List of suffragists and suffragettes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

British Women's Social and Political Union lapel pin

This list of suffragists and suffragettes includes noted individuals active in the worldwide women's suffrage movement who have campaigned or strongly advocated for women's suffrage, the organisations which they formed or joined, and the publications which publicized – and, in some nations, continue to publicize – their goals. Suffragists and suffragettes, often members of different groups and societies, used or use differing tactics. Australians called themselves "suffragists" during the nineteenth century while the term "suffragette" was adopted in the earlier twentieth century by some British groups after it was coined as a dismissive term in a newspaper article.[1][2][3][4][5] "Suffragette" in the British or Australian usage can sometimes denote a more "militant" type of campaigner,[6] while suffragists in the United States organized such nonviolent events as the Suffrage Hikes, the Woman Suffrage Procession of 1913, the Silent Sentinels, and the Selma to Montgomery march. US and Australian activists most often preferred to be called suffragists, though both terms were occasionally used.[7]

Madelin "Madge" Breckinridge
Gertrude Foster Brown
Carrie Chapman Catt
Matilda Joslyn Gage
Statue of Esther Hobart Morris, located at the front exterior of the Wyoming State Capitol
Anna Howard Shaw
Sojourner Truth
Victoria Woodhull

Argentina[edit]

  • Cecilia Grierson (1859–1934) – the first woman physician in Argentina; supporter of women's emancipation, including suffrage
  • Julieta Lanteri (1873–1932) – physician, freethinker, and activist; the first woman to vote in Argentina
  • Alicia Moreau de Justo (1885–1986) – physician, politician, pacifist and human rights activist
  • Eva Perón (1919–1952) – First Lady of Argentina, created the first large female political party in the nation
  • Elvira Rawson de Dellepiane (1867–1954) – physician, activist for women's and children's rights; co-founder of the Association Pro-Derechos de la Mujer

Australia[edit]

Edith Cowan
  • Maybanke Anderson (1845–1927) – promoter of women's and children's rights, campaigner for women's suffrage and federation
  • Eliza Ashton (1851/1852–1900) – journalist and founding member of the Womanhood Suffrage League of New South Wales
  • Annette Bear-Crawford (1853–1899) – women's suffragist and federationist in Victoria
  • Rosetta Jane Birks (1856–1911) – social reformer, philanthropist and South Australian women's suffragist
  • Elizabeth Brentnall (1830–1909) – Australian suffragist, temperance activist and philanthropist.
  • Dora Meeson Coates (1869–1955) – artist, member of British Artists' Suffrage League
  • Mary Colton (1822–1898) – president of the Women's Suffrage League from 1892 to 1895
  • Edith Cowan (1861–1932) – politician, social campaigner, first woman elected to an Australian parliament
  • Henrietta Dugdale (1827–1918) – initiated the first female suffrage society in Australia
  • Kate Dwyer (1861–1949) – schoolteacher and Labor leader, member of the Womanhood Suffrage League of New South Wales
  • Fanny Furner (1864–1938) – activist, first women to stand for election in local government in Manly
  • Belle Theresa Golding (1864–1940) – feminist, suffragist and labor activist
  • Isabella Goldstein (1849 – 1916) Australian suffragist and social reformer
  • Vida Goldstein (1869–1949) – feminist politician, first woman in British Empire to stand for election to a national parliament
  • Maria Elizabeth Kirk (1855-1928) Temperance in UK and suffrage in Australia.
  • Serena Lake (1842–1902) – South Australian evangelical preacher, social reformer, campaigner for women's suffrage
  • Louisa Lawson (1848–1920) – poet, writer, publisher, and feminist
  • Mary Lee (1821–1909) – suffragist and social reformer in South Australia
  • Muriel Matters (1877–1969) – lecturer, journalist, educator, actress, elocutionist, member of the Women's Freedom League
  • May Jordan McConnel (1860–1929) – trade unionist and suffragist, member of the Women's Equal Franchise Association
  • Emma Miller (1839–1917) – pioneer trade union organiser, co-founder of the Women's Equal Franchise Association
  • Elizabeth Webb Nicholls (1850–1943) – campaigner for women's suffrage in South Australia
  • Jessie Rooke (1845–1906) – Tasmanian suffragist and temperance reformer
  • Rose Scott (1847–1925) – founder of the Women's Political Education League
  • Catherine Helen Spence (1825–1910) – author, teacher, and journalist; commemorated on a special issue of the Australian five-dollar note
  • Jessie Street (1889–1970) – feminist, human rights campaigner
  • Mary Hynes Swanton (1861–1940) Australian women's rights and trade unionist
  • Mary Windeyer (1836–1912) – women's suffrage campaigner in New South Wales
  • Lilian Locke (1869-1950) – honorary secretary of the United Council for State Suffrage, political organiser, trade unionist and labor activist

