the car. He tried again in 1914 with a petrol powered cyclecar, but this suffered the same fate.[8][12]
Vapomobile England 1902–1904 See MCC [7][54]
Xander USA 1901–1902 The Xander automobile company was founded in 1901 by John G. Xander in Reading, Pennsylvania. His first cars were steam, then gasoline engines were used. He only built his car custom order. In 1902, he stopped.
Warfield England 1903 Possibly only a prototype[7][70]
Watch City USA 1903 Steam car made by Watch City Automobile Company of Waltham, Massachusetts[7]
Watt USA 1901 Named in list of steam cars—details unknown[7][12]
Webb-Jay USA 1908 Racing specials largely of White Motor Company origin[7][12]
Westfield USA 1902–1903 Steam cars made by C J Moore Manufacturing Company of Westfield[12][74]
Weyher et Richemond France 1905–1910 Steam cars made by Automobiles Weyher et Richmond of Pantin, Seine. Probably no private cars built after 1907. Also known as Rexer[7]
White USA 1900–1911
The White Motor Company was an American automobile and truck manufacturer from 1900 until 1980. The company also produced bicycles, roller skates, automatic lathes, and sewing machines. Before World War II, the company was based in Cleveland, Ohio. From 1900 to 1911 White produced steam powered cars before switching to gasoline.[7][12]
Wood USA 1902–1903 A steam car made by the Wood Vapor Vehicle Company of Brooklyn, New York[12]
Wood-Loco USA 1901–1902 A steam car made by Wood-Loco Vehicle Company of Cohoes, New York[7]

1914 to 1939 – Decline[edit]

The steam cars of this era up until the 1930s were the last steam powered production cars. The power advantages that steam had possessed were overtaken by the improvements to the petrol powered internal combustion engines.

Make Country Years active Comments
Alena USA 1922 The Alena Steam Products Company of Indianapolis, Indiana began making steam trucks in 1920.[98] The Alena Steam Car was an American car planned for manufacture in 1922. Only two cars were built, both touring models; each had a wheelbase of 126 inches (3,200 mm). The company went into receivership and closed in 1923.[99]
American USA 1924–1948 The American Steam Car's were production cars of various makes retrofitted with steam engines of the American Steam Automobile Co, West Newton, Massachusetts, from 1924 to 1948. It was built by Thomas S. Derr, a former faculty member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[12] Among the cars made was the Leslie steam car of the late 1930s early 1940s[100]
American Steamer USA 1922–1924 Steam cars manufactured by the American Steam Truck Co. of Elgin, Illinois[7]
Baker USA 1917–1924 Steam cars made by Dr Hartley O Baker's Baker Steam Motor Car and Manufacturing Company of Pueblo and Denver, Colorado[7]
Barlow USA 1922 Steam cars made by L P Barlow's Barlow Steam Car Company - also known as Barlow Steam Engineering Company, the Barlow-Detroit, and the Barlow Steam Engineering Syndicate.[7]
Brooks Canada 1923–1926 A Detroit steam car made by Brooks Steam Motors Limited.[7]
Bryan Steam Car USA 1918–1923 Steam cars made by Bryan Steam Motors of Peru, Indiana. Only six were built.[7][69]
Clermont USA 1922 A short lived steam car company.[7][12][101]
Coats USA 1922–1923
1923Coats Steam Car.JPG
Steam cars made by Coats Steam Car Company of Chicago, later models called Stewart-Coats[12][74]
Crossland USA 1922–1923 Designed by Harry Crossland Pfaff, the 2-cylinder Crossland of the Crossland Steam Motive Corporation debuted at the January 1923 Chicago Automobile Show. It was financed Edwin Galt Brookfield. Four are though to have been built with only one, a 1923 Crossland Phaeton, known to have survived.[102]
Davis USA 1921 The Davis Steam Motors Inc of Detroit may have built a steam car. The company was formed in March 1921 by Merrill Davis, E M Bliss, F D Sieberg, and A B Eggert.
Delling USA 1923–1927 A steam car developed by Eric H. Delling of the Delling Steam Motor Company West Collingwood, New Jersey and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[7][12]
Derr USA 1926–1931 (possibly as late as 1935) see American [7]
Detroit USA 1922 The Detroit Steam Motors Corporation of Detroit made steam cars called Trask-Detroits in 1922. The company became Brooks Steam Motors maker of the Brook steam car.[12]
Endurance USA 1924–1925 A steam car built by the Endurance Steam Car Company of Los Angeles, California and later Dayton, Ohio[7][12]
Gearless USA 1921–1923 Made by Peterson-Culp Gearless Steam Automobile Company, Denver, Colorado[12]
HLB England 1914 Prototype only[36]
Lutz USA 1917 proposed car by Lutz Motor Co Buffalo New York [52]
MacDonald USA 1923–1924 Steam cars made by MacDonald Steam Automotive Group of Garfield, Ohio[7][12][74]
Marion-Handley USA 1916–1919 Mutual Motors Company, Jackson MI [52]
Mercury USA 1923 Steam car made by the Mercury Steam Car Corporation of San Francisco [12]
Remal-Vincent USA 1923 A steam car made by the Steam Car Corporation of California based in San Francisco[7][12]
Scott-Newcomb USA 1921–1922 See Standard[12]
Standard USA 1920–1921
1920 scott.jpg
Manufactured by the Standard Engineering Company of St Louis, Missouri from 1920 until 1921. Also known as the Scott-Newcomb [12]
Stewart-Coats USA 1923 see Coats[12]
Super-Steamer USA 1918–1919 see Gearless[12]
Trask-Detroit USA 1922–1923 See Detroit[7]
Windsor USA 1922–1923 See Detroit[52]

1940 to date – Renewed interest[edit]

Makes in this era are generally prototypes or experimental.

