List of stripped Olympic medals

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The following is a list of stripped Olympic medals. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is the governing body of the Olympic Games, and as such, can rule athletes to have violated regulations of the Games, for which athletes' Olympic medals can be stripped (i.e. rescinded). Stripped medals must be returned to the IOC by the offending athlete.

Record[edit]

In the case of team events, the IOC can strip medals from a team based on infractions by a single team member. In the table below, for stripped team medals, the athlete in violation is shown in parentheses. The international governing body of each Olympic sport can also strip athletes of medals for infractions of the rules of the sport.

From October 1968 to December 2017, a total of 148 medals have been stripped, and 9 medals have been declared vacant (rather than being reallocated) after being stripped, with the vast majority of these occurring since 2000 due to improved drug testing methods. The majority of medals have been stripped in Athletics (48, including 18 gold medals) and Weightlifting (46, including 13 gold medals). The country with the most stripped medals is Russia, with 52 – the most of any country, four times the number of the runner-up, and more than a third of the global total. Among particular Olympic Games, the 2008 Summer Olympics has the most stripped medals, at 50. Among Winter Olympics, the 2014 Winter Olympics has the most stripped medals, 13.

All but five of the stripped medals involve infractions stemming from doping and drug testing. Jim Thorpe was stripped of his two 1912 gold medals based on evidence he had participated in professional sports, but Thorpe's medals were restored in 1982, 29 years after his death, and presented to his children.

Ibragim Samadov of the 1992 Unified Team was stripped of his bronze medal after he "hurled his bronze medal to the floor" and "stormed off the stage during the awards ceremony."[1] Ara Abrahamian was stripped of his bronze medal in 2008 for similar reasons.[2] China was stripped of a team gymnastics bronze medal from 2000 in 2010 after a team member was found to have been underage at the time of the competition.

In a few cases the IOC has reversed earlier rulings that stripped athletes of medals. In the case of Rick DeMont, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) has recognized his gold medal performance in the 1972 Summer Olympics in 2001,[3] but only the IOC has the power to restore his medal, and it has as of 2017 refused to do so.[3]

List of stripped Olympic medals[edit]