[8][9]

Austria[edit]

Bahamas[edit]

Barbados[edit]

  • Nellie Weekes (1896–1990) – campaigner for women's involvement in politics, who ran for office in 1942, before women were allowed to vote in the country

Belgium[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Canada[edit]

Edith Archibald
  • Edith Archibald (1854–1936) – writer who led the Maritime Women's Christian Temperance Union and the National Council of Women of Canada and the Local Council of Women of Halifax
  • Francis Marion Beynon (1884–1951) – Canadian journalist, feminist and pacifist
  • Laura Borden (1861–1940) – wife of Sir Robert Laird Borden, the eighth Prime Minister of Canada
  • Henrietta Muir Edwards (1849–1931) – women's rights activist and reformer
  • Helena Gutteridge (1879–1960) – first woman elected to city council in Vancouver
  • Gertrude Harding (1889–1977) – one of the highest-ranking and longest-lasting members of the Women's Social and Political Union
  • Anna Leonowens (1831–1915) – travel writer, educator and social activist
  • Elizabeth Roberts MacDonald (1864–1922) – writer; president, Women's Suffrage Association of Nelson, British Columbia
  • Nellie McClung (1873–1951) – politician, author, social activist, member of The Famous Five
  • Louise McKinney (1868–1931) – politician, women's rights activist, Alberta legislature
  • Emily Murphy (1868–1933) – women's rights activist, jurist, author
  • Irene Parlby (1868–1965) – women's farm leader, activist, politician
  • Eliza Ritchie (1856–1933) – educator and member of the executive of the Local Council of Women of Halifax
  • Octavia Ritchie (1868–1948) – physician
  • Emily Stowe (1831–1903) – doctor, campaigned for the country's first medical college for women
  • Jennie Fowler Willing (1834–1916) – educator, author, preacher, social reformer, suffragist
  • Thérèse Forget Casgrain (1896–1981) – leader of the Quebec suffragist movement

Chile[edit]

  • Celinda Arregui (1864–1941) – feminist politician, writer, teacher, suffrage activist
  • María de la Cruz (1912-1995) – political activist, journalist, writer, political commentator, first woman elected to the Chilean senate
  • Henrietta Müller (1846–1906) – Chilean-British women's rights activist and theosophist
  • Marta Vergara (1898–1995) – co-founder of MEMch; Inter-American Commission of Women delegate

China[edit]

  • Lin Zongsu (1878–1944) – founder of the first suffrage organization in China

Colombia[edit]

  • Lucila Rubio de Laverde (1908–1970) – co-founder of the suffrage organizations, Unión Femenina de Colombia (Women's Union of Colombia) (UFC) and the Alianza Femenina de Colombia (Women's Alliance of Colombia)
  • María Currea Manrique (1890–1985) – co-founder of the suffrage organizations, Unión Femenina de Colombia (Women's Union of Colombia) (UFC) and the Alianza Femenina de Colombia (Women's Alliance of Colombia)

Croatia[edit]

Czechia[edit]

  • Karla Máchová (1853–1920) – women's rights activist who, in 1908, was among the first three women to run for the Bohemian Diet
  • Františka Plamínková (1875–1942) – founded the Committee for Women's Suffrage (Czech: Výbor pro volební právo ženy) in 1905 and served as a vice president of the International Council of Women, as well as the International Woman's Suffrage Alliance
  • Marie Tůmová (1866–1925) –– women's suffragist who, in 1908, was among the first three women to run for the Bohemian Diet
  • Zdeňka Wiedermannová-Motyčkova (1868–1915) – founder of the Provincial Organization of Progressive Moravian Women

