List of sterile insect technique trials
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method for the biological control of pests using area-wide inundative release of sterile insects to reduce reproduction in a field population of the same species (IPPC, 2007). SIT technique may be applied as part of an area-wide control (integrated pest management) approach of insects of medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. It was in 1937 when Edward Knipling proposed using sterilization to control or eradicate insect pests after observation that screwworm fly males mate repeatedly while females mate only once. He then made the hypothesis that if large numbers of sterile males could repeatedly be released into wild populations, it would eventually eliminate population reproduction and lead to eradication.
This table is a list of sterile insect technique trials worldwide.
|Tsetse fly||1944–1946||Tanzania||Release of Glossina morsitans centralis into a Glossina swynnertoni population||Hybrid males were sterile and the female hybrids partially sterile. 99% suppression in 26 km2|
|Cochliomyia hominivorax||1951||United States: Sanibel Island (47 km2), Florida||Release 39 sterile male flies per km2 per week for several weeks||Field evaluation pilot test. Resulted in up to 100% sterility of the egg masses, greatly reduced the wild population, incomplete eradication because of the wild fertile flies flying from the mainland.|
|Cochliomyia hominivorax||1954||Netherlands Antilles: Curaçao (435 km2)||Released 155 sterile males per km2 per week||100% egg sterility after 2 generations. Evident eradication was accomplished within 14 weeks. Releases were stopped after 22 weeks.|
|Cochliomyia hominivorax||1958–1959||United States: Florida||Release 155–1160 sterile flies per km2 per week||Eradication. Total cost was $11M, about 50% of the annual losses.|
|Cochliomyia hominivorax||1962–1966||United States: Texas and western states||Release 200–1000 sterile flies per km2 per week||Declared eradication in Texas and New Mexico in 1964 and in the entire USA in 1966. Thereafter, the program goal changed to population containment from the initial eradication|
|Cochliomyia hominivorax||1984–2001||Central America||Sterile flies release||Declared eradication in Mexico, 1991, Guatemala, 1994, El Salvador 1995, Honduras 1996, Nicaragua 1999, Costa Rica 2000, Panama, 2001|
|Cochliomyia hominivorax||1990–1992||Libya||Release 40 million sterile flies per week||Operated by a joint FAO/IAEA Division. Only 6 instances of wounds infested with screwworm larvae were found in 1991, compared with more than 12000 cases in 1990. Eradication was declared in June 1992|
|Mexican fruit fly||1964–current||United States: Southern California and Texas||For eradication, release 96,000 and 61,500 sterile flies per km2 per week in CA and TX, respectively||Started to eradicate in CA in 1964 and to exclude in TX a decade later. Continued as containment program|
|Bactrocera tryoni||1962–||Australia||Released 1600 million sterile flies in 1990. For containment method, release 60,000 sterile flies per km2 for 12 weeks after catching the last wild fly.||Field trials began in 1962. Population was suppressed strongly, but not eradicated because of long-range immigrants. Eradication was achieved in Western Australia in 1990. Since the mid-1990s, it has been used as containment method.|
|Ceratitis capitata||1978–||Mexico and Guatemala||Produced 500 million and 3,500 million sterile flies per week in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively||First large-scale fruit fly AW-IPM program using SIT. Eradication in 1982. For over 25 years, this program kept Mexico, the USA, and half of Guatemala free of the pest. Genetic sexing strains were later introduced.|
|Melon fly||1972–1993||Japan||Released up to 4 million sterile fly pupae per week, total 264 million during the pilot test. Total 50,000 million sterile flies were released.||A pilot experiment began in 1972 and eradication was declared in 1978. An operation program started in 1984. Complete eradication achieved in 1993.|
|Ceratitis capitata||1980s–||Israel||Released males||Genetic sexing strain|
|Ceratitis capitata||1994–||United States: California and Florida||Release sterile males of the tsl sexing strain VIENNA 7||Started as eradication program. It was successful and cost-effective and thereafter (1996) applied as a permanent preventative program in CA, FL, and Guatemala.|
|Ceratitis capitata||1997–||Jordan-Israel-Palestine||Released genetic sexing strain VIENNA 7||As population suppression rather than eradication|