  • This is the list of Olympic medals stripped by the IOC, the governing body of the Olympics.
  • (X) vacant
  • (Y) yet to be reallocated or declared vacant
Olympics Athlete Country Medal Event Ref
1968 Summer Olympics Modern Pentathlon team (Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall)  Sweden 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Modern pentathlon, Team [4]
1972 Summer Olympics Bakhvain Buyadaa  Mongolia 2nd, silver medalist(s) Judo, Men's 63 kg (X) [5]
Cycling team (Aad van den Hoek)  Netherlands 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Cycling, Men's team time trial (X) [6]
Jaime Huélamo  Spain 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Cycling, Men's individual road race (X) [6]
Rick DeMont  United States 1st, gold medalist(s) Swimming, Men's 400 m freestyle [3]
1976 Winter Olympics Galina Kulakova  Soviet Union 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 5 km [7]
1976 Summer Olympics Valentin Khristov  Bulgaria 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 110 kg [8]
Blagoy Blagoev 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 82.5 kg [9]
Zbigniew Kaczmarek  Poland 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 67.5 kg [10]
1984 Summer Olympics Martti Vainio  Finland 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Men's 10,000 m [11]
Tomas Johansson  Sweden 2nd, silver medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman +100 kg [12]
1988 Summer Olympics Ben Johnson  Canada 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Men's 100 m [13]
Mitko Grablev  Bulgaria 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 56 kg [14]
Angell Guenchev 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 67.5 kg [14]
Andor Szanyi  Hungary 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 100 kg [15]
1992 Summer Olympics Ibragim Samadov Olympic flag.svg Unified Team 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 82.5 kg (X) [16]
2000 Summer Olympics Ashot Danielyan  Armenia 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's +105 kg [17]
Izabela Dragneva  Bulgaria 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 48 kg [18]
Ivan Ivanov 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 56 kg [18]
Sevdalin Minchev 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 62 kg [18]
Gymnastics team (Dong Fangxiao)  China 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Gymnastics, Women's artistic team all-around [19]
Alexander Leipold  Germany 1st, gold medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's freestyle 76 kg [20]
Andreea Răducan  Romania 1st, gold medalist(s) Gymnastics, Women's artistic individual all-around [21]
Marion Jones  United States 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 100 m (X) [22]
Marion Jones 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 200 m [22]
Relay team
(Antonio Pettigrew, Jerome Young)
1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Men's 4 × 400 m relay [23]
Marion Jones 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Women's long jump [22]
Lance Armstrong 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Cycling, Men's road time trial (X) [24]
2002 Winter Olympics Larisa Lazutina  Russia 1st, gold medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 30 km classical [25][26]
Olga Danilova 1st, gold medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 5 km + 5 km combined pursuit [25]
Larisa Lazutina 2nd, silver medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 15 km freestyle mass start [27]
Larisa Lazutina 2nd, silver medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 5 km + 5 km combined pursuit [27]
Olga Danilova 2nd, silver medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 10 km classical [25]
Johann Mühlegg  Spain 1st, gold medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 50 km classical [25]
1st, gold medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 30 km freestyle [28]
1st, gold medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 10 km + 10 km combined pursuit [28]
Alain Baxter  Great Britain 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Alpine Skiing, Men's slalom [29]
2004 Summer Olympics Ivan Tsikhan  Belarus 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Men's hammer throw (X) [30]
Iryna Yatchenko 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Women's discus throw [30]
Equestrian team[nb 1]
(Goldfever horse; Ludger Beerbaum rider)
 Germany 1st, gold medalist(s) Equestrian, Team show jumping [31]
Leonidas Sabanis  Greece 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 62 kg [32]
Adrián Annus  Hungary 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Men's hammer throw [33]
Róbert Fazekas 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Men's discus throw [34]
Ferenc Gyurkovics 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 105 kg [35]
Waterford Crystal (horse; Cian O'Connor rider)  Ireland 1st, gold medalist(s) Equestrian, Individual show jumping [36]
Irina Korzhanenko  Russia 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Women's shot put [37]
Svetlana Krivelyova 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Women's shot put (X) [30]
Oleg Perepetchenov 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 77 kg [38]
Yuriy Bilonoh  Ukraine 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Men's shot put [30]
Rowing team (Olena Olefirenko) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Rowing, Women's quadruple sculls [39]
Tyler Hamilton  United States 1st, gold medalist(s) Cycling, Men's road time trial [40]
2006 Winter Olympics Olga Pyleva  Russia 2nd, silver medalist(s) Biathlon, Women's individual [41]
2008 Summer Olympics Tigran Gevorg Martirosyan  Armenia 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 69 kg [42]
Vitaliy Rahimov  Azerbaijan 2nd, silver medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman 60 kg [43]
Rashid Ramzi  Bahrain 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Men's 1500 m [44]
Aksana Miankova  Belarus 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Women's hammer throw [45]
Natallia Mikhnevich 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's shot put [45]
Andrei Rybakou 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 85 kg [47]
Andrei Mikhnevich 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Men's shot put [48]
Nastassia Novikava 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 53 kg [47]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Women's shot put [49]
Liu Chunhong  China 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 69 kg [49]
Cao Lei 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 75 kg [49]
Chen Xiexia 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 48 kg [49]
Yarelys Barrios  Cuba 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's discus throw [50]
Hrysopiyi Devetzi  Greece 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Women's triple jump [43]
Davide Rebellin  Italy 2nd, silver medalist(s) Cycling, Men's road race [51]
Relay team (Nesta Carter)  Jamaica 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Men's 4 × 100 m relay (Y) [52]
Ilya Ilyin  Kazakhstan 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 94 kg [45]
Irina Nekrassova 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 63 kg [43]
Taimuraz Tigiyev 2nd, silver medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's freestyle 96 kg [47]
