List of stock market crashes and bear markets
This is a list of stock market crashes and bear markets. The difference between the two relies on speed (how fast declines occur) and length (how long they last). Stock market crashes are quick and brief, while bear markets are slow and prolonged. Those two don't always happen within the same decline.
|Tulip mania Bubble||1637||A bubble (1633–37) in the Dutch Republic during which contracts for bulbs of tulips reached extraordinarily high prices, and suddenly collapsed|||
|The Mississippi Bubble||1720||Banque Royale by John Law stopped payments of its note in exchange for specie and as result caused economic collapse in France.|
|South Sea Bubble of 1720||1720||Affected early European stock markets, during early days of chartered joint stock companies|
|Bengal Bubble of 1769||1769||Primarily caused by the British East India Company, whose shares fell from £276 in December 1768 to £122 in 1784|
|Crisis of 1772||1772|
|Financial Crisis of 1791–92||1791||Shares of First bank of US boom and bust in Aug and Sept 1791. Groundwork of Alexander Hamilton's cooperation with the Bank of New York to end this event would be crucial in ending the Panic of 1792 next year.|
|Panic of 1796–1797||1796||A series of downturns in Atlantic credit markets led to broader commercial downturns in Great Britain and the United States.|
|Panic of 1819||1819|
|Panic of 1825||1825|
|Panic of 1837||10 May 1837|
|Panic of 1847||1847|
|Panic of 1857||1857|
|Panic of 1866||1866|
|Black Friday||24 Sep 1869|
|Panic of 1873||9 May 1873||Initiated the Long Depression in the United States and much of Europe|
|Paris Bourse crash of 1882||19 Jan 1882|
|Panic of 1884||1884|
|Encilhamento||1890||Lasting 3 years, 1890–1893, a boom and bust process that boomed in late 1880s and burst on early 1890s, causing a collapse in the Brazilian economy and aggravating an already unstable political situation.|||
|Panic of 1893||1893|
|Panic of 1896||1896|
|Panic of 1901||17 May 1901||Lasting 3 years, the market was spooked by the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901, coupled with a severe drought later the same year.|
|Panic of 1907||Oct 1907||Lasting over a year, markets took fright after U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt had threatened to rein in the monopolies that flourished in various industrial sectors, notably railways.|
|Wall Street Crash of 1929||24 Oct 1929||Lasting over 4 years, the bursting of the speculative bubble in shares led to further selling as people who had borrowed money to buy shares had to cash them in, when their loans were called in. Also called the Great Crash or the Wall Street Crash, leading to the Great Depression.|
|Recession of 1937–1938||1937||Lasting around a year, this share price fall was triggered by an economic recession within the Great Depression and doubts about the effectiveness of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal policy.|
|Kennedy Slide of 1962||28 May 1962||Also known as the 'Flash Crash of 1962'|||
|Brazilian Markets Crash of 1971||Jul 1971||Lasting through the 1970s and early-1980s, this was the end of a boom that started in 1969, compounded by the 1970s energy crisis coupled with early 1980s Latin American debt crisis.|||
|1973–1974 stock market crash||Jan 1973||Lasting 23 months, dramatic rise in oil prices, the miners' strike and the downfall of the Heath government.|
|Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash||Aug 1982|
|Black Monday||19 Oct 1987||Infamous stock market crash that represented the greatest one-day percentage decline in U.S. stock market history, culminating in a bear market after a more than 20% plunge in the S&P 500 and Dow Jones Industrial Average. Among the primary causes of the chaos were program trading and illiquidity, both of which fueled the vicious decline for the day as stocks continued lower even as volume grew lighter. Today, circuit breakers are in place to prevent a repeat of Black Monday. After a 7% drop, trading would be suspended for 15 minutes, with the same 15 minute suspension kicking in after a 13% drop. However, in the event of a 20% drop, trading would be shut down for the remainder of the day.|
|Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange Crash||Jun 1989||Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange Crash, due to its weak internal controls and absence of credit discipline, that led to its collapse, and from which it never recovered|||
|Friday the 13th mini-crash||13 Oct 1989||Failed leveraged buyout of United Airlines causes crash|
|Early 1990s recession||Jul 1990||Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, causing oil prices to increase. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped 18% in three months, from 2,911.63 on July 3 to 2,381.99 on October 16, 1990. This recession lasted approximately 8 months.|
|Japanese asset price bubble||1991||Lasting approximately twenty years, through at least the end of 2011, share and property price bubble bursts and turns into a long deflationary recession. Some of the key economic events during the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble include the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the Dot-com bubble. In addition, more recent economic events, such as the late-2000s financial crisis and August 2011 stock markets fall have prolonged this period.|
|Black Wednesday||16 Sep 1992||The Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after they were unable to keep sterling above its agreed lower limit.|
|1997 Asian financial crisis||2 Jul 1997||Investors deserted emerging Asian shares, including an overheated Hong Kong stock market. Crashes occur in Thailand, Indonesia, South Korea, Philippines, and elsewhere, reaching a climax in the October 27, 1997 mini-crash.|
|October 27, 1997, mini-crash||27 Oct 1997||Global stock market crash that was caused by an economic crisis in Asia.|
|1998 Russian financial crisis||17 Aug 1998||The Russian government devalues the ruble, defaults on domestic debt, and declares a moratorium on payment to foreign creditors.|
|Dot-com bubble||10 Mar 2000||Collapse of a technology bubble.|
|Economic effects of the September 11 attacks||11 Sep 2001||The September 11 attacks caused global stock markets to drop sharply. The attacks themselves caused approximately $40 billion in insurance losses, making it one of the largest insured events ever.|
