List of stoffs
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During World War II, Germany fielded many aircraft and rockets whose fuels, and oxidizers, were designated (letter)-Stoff. The following list of stoffs refers to the World War II aerospace meanings if not noted otherwise.
Meaning of stoff
The German word Stoff, like the English word stuff derives from Old French estoffe, however the meanings are somewhat different. Stoff has a fairly broad range of meanings, including "chemical substance" or "matter", "fuel" and "cloth", depending on the context. The common elements (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen) are named respectively Wasserstoff, Sauerstoff, Kohlenstoff and Stickstoff (literally: 'water-substance', 'sour-substance', 'coal-substance' and 'smother-substance', respectively) in German. Stoff was used in chemical code names in both World War I and World War II. Some code names were reused between the wars and had different meanings at different times; for example, T-Stoff meant a rocket propellant in World War II, but a tear gas (xylyl bromide) in World War I.
- A-Stoff (World War I): chloroacetone (tear gas)
- A-Stoff (World War II): liquid oxygen (LOX)
- B-Stoff: hydrazine or 75% ethanol / 25% water (used in the V-2)
- Bn-Stoff (World War I): bromomethyl ethyl ketone, homomartonite (tear gas)
- Br-Stoff: Ligroin extracted from crude gasoline
- C-Stoff: 57% methanol / 30% hydrazine / 13% water / small amount of Catalyst 431 potassium-cuprous cyanide coordination complex
- F-Stoff: titanium tetrachloride
- K-Stoff: methyl chloroformate
- M-Stoff: methanol
- N-Stoff: chlorine trifluoride
- R-Stoff or Tonka: 57% monoxylidene oxide / 43% triethylamine
- S-Stoff: 90% nitric acid / 10% sulfuric acid or 96% nitric acid / 4% ferric chloride (The ferric chloride acted as a catalyst.)
- SV-Stoff or Salbei (sage): 94% nitric acid / 6% dinitrogen tetroxide or 85% nitric acid / 15% sulfuric acid
- (There was also an experimental variant of S/SV-Stoff containing 90% nitric acid and 10% perchloric acid)
- T-Stoff (World War I): xylyl bromide tear gas
- T-Stoff (World War II): 80% concentrated hydrogen peroxide / small amounts of 8-Hydroxyquinoline / 20% water used as hypergolic oxidizer with C-Stoff for the HWK 109-509 A through C engines, or as monopropellant or power source with Z-Stoff for the HWK 109-500 Starthilfe RATO and HWK 109-507 ASM rocket booster pods
- U-Stoff: dinitrogen tetroxide
- X-Stoff: tetranitromethane
- XU-Stoff: 70% (by weight) X-Stoff (tetranitromethane) / 30% (by weight) U-Stoff (dinitrogen tetroxide)
- Z-Stoff: calcium permanganate / sodium permanganate / water
- "Stoff". Duden (in German). Berlin: Bibliographisches Institut. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- Ford, Brian J.,Secret Weapons, 2011, p.33 ISBN 978 1 84908 390 4
- Clark, John D. (1972). "9: What Ivan Was Doing". Ignition! An Informal History of Liquid Rocket Propellants (PDF). Rutgers University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0813507251.