Mariya Grabovetskaya 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's +75 kg [43]
Asset Mambetov 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman 96 kg [43]
Kim Jong-su  North Korea 2nd, silver medalist(s) Shooting, Men's 50 m air pistol [53]
3rd, bronze medalist(s) Shooting, Men's 10 m air pistol [53][54]
Equestrian team[nb 2]
(Camiro horse; Tony André Hansen rider)
 Norway 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Equestrian, team show jumping [55]
Relay team (Yuliya Chermoshanskaya)  Russia 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 4 × 100 m relay [56]
Maria Abakumova 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's javelin throw [57]
Khasan Baroyev 2nd, silver medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman 120 kg [43]
Tatyana Lebedeva 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's triple jump [52]
2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's long jump [52]
Relay team
(Anastasiya Kapachinskaya, Tatyana Firova)
2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 4 × 400 m relay [42]
Marina Shainova 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 58 kg [42]
Khadzhimurat Akkayev 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 94 kg [43]
Anna Chicherova 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Women's high jump [60]
Nadezhda Evstyukhina 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 75 kg [42]
Dmitry Lapikov 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 105 kg [43]
Tatyana Chernova 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Women's heptathlon [61]
Relay team (Denis Alexeev) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Men's 4 × 400 m relay [57]
Yekaterina Volkova 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 3000 m steeplechase [47]
Ara Abrahamian  Sweden 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman 84 kg (X) [62]
Elvan Abeylegesse  Turkey 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 5000 metres [63]
2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 10000 metres [63]
Sibel Özkan 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 48 kg [64]
Lyudmyla Blonska  Ukraine 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's heptathlon [65]
Vasyl Fedoryshyn 2nd, silver medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's freestyle 60 kg [66]
Olha Korobka 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's +75 kg [47]
Nataliya Davydova 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 69 kg [43]
Victoria Tereshchuk 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Modern pentathlon, Women's modern pentathlon [67]
Denys Yurchenko 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Men's pole vault [43]
Artur Taymazov  Uzbekistan 1st, gold medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's freestyle 120 kg [66]
Soslan Tigiev 2nd, silver medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's freestyle 74 kg [47]
2012 Summer Olympics Hripsime Khurshudyan  Armenia 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's +75 kg [68]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk  Belarus 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Women's shot put [69]
Iryna Kulesha 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 75 kg [68]
Maryna Shkermankova 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 69 kg [71]
Zulfiya Chinshanlo  Kazakhstan 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 53 kg [71]
Ilya Ilyin 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 94 kg [45]
Maiya Maneza 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 63 kg [71]
Svetlana Podobedova 1st, gold medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 75 kg [71]
Anatolie Cîrîcu  Moldova 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 94 kg [68]
Cristina Iovu 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 53 kg [68]
Sergey Kirdyapkin  Russia 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Men's 50 km walk [72]
Tatyana Lysenko 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Women's hammer throw [73]
Mariya Savinova 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 800 m [74]
Yuliya Zaripova 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 3000 m steeplechase [75][68]
Apti Aukhadov 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 85 kg [76]
Aleksandr Ivanov 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 94 kg [68]
Olga Kaniskina 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 20 km walk [77]
Yevgeniya Kolodko 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's shot put [78]
Darya Pishchalnikova 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's discus throw [79]
Relay team (Antonina Krivoshapka, Yulia Gushchina) 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 4 × 400 m relay [80][81]
Svetlana Tsarukayeva 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 63 kg [66]
Natalia Zabolotnaya 2nd, silver medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 75 kg [68]
Tatyana Chernova 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Athletics, Women's heptathlon [82]
Asli Cakir Alptekin  Turkey 1st, gold medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 1500 m [83]
Gamze Bulut 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Women's 1500 m [63]
Relay team (Tyson Gay)  United States 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Men's 4 × 100 m relay [84]
Oleksandr Pyatnytsya  Ukraine 2nd, silver medalist(s) Athletics, Men's javelin throw [85]
Yuliya Kalina 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Women's 58 kg [86]
Soslan Tigiev  Uzbekistan 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Wrestling, Men's freestyle 74 kg [87]
2014 Winter Olympics Alexander Legkov  Russia 1st, gold medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 50km freestyle (Y) [88]
Aleksandr Tretyakov 1st, gold medalist(s) Skeleton, Men's Individual (Y) [89]
Two-man (Alexandr Zubkov, Alexey Voyevoda) 1st, gold medalist(s) Bobsleigh, Two-Man (Y) [90][91][92]
Four-man (Alexandr Zubkov, Aleksei Negodaylo, Dmitry Trunenkov, Alexey Voyevoda) 1st, gold medalist(s) Bobsleigh, Four-Man (Y)
Relay team (Alexander Legkov, Maxim Vylegzhanin, Alexander Bessmertnykh) 2nd, silver medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 4 x 10km relay (Y) [93]
Maksim Vylegzhanin 2nd, silver medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 50km freestyle (Y) [94]
Relay team (Maxim Vylegzhanin, Nikita Kryukov) 2nd, silver medalist(s) Cross-Country Skiing, men's team sprint (Y) [95]
Olga Fatkulina 2nd, silver medalist(s) Speed Skating, Women's 500 metres (Y) [96]
Olga Vilukhina 2nd, silver medalist(s) Biathlon, Women's sprint (Y) [97]
Relay team (Olga Vilukhina, Yana Romanova, Olga Zaitseva) 2nd, silver medalist(s) Biathlon, Women's relay (Y) [98]
Albert Demchenko 2nd, silver medalist(s) Luge, Men's singles (Y) [99]
Relay team (Albert Demchenko, Tatiana Ivanova) 2nd, silver medalist(s) Luge, Team relay (Y) [100]
Elena Nikitina 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Skeleton, Women's Individual (Y) [101]
2016 Summer Olympics Izzat Artykov  Kyrgyzstan 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 69 kg [102]
Gabriel Sîncrăian  Romania 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Weightlifting, Men's 85 kg [103]
Mikhail Aloyan  Russia 2nd, silver medalist(s) Boxing, Men's flyweight (Y) [103]
Serghei Tarnovschi  Moldova 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Canoeing, Men's C-1 1000 metres (Y) [104]

