List of sunken battleships

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A list of sunken battleships. Red symbols sunken battleships, purple symbols denote battleships sunk as aircraft carriers, and stars denote more than one battleship in an area.

Sunken battleships are the wrecks of large capital ships built from the 1880s to the mid-20th century that were either destroyed in battle, mined, deliberately destroyed in a weapons test, or scuttled. The battleship, as the might of a nation personified in a warship, played a vital role in the prestige, diplomacy, and military strategies of 20th century nations. The importance placed on battleships also meant massive arms races between the great powers of the 20th century such as the United Kingdom, the German Empire, Japan, the United States, France, Italy, Nazi Germany, Russia, and the Soviet Union.

The term "battleship" first entered common parlance to describe certain types of ironclad warships in the 1880s,[1] now referred to as pre-dreadnoughts. The commissioning and putting to sea of HMS Dreadnought, in part inspired by the results of the Battle of Tsushima in May 1905,[2] marked the dawn of a new era in naval warfare and defining an entire generation of warships: the battleships. This first generation, known as the "Dreadnoughts", came to be built in rapid succession in Europe, the Americas, and Japan with ever more tension growing between the major naval powers. However, despite the enormous sums of money and resources dedicated to the construction and maintenance of the increasing number of battleships in the world, they typically saw little combat. With the exception of the naval battles of the Russo-Japanese War and Jutland, which would be one of the last large-scale battles between capital ships,[3] no decisive naval battles between battleships were fought. When the First World War ended in 1918, much of the German High Seas Fleet was escorted to Scapa Flow, where almost all of the fleet was scuttled to prevent its being divided amongst the victorious Allies. Numerous other battleships were scuttled for similar reasoning.

Between the wars, the Washington Naval Treaty and the subsequent London Naval Treaty limited the tonnage and firepower of capital ships permitted to the navies of the world. The United Kingdom and the United States scrapped many of their aging dreadnoughts, while the Japanese began converting battlecruisers into fast battleships in the 1930s. In 1936, Italy and Japan refused to sign the Second London Naval Treaty and withdrew from the earlier treaties, prompting the United States and the United Kingdom to invoke an escalator clause in the treaty that allowed them to increase the displacement and armament of planned ships. The naval combat of World War Two saw many battleships belonging to the various nations destroyed as air power began to be realized as being crucial to naval warfare, rather than massive capital ships. As the battleship began to fall out of favor, some captured capital ships were decommissioned, stripped, and deliberately sunk in nuclear weapons tests.

Losses[edit]

Much like battlecruisers, battleships typically sank with large loss of life if and when they were destroyed in battle. The first battleship to be sunk by gunfire alone,[4] the Russian battleship Oslyabya, sank with half of her crew at the Battle of Tsushima when the ship was pummeled by a seemingly endless stream of Japanese shells striking the ship repeatedly, killing crew with direct hits to several guns, the conning tower, and the water line or below it, which became the cause of the ship's sinking.[5][6] Battleships also proved to be very vulnerable to mines, as was evidenced in the Russo-Japanese War and both World Wars. After the Battle of Port Arthur,[7] a number of Russian and Japanese vessels were struck by mines and either sank or were scuttled to prevent their capture. A decade later, the Marine Nationale and Royal Navy lost three battleships, HMS Irresistible, HMS Ocean, and Bouvet, to Turkish mines in the waters of the Dardanelles. Torpedoes were also very capable of sinking battleships. On 21 November 1944, USS Sealion sank Kongō with over 1200 casualties.[8] HMS Barham was struck by three torpedoes fired from German submarine U-331.[a] Barham could not make an attempt to dodge the incoming torpedoes and sank with 862 fatalities as a result of several magazine explosions that occurred after she had initially been hit by U-331's torpedoes.[11]

Although mines and torpedoes constantly threatened the battleship's dominance, it was the refinement of aerial technology and tactics that led to the replacement of the battleship with the aircraft carrier as the most important naval vessel. Initially, the large scale use of aircraft in naval combat was underrated and the idea that they could destroy battleships was dismissed. Still, the United States and the Japanese Empire experimented with offensive roles for aircraft carriers in their fleets.[12] One pioneer of aviation in a naval role was US Army General Billy Mitchell, who commandeered SMS Ostfriesland for testing of his theory in July 1921. Though these tests did not impress his contemporaries, they forced the US Navy to begin diverting some of its budget towards researching the matter further.[13] The belief that the aircraft carrier was junior to the battleship began to evaporate when the Imperial Japanese Navy, in a surprise attack, nearly destroyed United States Pacific Fleet while it was at anchor at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.[14] The captain of the Bismarck, Ernst Lindemann, had almost dodged the Royal Navy until he was undone by British reconnaissance aircraft. Although almost every sea battle in World War II involved gunfire between surface warships to some degree, their time as the senior ship of a nation's fleet had run its course.[15]