Cyprus[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Matilde Bajer
Eline Hansen
  • Nanna Aakjær (1874–1962) – woodcarver, suffragist
  • Matilde Bajer (1840–1934) – women's rights activist, suffragist, pacifist
  • Jutta Bojsen-Møller (1837–1927) – women's rights activist, suffragist, educator
  • Esther Carstensen (1873–1955) – voting rights campaigner, women's rights activist, journal editor
  • Helen Clay Pedersen (1862–1950) – British-born Danish women's rights activist and suffragist
  • Thora Daugaard (1874–1951) – suffragist, women's rights activist, peace activist, editor
  • Charlotte Eilersgaard (1858–1922) – novelist, playwright, women's rights activist, suffragist
  • Mathilde Fibiger (1830–1872) – feminist writer
  • Eline Hansen (1859–1919) – co-founder of Dansk Kvinderaad, later Danske Kvinders Nationalråd (DKN)
  • Meta Hansen (1865–1941) – active in Copenhagen's Women's Suffrage Association and the National Association for Women's Suffrage
  • Charlotte Klein (1834–1915) – women's rights activist and educator
  • Kristiane Konstantin-Hansen – textile artist, feminist, suffragist
  • Line Luplau (1823–1891) – co-founder and chairperson of the Danske Kvindeforeningers Valgretsforbund or DKV
  • Elna Munch (1871–1945) – co-founder of the Landsforbundet for Kvinders Valgret (National Association for Women's Suffrage) or LKV
  • Johanne Münter (1844–1921) – writer, women's rights activist, suffragist
  • Nielsine Nielsen (1850–1916) – physician, suffragist, feminist, politician
  • Louise Nørlund (1854–1919) – co-founder and chairperson of the Danske Kvindeforeningers Valgretsforbund or DKV
  • Charlotte Norrie (1855–1940) – nurse, feminist, suffragist, educator
  • Johanne Rambusch (1865–1944) – co-founder of the Landsforbundet for Kvinders Valgret (Country Association for Women's Suffrage) or LKV
  • Vibeke Salicath (1861–1921) – feminist, suffragist and journalist
  • Caroline Testman (1839–1919) – co-founder and chairman of the Dansk Kvindesamfund
  • Ingeborg Tolderlund (1848–1935) – women's rights advocate and suffragist active in Thisted
  • Clara Tybjerg (1864–1941) – feminist, suffragist, peace activist, educator

Egypt[edit]

El Salvador[edit]

Finland[edit]

  • Maikki Friberg (1861–1927) – educator, journal editor, suffragist and peace activist
  • Annie Furuhjelm (1859–1937) – journalist, feminist activist and politician
  • Alexandra Gripenberg (1857–1913) – writer, newspaper publisher, suffragist, women's rights activist
  • Lucina Hagman (1953–1946) – feminist, suffragist, early politician
  • Hilda Käkikoski (1864–1912) – women's activist, suffragist, writer, schoolteacher, early politician
  • Olga Oinola (1865–1949) – President of the Finnish Women Association

France[edit]

Marguerite Durand

Georgia[edit]

Germany[edit]

Bust of Clara Zetkin
Leaders of the women's movement in Germany, 1894

Greece[edit]

  • Kalliroi Parren (1861–1940) – founder of the Greek women's movement
  • Avra Theodoropoulou (1880–1963) – music critic, pianist, suffragist, women's rights activist, nurse

Haiti[edit]

  • Yvonne Sylvain (1907–1989) – first female doctor from Haiti and advocate for gender equality

Honduras[edit]

Hungary[edit]

  • Vilma Glücklich (1872–1927) – educator, pacifist, suffragist, feminist
  • Rosika Schwimmer (1877–1948) – pacifist, feminist and suffragist
  • Adele Zay (1848–1928) – Transylvanian teacher, feminist and suffragist

Iceland[edit]

India[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

  • Thung Sin Nio (1902–1996) – women's rights activist, physician, economist, politician

Iran[edit]

  • Annie Basil (1911–1995) – Iranian-Indian activist for Armenian women
  • Táhirih (1817–1852) – also known as Fatimah Baraghani, renowned poet, removed her veil in public, "first woman suffrage martyr"

Ireland[edit]

Constance Markievicz

Italy[edit]

Malta[edit]

Japan[edit]

Jordan[edit]

  • Emily Bisharat (died 2004) – first female lawyer in Jordan, fought for women's suffrage

Liechtenstein[edit]

  • Melitta Marxer (1923–2015) – one of the "Sleeping Beauties" who took the issue of women's suffrage to the Council of Europe in 1983

Mexico[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Newfoundland[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Kate Sheppard

