List of stellar streams

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Stellar streams in the Milky Way, discovered in 2007

This is a list of stellar streams. A stellar stream is an association of stars orbiting a galaxy that was once a globular cluster or dwarf galaxy that has now been torn apart and stretched out along its orbit by tidal forces. A notable exception in the list about Milky Way streams given below is the Magellanic Stream, composed of gas (mostly hydrogen).

Local Group streams[edit]

Milky Way streams[edit]

Known streams in the Milky Way[1]
Name Origin Mass
(Solar masses)
Length
(light years)
Composition Discovery year
Arcturus stream Defunct dwarf galaxy Unknown Unknown Old stars deficient in heavy elements 1971[2]
Cetus Polar Stream Defunct dwarf galaxy Unknown Unknown Old stars 2009 [3]
Magellanic Stream Large and Small Magellanic Clouds 200 million 1 million Hydrogen gas 1972
Sagittarius Stream Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy 100 million 1 million Wide variety of stars 1994
Helmi stream Defunct dwarf galaxy 10 to 100 million Several complete loops around the Milky Way Old stars deficient in heavy elements 1999
Palomar 5 stream Globular cluster Palomar 5 5,000 30,000 Old stars 2001
Virgo stream Defunct dwarf galaxy 30,000 2001
Monoceros ring Canis Major dwarf galaxy 100 million 200,000 Intermediate-age stars 2002
Anticenter stream Defunct dwarf galaxy Unknown 30,000 Old stars 2006
NGC 5466 stream

45 Degree Tidal Stream

Globular cluster NGC 5466 10,000 60,000 Very old stars 2006[4][5]
Orphan stream Unknown (hence its name) Unknown [6] 20,000 Old stars 2006
Acheron stream Globular cluster 2007[4][7]
Cocytus stream Globular cluster 2007[4][7]
Lethe stream Globular cluster 2007[7]
Styx stream Defunct dwarf galaxy (Possibly Boötes III (dwarf galaxy)) 2007[4][7]
Bootes III stream Embedded in, & possible progenitor of Styx stream 2007[4][7]
Aquarius Stream Defunct dwarf galaxy Unknown 30,000 Old stars 2010
Lamost 1 disrupted globular cluster 21,000 intermediate age stars 2015[8]

Andromeda Galaxy streams[edit]

Known streams in the Andromeda Galaxy
Name Origin Mass
(Solar masses)
Length
(light years)
Composition Discovery year
M31 Giant
stellar stream
Andromeda NE
stellar stream[9]
2004
Tidal Stream Northwest (Tidal Stream E and F)[10] 2009
Tidal Stream Southwest[10] 2009

Streams beyond the Local Group[edit]

Other known streams outside the Local Group
Name Location Origin Mass
(Solar masses)
Length
(light years)
Composition Characteristics Discovery year
Young Blue Tidal Stream[11] NGC 5128 A gas fragment or
a dwarf galaxy
2002
NGC 4013[12] former dwarf satellite
with low inclination orbit
large looping structure 2008
NGC 5907[13] low-mass satellite accretion multiple surrounding loops 2009
NGC 4651[14] satellite accretion narrow jet-like structure and surrounding debris shell 2010
NGC 3521[14] satellite accretion jet-like structure and surrounding debris shell 2010
NGC 7531[14] satellite accretion surrounding debris shell 2010
NGC 1084[14] satellite accretion three giant disconnected plumes of similar width 2010
NGC 4216[14] satellite accretion ongoing tidal disruption of satellite galaxies
seen as long tails extending from the progenitor satellite
2010
NGC 1055[14] satellite accretion clear box shaped inner halo sprinkled with a plethora of coherent spikes 2010
NGC 5291 galaxy interaction two separate tidal tails to the north and south ?

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ibata, Rodrigo; Gibson, Brad (April 2007). "The Ghosts of Galaxies Past". Scientific American. 296 (4): 40–45. Bibcode:2007SciAm.296d..40I. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0407-40. PMID 17479629. 
  2. ^ Ibata, Rodrigo; Gibson, Brad (April 2007). "The Ghosts of Galaxies Past". Scientific American. 296 (4): 40–45. Bibcode:2007SciAm.296d..40I. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0407-40. PMID 17479629. 
  3. ^ Heidi Jo Newberg; Yanny, Brian; Willett, Benjamin A. (July 2009). "Discovery of a New, Polar-Orbiting Debris Stream in the Milky Way Stellar Halo". The Astrophysical Journal. 700 (2): L61–L64. arXiv:0906.3291Freely accessible. Bibcode:2009ApJ...700L..61N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/L61. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Rings around the galaxy". Astronomy. June 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  5. ^ Grillmair, C. J.; Johnson, R. (1 March 2006). "The Detection of a 45° Tidal Stream Associated with the Globular Cluster NGC 5466". The Astrophysical Journal. 639 (1): L17–L20. arXiv:astro-ph/0602602Freely accessible. Bibcode:2006ApJ...639L..17G. doi:10.1086/501439. 
  6. ^ Heidi Jo Newberg; Willett, Benjamin A.; Yanny, Brian; Xu, Yan (January 2010). "The Orbit of the Orphan Stream". The Astrophysical Journal. 711: 32–49. arXiv:1001.0576Freely accessible. Bibcode:2010ApJ...711...32N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/711/1/32. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Four New Stellar Debris Streams in the Galactic Halo". The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 693, Issue 2, pp. 1118-1127. March 2009. arXiv:0811.3965Freely accessible. Bibcode:2009ApJ...693.1118G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/693/2/1118. 
  8. ^ Vickers, John J.; Smith, Martin C.; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong (2015). "LAMOST 1: A Disrupted Satellite in the Constellation Draco". The Astrophysical Journal. 816: L2. arXiv:1512.05090Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016ApJ...816L...2V. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L2. 
  9. ^ A New Giant Stellar Structure in the Outer Halo of M31, by Zucker + 19 more, 8 Jan 2004 (retrieved on 15 Apr 2008)
  10. ^ a b New tidal streams found in Andromeda reveal history of galactic mergers
  11. ^ A Young Blue Tidal Stream in NGC 5128, Peng, Ford, Freeman, White, 22 Aug 2002, (retrieved on 15 Apr 2009)
  12. ^ Discovery of a Giant Stellar Tidal Stream Around the Disk Galaxy NGC 4013, D Martinez-Delgado, M Pohlen, R. Jay Gabany, S. R. Majewski, J Penarrubia, C Palma , 24 Oct 2008
  13. ^ Fossils of the Hierarchical formation of the Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 5907, D Martinez-Delgado, J Penarrubia , R. Jay Gabany, I Trujillo, S. R. Majewski, M Pohlen, 13 Aug 2009
  14. ^ a b c d e f Stellar Tidal Streams in Spiral Galaxies of the Local Volume: A Pilot Survey with Modest Aperture Telescopes, D Martinez-Delgado, R. J. GaBany, K Crawford, S Zibbeti, S. R. Majewski, H Rix, J Fliri, J Carballo-Bello, D. C. Bardalez-Gagliuffi, J Penarrubia, T. R. Chonis, I Trujillo, M Schirmer, D. A. McDavid, 25 March 2010

External links[edit]