Notes:

  1. ^ The Germany team was not disqualified, but with Beerbaum's score excluded, it dropped from gold medalist to bronze medalist.
  2. ^ The Norwegian team was not disqualified, but with Hansen's score excluded, it dropped from bronze medalist to tenth.

List of Olympic medals stripped and later returned[edit]

Here is the list of Olympic medals that were stripped by the IOC and later returned by the IOC.

Olympics Athlete Country Medal Event Ref
1912 Summer Olympics Jim Thorpe  United States Gold Athletics, Men's pentathlon [105]
Gold Athletics, Men's decathlon [105]
1952 Summer Olympics Ingemar Johansson  Sweden Silver Boxing, Men's Heavyweight [106]
1964 Winter Olympics Marika Kilius, Hans-Jürgen Bäumler Germany Silver Figure skating, Pairs [107]
1998 Winter Olympics Ross Rebagliati  Canada Gold Snowboarding, Men's giant slalom [108]
2000 Summer Olympics Relay team (except Marion Jones)  United States Gold Athletics, Women's 4 × 400 m relay [109]
Relay team (except Marion Jones) Bronze Athletics, Women's 4 × 100 m relay [109]
2004 Summer Olympics María Luisa Calle  Colombia Bronze Cycling, Women's points race [110]
2008 Summer Olympics Vadim Devyatovskiy  Belarus Silver Athletics, Men's hammer throw [111]
Ivan Tsikhan Bronze Athletics, Men's hammer throw [111]
2014 Winter Olympics Nicklas Bäckström  Sweden Silver Ice hockey, Men's tournament [112]

Stripped, returned, and stripped[edit]

Six gold medals for the 2000 Olympic men's 4 × 400 metres relay were awarded to the U.S. squad of Jerome Young, Michael Johnson, Antonio Pettigrew, Angelo Taylor, Alvin Harrison and Calvin Harrison. In 2004, after Young was retroactively banned from 1999 to 2001, all six were stripped of their medals.