See also[edit]

List of New Zealand suffragists

Nicaragua[edit]

  • Josefa Toledo de Aguerri, also called Josefa Emilia Toledo Murillo (1866–1962) – Nicaraguan feminist, writer and reform pedagogue

Nigeria[edit]

Norway[edit]

  • Randi Blehr (1851–1928) – chairperson and co-founder of the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights
  • Anna Bugge (1862–1928) – chairman of the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights, also active in Sweden
  • Gudrun Løchen Drewsen (1867–1946) – Norwegian-born American women's rights activist and painter, promoted women's suffrage in New York City
  • Betzy Kjelsberg (1866–1950) – co-founder of the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights (1884), the National Association for Women's Suffrage (1885)
  • Gina Krog (1847–1916) – co-founder of the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights
  • Ragna Nielsen (1845–1924) – chairperson of the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights
  • Thekla Resvoll (1871–1948) – head of the Norwegian Female Student's Club and on the board of the women's suffrage movement (Kvinnestemmeretsforeningen)
  • Anna Rogstad (1854–1938) – vice president of the Association for Women's Suffrage
  • Hedevig Rosing (1827–1913) – co-leader of the movement in Norway; author, educator, school founder

Panama[edit]

  • Elida Campodónico (1894–1960) – teacher, women's rights advocate, attorney, first woman ambassador in Latin America
  • Clara González (1898–1990) – feminist, lawyer, judge, and activist
  • Gumercinda Páez (1904–1991) – teacher, women's rights activist and suffragette, and Constituent Assemblywoman of Panama

Peru[edit]

Philippines[edit]

Poland[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Puerto Rico[edit]

  • Isabel Andreu de Aguilar (1887–1948) – educator, helped establish the Puerto Rican Feminist League, was president of Puerto Rican Association of Women Suffragists, and first woman to run for Senate in PR
  • Rosario Bellber González (1881–1948) - educator, social worker, women's rights activist, suffragist, and philanthropist; president of the Social League of Suffragists of Puerto Rico (Spanish: La Liga Social Sufragista (LSS) de Puerto Rico)[13][14][15][16]
  • Milagros Benet de Mewton (1868–1948) – teacher who filed a lawsuit to press for suffrage
  • Carlota Matienzo (1881–1926) – teacher, one of the founders of the Puerto Rican Feminine League and the Suffragist Social League
  • Felisa Rincón de Gautier (1897–1994) – mayor of San Juan, first woman to hold post of mayor of a capitol city in the Americas

Romania[edit]

  • Maria Baiulescu (1860–1941) – Austro-Hungarian born Romanian writer, suffragist and women's rights activist
  • Ana Conta-Kernbach (1865–1921) – teacher, pedagogue, writer, women's rights activist, suffragist
  • Eugenia de Reuss Ianculescu (1866–1938) – teacher, writer, women's rights activist, suffragist
  • Clara Maniu (1842–1929) – feminist, suffragist
  • Elena Meissner (1867–1940) – feminist, suffragist, headed Asociația de Emancipare Civilă și Politică a Femeii Române

Serbia[edit]

South Africa[edit]

  • Anna Petronella van Heerden (1887–1975) – campaigned for women's suffrage in the 1920s
  • Julia Solly (1862–1953) – British-born South African feminist and suffragist who helped acquire the vote for white women in 1930
  • Lady Barbara Steel (1857–1943) – helped acquire the vote for white women in 1930

Spain[edit]

  • Concepción Arenal (1820–1893) – pioneer and founder of the feminist movement in Spain; activist, writer, journalist and lawyer
  • Emilia Pardo Bazán (1851–1921) – Spanish writer, journalist, university professor and support for women's rights and education
  • Carmen de Burgos (1867–1932) – Spanish journalist, writer, translator and women's rights activist
  • Clara Campoamor (1888–1972) – Spanish politician and feminist best known for her advocacy for women's rights and suffrage during the writing of the Spanish constitution of 1931
  • María Espinosa de los Monteros (1875–1946) – Spanish women's rights activist, suffragist and business executive
  • Victoria Kent (1891–1987) – Spanish lawyer, suffragist and politician

Sweden[edit]

Signe Bergman

Switzerland[edit]