|Onion maggot||1981–||Netherlands||Sterile insects are provided from a private source||The program has not been able to expand beyond 16% of the onion production area due to free-riders. Ongoing long-term suppression program over 20 years|
|Tsetse fly||1970–1990s||Burkina Faso (3,000 km2), Nigeria (1,500 km2) and Tanzania (1,650 km2)||Combination method with attractant traps and insecticides||Eradication|
|Tsetse fly||1990s||Uganda||Autosterilization of wild flies||Suppression|
|Anopheles quadrimaculatus||1959–1960||United States: Florida||Release adult males after sterilizing in pupal stage. 430,000 males over 48 wks at 2 locations||Poor competitiveness. No population reduction.|
|Culex quinquefasciatus||1967||Myanmar: Okpo||Release 5000 daily for 9 wks. Sterility from cytoplasmic incompatibility||Population eliminated|
|Culex quinquefasciatus||1969||United States: Florida||Release 930,000 males over 12 wks after chemosterilization with thiotepa||Population suppressed and eliminated partially due to the sterile males released|
|Culex pipiens||1970||France||Release hundreds of thousands over 8 wks after sterilizing with chromosome translocation||Population reduced due to the persistent translocation|
|Culex quinquefasciatus||1973||India: Delhi||Release 300,000 sterile males daily over 14 wks, total 23 million. Sterilization with cytoplasmic incompatibility, and chromosome translocation.||Population reduced due to the established sterility from cytoplasmic incompatibility and translocation.|
|Culex quinquefasciatus||1973||India: Delhi||Release total 38 million sterile males over 25 wks. Chemoterilization with thiotepa.||Up to 90% sterile eggs, but no clear population suppression due to immigration|
|Aedes aegypti||1974||Kenya: Mombasa||Release 57,000 genetically modified males over 10 wks. Sterilization with chromosome translocation||Partial sterility, but no long-term persistent translocation|
|Anopheles albimanus||1972||El Salvador: Lake Apastepeque||Released 4.4 million sterile males over 22 wks. Chemosterilization of genetic sexing strain pupae with bisazir.||100% sterility induced in wild population. Well below detection level after 5 months.|
|Anopheles albimanus||1977–1979||El Salvador: Pacific coast||Released 100s million males. Bisazir sterilization. Use genetic sexing strain (MACHO).||Target field population was reduced by 97%, but eradication prevented by unexpected immigration.|
|Culex tarsalis||1981||United States: California||Released 85,000 males over 8 wks after sterilizing with adult irradiation||Assortative mating was observed, but no population reduction.|
|Cockchafers||1959, 1962||Switzerland||Released 3,109 and 8,594 males after radiation sterilization.||Field trials. The population was reduced by 80% and 100%.|
|Boll weevil||1971–1973||United States: Mississippi||Combined methods of insecticide and SIT||Large pilot field experiment. Population was suppressed below detection levels in 203 of 236 fields. The remainder were close to uncontrolled area (less than 40 km).|
|Sweetpotato weevil||1994–1999||Japan||Released sterile weevils after insecticide application.||Complete eradication|
|Lepidoptera||1994||Canada: British Columbia||Released irradiated codling moths||As a population suppression method|
|Aedes albopictus||2012||Reunion Island||Semi field condition test using the sterilizing dose of 40 Gy with cesium-137 irradiator||two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility|
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- Knipling, E.F. 1979. The basic principles of insect population and suppression and management. USDA handbook. Washington, D.C., USDA.
- Knipling, E.F. 1985. Sterile insect technique as a screwworm control measure: the concept and its development. Symposium on eradication of the screwworm from the United States and Mexico. Misc. Pub. Entomol. Soc. Am., 62: 4-7.
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- Vanderplank, F. L. 1947. Experiments in the hybridization of tsetse flies (“Glossina Diptera”) and the possibility of a new method of control. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society (London) 98: 1-18.
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- New World Screwworm eradication
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1992. The New World screwworm eradication programme. North Africa 1988-1992. FAO. Rome, Italy.
- Mexican fruit fly program in CA and TX
- Fisher, K. 1996. Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni): eradication from Western Australia, pp. 535– 541. In B. A. McPheron and G. J. Steck (eds.), Fruit fly pests. A world assessment of their biology and management. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, FL, USA.