In 2005, the Court of Arbitration for Sport restored the medals of the remaining five, but in 2008, Pettigrew admitted to the use of HGH and EPO from 1997 to 2003, meaning that the team were disqualified, but it was not until 2012 that the medals were stripped from the remaining four.[109]

Medals stripped by country[edit]

A total of 34 different countries have had medals stripped including the former Soviet Union and the Unified Team of 1992.

Stripped medals by country
Country 1st, gold medalist(s) 2nd, silver medalist(s) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Total
 Soviet Union
Olympic flag.svg Unified Team
 Russia
12 27 13 52
 Belarus 2 3 6 11
 Ukraine 1 4 5 10
 Kazakhstan 5 2 2 9
 United States 5 1 2 8
 Bulgaria 4 2 1 7
 Turkey 1 4 0 5
 China 3 0 1 4
 Spain 3 0 1 4
 Hungary 2 2 0 4
 Uzbekistan 1 1 1 3
 Sweden 0 1 2 3
 Armenia 0 0 3 3
 Moldova 0 0 3 3
 Germany 2 0 0 2
 Romania 1 0 1 2
 North Korea 0 1 1 2
 Greece 0 0 2 2
 Poland 1 0 0 1
 Canada 1 0 0 1
 Jamaica 1 0 0 1
 Bahrain 1 0 0 1
 Ireland 1 0 0 1
 Italy 0 1 0 1
 Cuba 0 1 0 1
 Azerbaijan 0 1 0 1
 Finland 0 1 0 1
 Mongolia 0 1 0 1
 Kyrgyzstan 0 0 1 1
 Norway 0 0 1 1
 Great Britain 0 0 1 1
 Netherlands 0 0 1 1
Total 47 53 48 148

Medals stripped by gender[edit]

Men make up around 52% of medals stripped whilst women make up around 48% of the total. Men have had slightly more gold and bronze medals stripped, but women have had more silver medals stripped.

Mixed events are classed in the table below on which gender caused the medal to be stripped. If both genders contribute to the medal being stripped, then it should be added to both tallies. Marion Jones' stripped relay medals are not counted.

Medals by gender
Gender 1st, gold medalist(s) 2nd, silver medalist(s) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Total Percentage
Male 27 26 25 78 52.3%
Female 20 28 23 71 47.7%
Total 47 54 48 149 100%

Medals stripped by sport[edit]

A total of 20 different sports have had medals stripped including 13 from the summer Olympics and 7 from the winter Olympics. Athletics and Weightlifting have had by far the greatest numbers of medals stripped compared to any other sport.

Medals by sport
Sport 1st, gold medalist(s) 2nd, silver medalist(s) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Total
Athletics 18 18 12 48
Weightlifting 13 13 20 46
Cross-country Skiing 6 6 1 13
Wrestling 2 6 3 11
Cycling 1 1 3 5
Equestrian 2 0 1 3
Biathlon 0 3 0 3
Bobsleigh 2 0 0 2
Skeleton 1 0 1 2
Gymnastics 1 0 1 2
Luge 0 2 0 2
Shooting 0 1 1 2
Modern Pentathlon 0 0 2 2
Swimming 1 0 0 1
Speed Skating 0 1 0 1
Boxing 0 1 0 1
Judo 0 1 0 1
Canoeing 0 0 1 1
Alpine Skiing 0 0 1 1
Rowing 0 0 1 1
Total 47 53 48 148