  • Simone Chapuis-Bischof (born 16 March 1931) – head of the Association Suisse Pour les Droits de la Femme (ADF) and the president of the journal Femmes Suisses
  • Caroline Farner (1842–1913) – the second female Swiss doctor
  • Marie Goegg-Pouchoulin (1826–1899) – Swiss doctor and campaigner for the Swiss women's movement
  • Marthe Gosteli (1917–2017) – Swiss suffrage activist and creator of the Swiss archive of women's history
  • Ursula Koch (born 1941) – politician, refused the 'male' oath in the Zürich cantonal parliament; first women president of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (SP)
  • Emilie Lieberherr (1924–2011) – Swiss politician who was a leading figure in the final struggle for women suffrage in Switzerland, and the famous 1969 March to Bern for women suffrage
  • Rosa Neuenschwander (1883–1962) – pioneer in vocational education, founder of the Schweizerische Landfrauenverband or SLFV (Swiss Country Association for Women Suffrage)
  • Camille Vidart (1854–1930) – suffragist, women's rights activist, pacifist and educator
  • Julie von May (von Rued) (1808–1875) – feminist
  • Helene von Mülinen (1850–1924) – founder of Switzerland's organized suffrage movement; created and served as first president of Bund Schweizerischer Frauenvereine (BSF)

Trinidad[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson
Frances Buss
Mabel Capper (3rd from right, with petition) and fellow suffragettes, 1910
Millicent Fawcett
Lilian Lenton
Kathleen Lyttelton
Harriet Taylor Mill
Christabel Pankhurst
Ethel Smyth
Beatrice Webb
Rebecca West
Margaret McPhun
Dr Elizabeth Pace
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-09812, Jessie Stephen no-text
Jessie Newbery
Ethel Cox under arrest, 1914


United States[edit]

See also[edit]

United States Virgin Islands[edit]

  • Bertha C. Boschulte (1906–2004) – Secretary of the St. Thomas Teacher's Association, which sued for women's suffrage in the territory in 1935
  • Edith L. Williams (1887–1987) – first woman to attempt to register to vote in the US Virgin Islands

Uruguay[edit]

  • Paulina Luisi Janicki (1875–1949) – leader of the feminist movement in Uruguay, first Uruguayan woman to earn a medical degree in Uruguay (1909)

Venezuela[edit]

Yishuv[edit]

Major suffrage organizations[edit]

International[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Canada[edit]

China[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Finland[edit]

France[edit]

Greece[edit]

Italy[edit]

Japan[edit]

Malta[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Norway[edit]

Spain[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Turkey[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

Women's suffrage publications[edit]

International[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Back cover of The Woman Citizen magazine from 19 Jan 1918