|Stock market downturn of 2002||9 Oct 2002||Downturn in stock prices during 2002 in stock exchanges across the United States, Canada, Asia, and Europe. After recovering from lows reached following the September 11 attacks, indices slid steadily starting in March 2002, with dramatic declines in July and September leading to lows last reached in 1997 and 1998. See stock market downturn of 2002.|
|Chinese stock bubble of 2007||27 Feb 2007||The SSE Composite Index of the Shanghai Stock Exchange tumbles 9% from unexpected selloffs, the largest drop in 10 years, triggering major drops in worldwide stock markets.|||
|United States bear market of 2007–2009||11 Oct 2007||From their peaks in October 2007 until their closing lows in early March 2009, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, Nasdaq Composite and S&P 500 all suffered declines of over 50%, marking the worst stock market crash since the Great Depression era.|||
|Financial crisis of 2007–2008||16 Sep 2008||On September 16, 2008, failures of large financial institutions in the United States, due primarily to exposure of securities of packaged subprime loans and credit default swaps issued to insure these loans and their issuers, rapidly devolved into a global crisis resulting in a number of bank failures in Europe and sharp reductions in the value of equities (stock) and commodities worldwide. The failure of banks in Iceland resulted in a devaluation of the Icelandic króna and threatened the government with bankruptcy. Iceland was able to secure an emergency loan from the IMF in November. Later on, U.S. President George W. Bush signs the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act into law, creating a Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) to purchase failing bank assets. Had disastrous effects on the world economy along with world trade.|||
|2009 Dubai debt standstill||27 Nov 2009||Dubai requested a debt deferment following its massive renovation and development projects, as well as the Great Recession. The announcement caused global stock markets to drop.|||
|European sovereign debt crisis||27 Apr 2010||Standard & Poor's downgraded Greece's sovereign credit rating to junk four days after the activation of a €45-billion EU–IMF bailout, triggering the decline of stock markets worldwide and of the Euro's value, and furthering a European sovereign debt crisis.|||
|2010 flash crash||6 May 2010||The Dow Jones Industrial Average suffered its worst intra-day point loss, dropping nearly 1,000 points before partially recovering.|||
|August 2011 stock markets fall||1 Aug 2011||S&P 500 entered a short-lived bear market between 2 May 2011 (intraday high: 1,370.58) and 4 October 2011 (intraday low: 1,074.77), a decline of 21.58%. The stock market rebounded thereafter and ended the year flat.|||
|2015–16 Chinese stock market crash||12 Jun 2015||China stock market crash started in June and continues into July and August. In January 2016, Chinese stock market experienced a steep sell-off which set off a global rout.|||
|2015–2016 stock market selloff||18 Aug 2015||The Dow Jones fell 588 points during a two-day period, 1,300 points from August 18–21. On Monday, August 24, world stock markets were down substantially, wiping out all gains made in 2015, with interlinked drops in commodities such as oil, which hit a six-year price low, copper, and most of Asian currencies, but the Japanese yen, losing value against the United States dollar. With this plunge, an estimated ten trillion dollars had been wiped off the books on global markets since June 3.|||
|2018 cryptocurrency crash||20 Sep 2018||The S&P 500 index peaked at 2930 on its September 20 close and dropped 19.73% to 2351 by Christmas Eve. Bitcoin price peaked on 17 Dec '17, then fell 45% on 22nd Dec '17. The DJIA falls 18.78% during roughly the same period. Shanghai Composite dropped to a four-year low, escalating their economic downturn since the 2015 recession.|||
|2020 stock market crash||24 Feb 2020||The S&P 500 index dropped 34%, 1145 points, at its peak of 3386 on February 19 to 2237 on March 23. This crash was part of a worldwide recession caused by the COVID-19 lockdowns.|||
|2022 stock market decline||3 Jan 2022||The S&P 500 index peaked at 4,796 on its January 3 close and dropped 23.55% to 3,666 by June 16, 2022. As part of the global decline in most risk assets, the price of Bitcoin collapsed 59% during the same time period, and 72% from its November 8 all time high. The DJIA fell 18.78% since its January 4 high. Nasdaq Composite fell 33.70% from its November 19 high.|||
|2022 Russian stock market crash||16 Feb 2022||As a reaction on upcoming Russian invasion in Ukraine just in 4 trading days MOEX Index fell in 43.58%. After that the market were closed for a month by the Central Bank of Russia to prevent even deeper decline. After re-opening in March 24 the index partly recovered but still shows -35-45% comparing to pre-invasion level.|||
- List of recessions in the United States
- List of economic crises
- List of recessions in the United Kingdom
- Economic bubble
- List of banking crises
- List of largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average
- ^ Dash, Mike "Tulipomania: The Story of the World's Most Coveted Flower & the Extraordinary Passions It Aroused" 2001
- ^ James D. Henderson, Helen Delpar & Maurice P. Brungardt "A Reference Guide to Latin American History" Richard Weldon Editor – M.E.Sharpe Inc. 2000, ISBN I563247445 page 172, 2nd column, "1890" (2nd paragraph)
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- ^ Gail D. Triner; "Banking and economic development: Brazil, 1889–1930" Palgrave™ 2000 ISBN 0-312-23399-X Pages 44–74
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- ^ Article Archived 2013-10-21 at the Wayback Machine about the decline of Rio Stock Exchange. Last 3 paragraphs are about the 1989 crash
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- ^ Watts, William. "Are stocks headed for a bear market? Here's how far they would have to fall as coronavirus-fueled selloff continues". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2020-03-13.
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- Sobel, Robert (1988). Panic on Wall Street: A Classic History of America's Financial Disasters with a New Exploration of the Crash of 1987. New York: Truman Talley Books/Dutton. ISBN 0-525-48404-3.