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- Villaseñor, A., J. Carrillo, J. Zavala, J. Stewart, C. Lira, and J. Reyes. 2000. Current progress in the medfly program Mexico-Guatemala, pp. 361–368. In K. H. Tan (ed.), Proceedings: Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies and Other Insect Pests. International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, and the 5th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 28 May–5 June 1998, Penang, Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
- Yosiaki ITO, Hiroyuki Kakinohana, Masaaki Yamagishi, Tsuguo Kohama, 2003, Eradication of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, from Okinawa, Japan, by Means of the Sterile Insect Technique, with Special Emphasis on the Role of Basic Studies, Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Volume 6, Issue 2, November 2003, Pages 119-129.
- Nitzan, Y., Y. Rössler, and A. P. Economopoulos. 1990. Field testing of “genetic sexing strain” for all-male releases in SIT projects. Report, Research Coordination Meeting. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.
- Dowell, R. V., I. A. Siddiqui, F. Meyer, and E. L. Spaugy. 2000. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California, pp. 369–375. In K. H. Tan (ed.), Proceedings: Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies and Other Insect Pests. International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, and the 5th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 28 May–5 June 1998, Penang, Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
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- Caceres, C., J. P. Cayol, W. R. Enkerlin, G. Franz, J. Hendrichs, and A. S. Robinson. 2004. Comparison of Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) (Tephritidae) bisexual and genetic sexing strains: development, evaluation and economics, pp. 367–381. In B. N. Barnes (ed.), Proceedings, Symposium: 6th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 6–10 May 2002, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Isteg Scientific Publications, Irene, South Africa.
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- Loosjes, M. 2000. The sterile insect technique for commercial control of the onion fly, pp. 181–184. In K. H. Tan (ed.), Proceedings: Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies and Other Insect Pests. International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, and the 5th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 28 May–5 June 1998, Penang, Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
- Politzar, H., and D. Cuisance. 1984. An integrated campaign against riverine tsetse, Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina tachinoides by trapping and the release of sterile males. Insect Science and its Application 5: 439–442.
- Takken, W., M. A. Oladunmade, L. Dengwat, H. U. Feldmann, J. A. Onah, S. O. Tenabe, and H. J. Hamann. 1986. The eradication of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Glossinidae) using traps, insecticide-impregnated targets and the sterile insect technique in central Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research 76: 275–286.
- Msangi, A. R., K. M. Saleh, N. Kiwia, I. I. Malele, W. A. Mussa, F. Mramba, K. G. Juma, V. A. Dyck, M. J. B. Vreysen, A. G. Parker, U. Feldmann, Z. R. Zhu, and H. Pan. 2000. Success in Zanzibar: eradication of tsetse, pp. 57–66. In K. H. Tan (ed.), Proceedings: Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies and Other Insect Pests. International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, and the 5th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 28 May–5 June 1998, Penang, Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
- Oloo, F. P., P. A. Langley, F. Luyimbazi, and L. M. Ogwal. 2000. Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) and autosterilisation lethality in the eradication of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newst. (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Buvuma Islands in Lake Victoria, Uganda, pp. 311–314. In K. H. Tan (ed.), Proceedings: Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies and Other Insect Pests. International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, and the 5th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 28 May–5 June 1998, Penang, Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
- Dame, D. A., D. B. Woodward, H. R. Ford, and D. E. Weidhaas. 1964. Field behavior of sexually sterile Anopheles quadrimaculatus males. Mosquito News 24: 6–16.
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- Horber, E. 1963. Eradication of the white grub (Melolontha vulgaris F.) by the sterile male technique, pp. 313–332. In Proceedings, Symposium: Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. FAO/IAEA, 22–26 April 1963, Athens, Greece. STI/PUB/74. IAEA, Vienna, Austria.
- Klassen, W. 1989. Eradication of introduced arthropod pests: theory and historical practice. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America 73: 1–29.
- Kohama, T., M. Yamagishi, H. Kuba, and K. Kinjo. 2003. A progress report on the eradication program of the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), with both male annihilation using sex pheromone and sterile insect releases in Kume Island, Okinawa, Japan, pp. 65–69. In Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management — economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study. Research Institute for Subtropics, Okinawa, Japan.
- Bloem, K. A., and S. Bloem. 2000. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada, pp. 207–214. In K. H. Tan (ed.), Proceedings: Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies and Other Insect Pests. International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, and the 5th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 28 May–5 June 1998, Penang, Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
- Oliva CF, Jacquet M, Gilles J, Lemperiere G, Maquart PO, et al. (2012). "The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males". PLoS ONE. 7 (11): e49414. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049414.