United States[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The University of Melbourne. "Suffragists - Theme - The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia". www.womenaustralia.info. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  2. ^ Wright, Clare Alice (2018). You daughters of freedom : the Australians who won the vote and inspired the world. Melbourne, Vic. ISBN 978-1-925603-93-4. OCLC 1037809229.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  3. ^ Kratz, Jessie (14 May 2019). "What is Suffrage?". Pieces of History. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  4. ^ "Everything You Need to Know About the Word 'Suffragette'". Time. 22 October 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  5. ^ "How the Term 'Suffragette' Evolved from Its Sexist Roots". Harper's BAZAAR. 18 August 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  6. ^ "Suffragist/Suffragette - What's the difference?". Government of South Australia - Office for Women. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  7. ^ "Did You Know? Suffragist vs Suffragette". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  8. ^ "State Suffrage for Women". Portland Guardian. 18 January 1904. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  9. ^ "Biography - Lilian Sophia Locke - Labour Australia". labouraustralia.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  10. ^ "Huygens, Cornélie Lydie (1848–1902)". Huygens ING. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  11. ^ Gambo Sawaba
  12. ^ Wuraola Esan
  13. ^ a b Lassalle, Beatriz (September 1949). "Biografía de Rosario Bellber González Por la Profesora Beatriz Lassalle". Revista, Volume 8, Issue 5 (in Spanish). La Asociación de Maestros de Puerto Rico. pp. 149, 158.
  14. ^ a b Asenjo, Conrado, ed. (1942). "Quién es Quién en Puerto Rico". Diccionario Biográfico De Record Personal (in Spanish) (Third edition 1941-42 ed.). San Juan, Puerto Rico: Cantero Fernández & Co. p. 33.
  15. ^ a b "Rosario Bellber González: maestra, sufragista y espiritista kardeciana Sandra A. Enríquez Seiders" (in Spanish). Revista Cruce. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  16. ^ a b Krüger Torres, Lola (1975). Enciclopedia Grandes Mujeres de Puerto Rico, Vol. IV (in Spanish). Hato Rey, Puerto Rico: Ramallo Bros. Printing, Inc. pp. 273–274.
  17. ^ Jackson, Sarah (12 October 2015). "The suffragettes weren't just white, middle-class women throwing stones". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  18. ^ "UK | 75 years of women solicitors". BBC News. 19 December 1997. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  19. ^ "Maud Crofts: "We women want not privileges but equality." – First 100 Years". first100years.org.uk. 5 July 2016.
  20. ^ Briscoe, Kim (2 November 2017). "Call for public's help to piece together life of Norfolk suffragette Caprina Fahey". Eastern Daily Press. Archived from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  21. ^ "Former Mayors of the City of Lancaster". Lancaster City Council. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  22. ^ Krista Cowman (9 December 2010). Women in British Politics, c.1689–1979. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-1-137-26801-3.[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ Graham Neville (1998). Radical Churchman: Edward Lee Hicks and the New Liberalism. Clarendon Press. pp. 165–. ISBN 978-0-19-826977-9.
  24. ^ Adelaide Knight, leader of the first east London suffragettes – East End Women's Museum
  25. ^ Diane Atkinson (8 February 2018). Rise Up Women!: The Remarkable Lives of the Suffragettes. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 578–. ISBN 978-1-4088-4406-9.
  26. ^ Hoffman, Bella (19 October 1992). "Obituary: Victoria Lidiard". The Independent.
  27. ^ "MRS Annie Seymour Pearson / Database - Women's Suffrage Resources".
  28. ^ Robinson [née Wilkie], Annot Erskine [Annie] (2004). "Robinson [née Wilkie], Annot Erskine [Annie] (1874–1925) – suffragist and pacifist". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/48529. ISBN 978-0-19-861412-8. Retrieved 26 February 2018. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  29. ^ "Wilkie, Annot (Robinson) – Socialist, Suffragette Wilkie, Helen – Socialist, Suffragette | Dundee Women's Trail". Dundeewomenstrail.org.uk. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  30. ^ "Photograph of Indian suffragettes on the Women's Coronation Procession, 17 June 1911 at Museum of London". Museumoflondonprints.com. 17 June 1911. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  31. ^ Izzy Lyons (26 February 2018). "Lolita Roy – the woman who simultaneously fought for British and Indian female suffrage". The Telegraph. Telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  32. ^ Knight, R. Cecilia. "Adams, Mary Newbury (or Newberry)". University of Iowa. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  33. ^ "Miss Edith Ainge, of Jamestown, New York, the first delegate to the convention of the National Woman's Party to arrive at Woman's Party headquarters in Washington, Miss Ainge is holding the New York state banner which will be carried by New York's delegation of 68 women at the conven". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  34. ^ "Timeline – Making Women's History". www.sunyjcc.edu. Archived from the original on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  35. ^ "Edith Ainge | Turning Point Suffragist Memorial". suffragistmemorial.org. 9 July 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  36. ^ "Senators to Vote on Suffrage Today; Fate of Susan B. Anthony Amendment Hangs in Balance on Eve of Final Test". New York Times. 26 September 1918.