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bondy, Filip (August 3, 1992). "BARCELONA: Weight Lifting; Medalist's Ban Is A Tangled Tale". New York Times. 
  2. ^ Longman, Jere (August 17, 2008). "Swede Stripped of His Medal After His Angry Reaction". New York Times. 
  3. ^ a b c Associated Press (January 30, 2001). "Better late than never". sportsillustrated.cnn.com. Archived from the original on May 7, 2001. 
  4. ^ The Olympics Most Wanted by Floyd Conner. 2001.
  5. ^ Black Belt magazine January 1973
  6. ^ a b Historical Dictionary of Cycling By Bill Mallon, Jeroen Heijmans. Scarecrow Press. 2011. p. xxiv
  7. ^ Temple, Wick. "Russian star stripped of medal after use of drug". The Day. February 9, 1976.
  8. ^ "Valentin Khristov Bio, Stats, and Results". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017. 
  9. ^ "Blagoy Blagoev Bio, Stats, and Results". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017. 
  10. ^ "Zbigniew Kaczmarek Bio, Stats, and Results". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017. 
  11. ^ "SPORTS PEOPLE; Finn Admits Drug Use". The New York Times. July 10, 1985. 
  12. ^ Associated Press (August 6, 1984). "Swede Loses Silver For Using Steroids". The New York Times. 
  13. ^ "1988: Johnson stripped of Olympic gold". BBC News. September 27, 1988. 
  14. ^ a b Johnson, William Oscar; Moore, Kenny (October 3, 1988). "The Loser". Sports Illustrated. 
  15. ^ "THE SEOUL OLYMPICS; Weight Lifter Used Drug". The New York Times. September 29, 1988. 
  16. ^ Bondy, Filip (August 3, 1992). "BARCELONA: Weight Lifting; Medalist's Ban Is A Tangled Tale". The New York Times. 
  17. ^ CNNSI.com (September 30, 2000). "More busts". CNN. Archived from the original on June 22, 2001. 
  18. ^ a b c "Bulgarian lifters sent home". BBC News. September 22, 2000. 
  19. ^ "China 'pained' by loss of medal". BBC News. April 29, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Wrestler Leipold given ban". BBC News. November 3, 2000. 
  21. ^ "PLUS: GYMNASTICS; Romanian Loses Gold-Medal Appeal". The New York Times. December 13, 2000. 
  22. ^ a b c Associated Press (December 12, 2007). "IOC strips Jones of all 5 Olympic medals". MSNBC.com. 
  23. ^ http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Commissions_PDFfiles/Executive_Board/2012-06-07-IOC_EB_Decision_Regarding_the_Reallocation_of_the_Medals_and_Diplomas_in_the_mens-4x400m_Relay_Team_2000_Sydney_Games.pdf
  24. ^ "IOC Statement on Lance Armstrong". IOC. Retrieved 2013-01-17. 
  25. ^ a b c d Associated Press (February 24, 2002). "Muehlegg, Lazutina test positive, stripped of golds". ESPN.com. 
  26. ^ "Drugs test denies Lazutina gold". BBC News. February 24, 2002. 
  27. ^ a b "Lazutina loses Olympic medals". BBC News. June 29, 2003. 
  28. ^ a b "Danilova, Muehlegg stripped of Olympic golds". USA Today. December 18, 2003. 
  29. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 28 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2017. 
  30. ^ a b c d "Four Athens competitors stripped of medals". Al Jazeera. December 5, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Germany stripped of show jumping gold". CBC News. January 8, 2005. 
  32. ^ "Greek weightlifter stripped of bronze". The Guardian. London. August 22, 2004. 
  33. ^ "Hammer throw champ's gold taken". USA Today. August 29, 2004. 
  34. ^ Associated Press (August 24, 2004). "Gold medalist stripped after test tampering". ESPN.com. 
  35. ^ Associated Press (August 28, 2004). "Positive drug tests lead to another stripped medal, expulsion". USAToday.com. 
  36. ^ "O'Connor loses Olympic gold medal". RTÉ News. March 27, 2005. 
  37. ^ "Shot-put champion will lose gold". CNN. August 22, 2004. 
  38. ^ "Russian weightlifter, Oleg Perepetchenov, stripped of Athens bronze medal". Reuters. February 12, 2013. 
  39. ^ Associated Press (August 27, 2004). "Ukrainian rowers stripped of bronze for drug violation; Hungarian weightlifter expelled". The China Post. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. 
  40. ^ "US cyclist Tyler Hamilton stripped of Athens gold for doping". BBC. August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012. 
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