Those battleships belonging to the Central Powers that survived World War I often did not survive its aftermath. The German High Seas Fleet was scuttled at Scapa Flow by its sailors rather than let their ships be surrendered to their war-time enemies.[16] On 1 November 1918, as the Austrian battleship Viribus Unitis was being transferred to the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, she was mined and sunk at Pola by two Italian frogmen, Raffaele Paolucci [it] and Raffaele Rossetti, who were unaware of the transfer.[17] On 27 November 1942 the Vichy French government scuttled the majority of the French fleet at Toulon.[18]

Sunk in combat[edit]

Name Navy Casualties Date sunk Location Condition Relics Image
Poltava[b]  Russian Navy
5 December 1904[19] Port Arthur[19] Scrapped[23]
Russian Battleship Poltava sunk in Port Arthur.jpg
Pobeda[c]  Russian Navy
7 December 1904[26] Port Arthur[19] Scrapped[26]
Porthartur (26).jpg
Oslyabya  Russian Navy 470–514 killed[d] 27 May 1905[4] Tsushima Strait[28] Unknown
Oslybya23.jpg
Imperator Aleksandr III  Russian Navy Lost with all hands[29] 27 May 1905[30] Tsushima Strait[31] Unknown
ImperatorAleksandrIII1904Kronshtadt-1.jpg
Borodino  Russian Navy 854 killed, 1 captured[31] 27 May 1905[32] Tsushima Strait[30] Unknown
Borodino1904Kronshtadt-ispytanie.jpg
Knyaz Suvorov  Russian Navy 908 killed, 20 captured[29] 27 May 1905[33] Tsushima Strait[30] Unknown
Knyaz'Suvorov1904Kronshtadt.jpg
Navarin  Russian Navy 741 killed, 1 captured[34][35] 28 May 1905[36] Tsushima Strait[35] Unknown
Battleship Navarin.jpg
Sissoi Veliky  Russian Navy 47 killed, 613 captured[37] 28 May 1905[38] Tsushima Strait[30] Unknown
Sisoy Veliky Mediterranean 1897.jpg
HMS Formidable  Royal Navy 547 killed[39] 1 January 1915[39] 50°13′N 3°4′W / 50.217°N 3.067°W / 50.217; -3.067 (HMS Formidable (1898)) Off Portland Bill, English Channel[39] Unknown
HMS Formidable 1898.jpg
HMS Irresistible  Royal Navy 150 killed[40] 18 March 1915[41] Dardanelles[12] Unknown
HMS Irresistible abandoned 18 March 1915.jpg
HMS Goliath  Royal Navy 570 killed[42] 13 May 1915[42] Dardanelles[42] Unknown
HMS Goliath during the First World War IWM Q21299.jpg
HMS Triumph[e]  Royal Navy 78 killed[44] 25 May 1915[44] Near Gaba Tepe, Gallipoli Peninsula[44] Unknown
HMS Triumph (1903) as completed January 1904.jpg
HMS Majestic  Royal Navy 40–49 killed[f] 27 May 1915[46] 40°02′30″N 26°11′02″E / 40.04167°N 26.18389°E / 40.04167; 26.18389 (HMS Majestic (1895)) Cape Helles, Gallipoli Peninsula[46] Unknown
HMS Majestic sinking 27 May 1915.jpg
SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm[g]  Imperial German Navy 258 killed[48] 8 August 1915[49] Dardanelles[50] Unknown
SMS Kurfuerst Friedrich Wilhelm 1900-2.jpg
SMS Pommern  Imperial German Navy Lost with all hands[51] 1 June 1916[51] North Sea[52] Unknown
SMS Pommern 1916.jpg
Suffren  French Navy Lost with all hands[53] 26 November 1916[53] 39°10′N 10°48′W / 39.167°N 10.800°W / 39.167; -10.800 (French battleship Suffren) Off Lisbon, Portugal[53] Unknown
Suffren shelling Turkish positions at Gallipoli.png
Gaulois  French Navy Four killed[54] 27 December 1916[55] 36°15′N 23°42′E / 36.250°N 23.700°E / 36.250; 23.700 (French battleship Gaulois) Off Cape Maleas, Aegean Sea[54] Unknown
Naufrage du cuirassé le Gaulois en 1916.jpg
HMS Cornwallis  Royal Navy 15 killed[56] 9 January 1917[57] 35°06′N 15°11′E / 35.100°N 15.183°E / 35.100; 15.183 (HMS Cornwallis (1901)) Off Malta[57][58] Unknown
HMS Cornwallis broadside Suvla December 1915.jpg
Danton  French Navy 296 killed[59] 19 March 1917[59] 38°45′35″N 8°3′30″E / 38.75972°N 8.05833°E / 38.75972; 8.05833 (French battleship Danton) Mediterranean Sea[59] Upright under 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) of water.[59]