Make Country Years active Comments
Aerojet USA 1972
71 Chevrolet Vega Hatchback Coupe.jpg
Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company of Sacramento were contracted by the Californian Assembly to develop a steam powered car. Aerojet retrofitted a steam turbine into a Chevrolet Vega.[103]
Arbel Symétric France 1958 First French nuclear concept car was to be possibly powered by a steam engine driven by steam from a nuclear reactor.
Autocoast Vaporizer USA 1969 A retrofitted Indy Car by Ernest Kanzler which was to attempt to set a new steam car speed record driven by Skip Hedrick at Bonneville on 19 October 1969.[104]
Besler Brothers USA 1956-57
1953 Kaiser Manhattan
Project for Henry Kaiser to install a steam engine in a Kaiser Manhattan
Crank USA 1977 see Steamin' Demon
Detrick USA 1957 Forrest R Detrick's S-101 prototype
Dutcher USA 1972
1974 Dutcher steam car.jpg
Steam Power Systems of San Diego were contracted by the Californian Assembly to develop a steam powered car. They build the Dutcher, a car named after the company's founder, Cornelius Dutcher. It is on display at the Petersen Automotive Museum in Los Angeles[103]
Enginion Germany 1996 An R&D subsidiary of the Volkswagen group developing a system called ZEE (Zero Emissions Engine). It produced steam almost instantly without an open flame.
Ford FX Atmos USA 1954 Possible future variants could have used nuclear power in the form of steam engine using steam from a nuclear reactor.[105]
Ford Mystere USA 1955 Was to be world's first nuclear powered concept car. Never went past model stage. Was to use a steam engine powered by steam from a nuclear reactor.[citation needed]
Ford Nucleon USA 1958 Was to be world's second nuclear powered concept car. Never went past model stage. Was to use a steam engine powered by steam from a nuclear reactor.
Ford Seattle-ite XXI USA 1962 Concept car demonstrated at 1962 Worlds Fair in Seattle never went past concept stage. Was to use nuclear powered steam engine as auxiliary source of power.
General Motors USA 1969 Two experimental steam powered cars. The SE 124 based on a converted Chevrolet Chevelle and the SE 101 based on the Pontiac Grand Prix.
Healey England 1970 Donald Healey decided to make a basic steam-car technology more in line with Stanley or Doble and aimed at enthusiasts.[106]
Inspiration England 2009
Imagination steam car (4979628989).jpg
The British Steam Car Challenge broke the record for a steam vehicle setting a new speed record of 238.679 km/h (148.308 mph)[107]
Keen USA 1940–1973 Completed two experimental cars and was constructing a third at the time of his death.
Kinetics Corporation USA 1970 A variant of the steam engine made by Wallace L. Minto of Kinetics Corporation, using Ucon U-113 fluorocarbon as the working fluid (instead of steam) and kerosene, gasoline, or the like as a fuel. The first vehicle was a Volkswagen Microbus fitted with a Stanley Steamer engine using U-113 instead of water. The second was a Datsun Bluebird 510 Stationwagen.[108] He followed that in 1973 Freon powered Nissan 520 light truck.[109]
Lear USA 1969 A retrofited Chevrolet Monte Carlo and an Indy Car prototype
Likamobile USA 2005–
Likamobile steam car.jpg
A steam powered replica of the Locomobile Style 2 (1900–1901) that is made in kit-form by Modelworks.[110]
Paxton USA 1953–1954
1953 Paxton Phoenix.jpg
A prototype called the Phoenix was created by the Paxton Engineering Division of McCulloch Motors Corporation, Los Angeles, incorporating Abner Doble's Doble Ultimax engine.[111] The project was eventually dropped in 1954.[112]
Peterson Stanley powered
Pellandine Australia 1970s-2012
Pellandine steam car.jpg
Peter Pellandine conducted experiments with a steam car for the South Australian government. He made an attempt on the steam speed record in 1976 and continued his interest in developing steam powered cars until his death in 2012
Pritchard Australia 1972
1962 Ford XL Falcon Futura Sedan.jpg
Edward Pritchard created a steam powered 1963 model Ford Falcon in 1972.
Ranotor Sweden 2000s After leaving Saab, Dr Ove Platell started a company Ranotor with his son Peter Platell to develop a steam hybrid that uses the exhaust heat from an ordinary petrol engine to power a small steam engine to reduce fuel consumption.
Saab Sweden 1974 A project codenamed ULF headed by Dr Ove Platell made a prototype steam-powered car. After Saab dropped the project Platell started his own project - see Ranotor
Simca Fulgur France 1958 Second French nuclear concept car was to be possibly powered by a steam engine driven by steam from a nuclear reactor.
Steam Speed America USA 2014 A speed record attempt car by Chuk Williams of Team Speed America. It crashed on its first run after reaching 147 mph.
Steamin' Demon USA 1985 Barber-Nichols Engineering of Denver used a steam turbine they had designed for Lear and the Los Angeles city bus program to attempt to gain the steam powered land speed record. It reached 145.607 but only completed one pass due to a fire. The cars body was a Fiberfab Aztec 7 and had originally been completed by James Crank for his 1977 steam record attempt.[113]
Studebaker-Packard Astral USA 1957 Was Studebaker-Packard answer to the Ford Nuclear Concept Cars. This too possibly could have used a steam engine powered by steam from a reactor.
Williams USA 1957–1968 Calvin C William's Williams Engine Company Incorporated of Ambler began advertising steam car retrofits or complete cars in 1957. At least one original car was built, using a Victress S4 body. They were offering a steam converted Chevrolet Chevelle for $10,250. Nine were ordered along with a Ford Fairlane from the Ford Motor Company. Cost of components delayed the project causing the Williams to close in 1968.

See also[edit]


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