  37. ^ Parker, Jacqueline (1974). Helen Valeska Bary: Labor Administration and Social Security: A Woman's Life. Berkeley CA: University of California.
  38. ^ Santiago-Valles, Kelvin A. (1994). Subject People and Colonial Discourses: Economic Transformation and Social Disorder in Puerto Rico, 1898–1947. SUNY Press. pp. 58, 161. ISBN 9781438418650. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  39. ^ a b "Services For Mrs. Dudley To Be Held Thursday". Nashville Banner. 14 September 1955.
  40. ^ a b Anastatia Sims (1998). "Woman Suffrage Movement". In Carroll Van West. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Tennessee Historical Society. ISBN 1-55853-599-3.
  41. ^ "L.F.Feickert". Njwomenshistory.orgpx. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  42. ^ "TSHA | Folsom, Mariana Thompson".
  43. ^ Phillips, Greg; Olliff, Marty (16 December 2020). "It Came from the Archives: Dothan's suffragist, Scottie McKenzie Frasier". Troy Today. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  44. ^ "Mount Airy: Home of Helen Hoy Greeley". Piedmont Virginia Digital History: The Land Between the Rivers. 7 February 1913. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  45. ^ "Helen Hoy Greeley Collected Papers (CDG-A), Swarthmore College Peace Collection". Swarthmore Home. 21 August 2015. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  46. ^ Gillette Hayden, Nationally Acclaimed Woman Dentist, Dies, The Columbus Dispatch, 27 March 1929 pz 1
  47. ^ Denise Grady (11 November 2013). "Honoring Female Pioneers in Science". New York Times. Retrieved 14 December 2014. Mary Corinna Putnam Jacobi, born in 1842 in London, grew up in New York and began publishing short stories at 17. But what she really wanted was to be a doctor. ...
  48. ^ Yung, Judy (1995). Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco. University of California Press.
  49. ^ "Long Beach Women in Historic Campaign". Press-Telegram. 24 December 1922. p. 51. Retrieved 19 January 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  50. ^ "Lucy Kennedy Miller Fund." Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Pittsburgh Daily Post, 12 December 1919, p. 5.
  51. ^ "Valiant Women of the Vote: Refusing to be Silenced," in "Women's History Month." Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Senate, retrieved online 9 July 2021.
  52. ^ Johnstone (2020). "Elizabeth Marlin: The First Female Voter in Jefferson County". Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies. 87 (3): 540–545. doi:10.5325/pennhistory.87.3.0540. JSTOR 10.5325/pennhistory.87.3.0540. S2CID 226718342.
  53. ^ Stanton, Elizabeth Cady; Anthony, Susan Brownell; Gage, Matilda Joslyn; Harper, Ida Husted (1922). History of Woman Suffrage: 1900-1920. Fowler & Wells. p. 36, 47.
  54. ^ "The Champion Orator". Orleans County Monitor. 26 August 1895. ISSN 2376-8401. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  55. ^ Daggett, Windsor. A Down-East Yankee From the District of Maine. A.J. Huston, 1920. p. 30
  56. ^ The African-American history of Nashville, Tennessee, 1780–1930: elites and dilemmas, by Bobby L. Lovett, University of Arkansas Press, 1999, p. 232
  57. ^ Tennessee Through Time, The Later Years. Gibbs Smith. 2007. pp. 174–. ISBN 978-1-58685-806-3.
  58. ^ "Black History Month: J. Frankie Pierce founded school for girls | The Tennessean | tennessean.com". Archive.tennessean.com. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2015.[dead link]
  59. ^ "Frankie Pierce & the Tennessee Vocational School for Colored Girls". Ww2.tnstate.edu. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  60. ^ "Biographical Sketch of Alice S. Presto". Alexander Street, part of Clarivate. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  61. ^ "Prominent Woman Suffragist". St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 29 January 1897. p. 6. Retrieved 22 April 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  62. ^ "Rebecca Hourwich Reyher – Feminist Press". Feministpress.org. 21 September 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  63. ^ "Revecca H. Reuther – The New York Times". The New York Times. 13 January 1987. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  64. ^ Carson, Tabitha; Northern, Yasmine; Rollins, Perrye; Bowler, Lauryn; Parker, Skylar; Davis, Lundyn (2018). "Biographical Sketch of Naomi Sewell Richardson". Alexander Street. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  65. ^ "Juliet Barrett Rublee Papers, 1917–1955: Biographical and Historical Note". Asteria.fivecolleges.edu. Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  66. ^ "Mrs. Juliet Barrett Rublee, Grand Marshal of the procession organized by the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage which on May 9th, 1914 marched to the Capitol to present resolutions gathered in all parts of the United States calling on Congress to take favorable action on the National Woman Suffr | Library of Congress". Loc.gov. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  67. ^ "Juliet Barrett Rublee – Women Film Pioneers Project". Wfpp.cdrs.columbia.edu. Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  68. ^ Bruce Megowan; Maureen Megowan (1 July 2014). Historic Tales from Palos Verdes and the South Bay. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-1-62585-144-4.
  69. ^ "Narcissa Cox Vanderlip (1879–1966)". .gwu.edu. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  70. ^ Cheever, Mary (1990). The Changing Landscape: A History of Briarcliff Manor-Scarborough. West Kennebunk, Maine: Phoenix Publishing. ISBN 0-914659-49-9. OCLC 22274920.
  71. ^ "What is IAW". International Alliance of Women. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  72. ^ Jacques, Catherine (2009). "Le féminisme en Belgique de la fin du 19e siècle aux années 1970" (in French). Courrier hebdomadaire du CRISP, No 2012-2013. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  73. ^ "Union des femmes de Wallonie" (in French). Connaître la Wallonie. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  74. ^ "Série "1922 – Hoje, há 100 anos" VI e série "Feministas, graças a Deus!" XI – A fundação da Federação Brasileira pelo Progresso Feminino". Brasiliana Fotografica (in Portuguese). 9 August 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  75. ^ de Haan, Daskalova & Loutfi 2006, p. 236.
  76. ^ "Constitution and rules of the Canadian Women's Suffrage Association : inaugurated at a public conversazione held in the city council chamber of Toronto on 9th March, 1883". Laurier. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  77. ^ Larsen, Jytte. "Liste over kvindeorganisationer og valgretsforeninger fra 1871-1913". Kilde 26 (in Danish). Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  78. ^ "French Union for Women's Suffrage (Union Française Pour Le Suffrage Des Femmes, UFSF) (1908-1940)". Towards Emancipation?. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  79. ^ "Greek League for Women's Rights". European Institute for Gender Equality. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  80. ^ Pecora, Elli Sensi (21 March 2016). "Elisa Agnini, la suffragetta italiana". Pasionaria (in Italian). Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  81. ^ Garon, Sheldon (1993). "Women's Groups and the Japanese State: Contending Approaches to Political Integration, 1890-1945". Journal of Japanese Studies. 19 (1): 7. doi:10.2307/132863. ISSN 0095-6848. JSTOR 132863.
  82. ^ "Asociacion nacional de mujeres españolas (ANME)". Artehistoria. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  83. ^ O'Neill, Marie (1985). "The Dublin Women's Suffrage Association and Its Successors". Dublin Historical Record. 38 (4): 126–140. ISSN 0012-6861. JSTOR 30100670 – via JSTOR.
  84. ^ Maxwell, Nick (13 March 2013). "Irish Women's Franchise League and Irish Women's Workers' Union". History Ireland. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  85. ^ "Belfast suffragettes". Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  86. ^ Hendricks, Wanda A. "Alpha Suffrage Club". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  87. ^ "American Equal Rights Association". Britannica. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  88. ^ "American Woman Suffrage Association". Britannica. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  89. ^ "Site of the Boston Equal Suffrage Association for Good Government (BESAGG) Office". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  90. ^ "The College Equal Suffrage League". KU Libraries Exhibits. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  91. ^ Bell, Alyssa; Crawford, Alyssa; Thomas, Zach; Han, Samantha. "Chapter 1: The Congressional Union 1913-1916". National Woman's Party Project. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  92. ^ Petrash 2013, p. 101.
  93. ^ "Indiana's First Woman's Rights Convention". Indiana Historical Bureau. 7 December 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  94. ^ "The National American Woman Suffrage Association". Library of Congress. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  95. ^ Parolin, Sara; Keosombath, Monica. "Chapter 2: Launching the National Woman's Party". National Woman's Party Project. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  96. ^ "Jus Suffragii". Jane Addams Digital Edition. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  97. ^ Heath, Alex (4 April 2018). "Clemence and Laurence Housman found the Suffrage Atelier". COVE. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  98. ^ "Freewoman". Modernist Journals Project. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  99. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Suffrage Journals". Woman Suffrage Memorabilia. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  100. ^ "Why read Suffragette Sally?". Shepherd. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  101. ^ Albert, Tessa (4 November 2018). "Women's Freedom League and The Vote". COVE. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  102. ^ "Women's Suffrage Journal". Cornell University Library. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  103. ^ "Nineteenth Amendment". Britannica. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  104. ^ "The First Women's Rights Convention - Women's Rights National Historical Park". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  105. ^ "The History of Women's Suffrage". Center for Political Thought and Leadership. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  106. ^ "William Lloyd Garrison". First Wave Feminisms. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  107. ^ Lemay, Kate Clarke; Goodier, Susan; Tetrault, Lisa; Jones, Martha (2019). Votes for Women: A Portrait of Persistence. 269: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691191171.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  108. ^ Stanton, Anthony & Gage 1889, p. 46, 246.
  109. ^ Stanton, Anthony & Gage 1889, p. 286-87.
Bibliography