Danton.jpg
SMS Szent István  Austro-Hungarian Navy 89 killed[60] 10 June 1918[60] 44°12′07″N 14°27′05″E / 44.20194°N 14.45139°E / 44.20194; 14.45139 (SMS Szent István) Premuda, Adriatic Sea Capsized under 66 meters (217 ft) of water.[61]
Bundesarchiv Bild 134-C2280, Szent István, Sinkendes Linienschiff.jpg
SMS Viribus Unitis  Austro-Hungarian Navy 300 killed[62] 1 November 1918[62] 44°52′9″N 13°49′9″E / 44.86917°N 13.81917°E / 44.86917; 13.81917 (SMS Viribus Unitis) Pula, Croatia[62] Unknown
Viribus unitis sunk.jpg
HMS Britannia  Royal Navy 50 killed, 80 injured[63] 9 November 1918[64] 35°53′N 5°53′W / 35.883°N 5.883°W / 35.883; -5.883 (HMS Britannia (1904)) Off Cape Trafalgar, Strait of Gibraltar[64] Unknown
HMS Britannia (1904) sinking on 9 November 1918.jpg
HMS Royal Oak  Royal Navy 833 killed[65] 14 October 1939[66] 58°55′N 2°59′W / 58.917°N 2.983°W / 58.917; -2.983 (HMS Royal Oak (08)) Scapa Flow[67] Capsized under 33 meters (108 ft) of water.[68] Royal Oak's bell is the centerpiece to a memorial to those who died aboard Royal Oak at St Magnus' Cathedral in Kirkwall.[69] HMS Royal Oak (08).jpg
Bretagne  French Navy 977 killed[70] 3 July 1940[71] Mers-el-Kébir, Algeria[71] Scrapped[72]
Cuirassé Bretagne 03-07-1940.jpg
Kilkis[h]  Hellenic Navy
23 April 1941[74] Salamis Naval Base, near Salamis[74] Scrapped[75]
USS Idaho sunk with USS Mississippi in background.jpg
Lemnos[i]  Hellenic Navy
23 April 1941[74] Salamis Naval Base, near Salamis[74] Scrapped[77]
Greek ships under air attack in April 1941.jpg
Bismarck  Kriegsmarine 2,086 killed, 114 captured.[78] 27 May 1941[79] 48°10′N 16°12′W / 48.167°N 16.200°W / 48.167; -16.200 (German battleship Bismarck) 650 kilometers (400 mi) from Brest, North Atlantic[80] Upright under 4,791 meters (15,719 ft) of water.[80]
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-012-03, Schlachtschiff Bismarck in der Ostsee.jpg
Petropavlovsk[j]  Soviet Navy 326 killed[83] 23 September 1941[83] Leningrad[83] Scrapped[82]
Damaged Marat.jpg
HMS Barham  Royal Navy 862 killed[84][85] 25 November 1941[86] 32°34′N 26°24′E / 32.567°N 26.400°E / 32.567; 26.400 (HMS Barham (04)) Off Egypt[84] Unknown
HMS Barham explodes.jpg
USS Arizona  United States Navy 1,177 killed[87] 7 December 1941[88] 21°21′53″N 157°57′0″W / 21.36472°N 157.95000°W / 21.36472; -157.95000 (USS Arizona (BB-39)) Pearl Harbor[87] Heavily damaged as a result of the attack on Pearl Harbor. After being struck off the Naval Vessel Register on 1 December 1942, Arizona was found to be in such terrible condition that she could not be made serviceable again even after salvaging.[89] Arizona's surviving superstructure was removed in 1942, followed by her main armament over the next year and a half.[90] The amidships section had served as a ceremonial platform on the wreck but was cut away to make room for today's overlying memorial. One of the ship's bells is at the University of Arizona,[91] an anchor and a restored gun barrel is located at the Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, and several of her guns were later used aboard USS Nevada.[92] Other artifacts from the ship, such as items from the ship's silver service, are on permanent exhibit in the Arizona State Capitol Museum.[93] USS Arizona Memorial (aerial view).jpg
USS Utah  United States Navy 64 killed[94] 7 December 1941[94] 21°22′7″N 157°57′44″W / 21.36861°N 157.96222°W / 21.36861; -157.96222 (USS Utah (BB-36)) Pearl Harbor Utah capsized during the attack, and was partially salvaged but not recovered.[95] Utah' wreck is almost completely submerged, with a small amount of highly corroded superstructure visible above the surface.[94] In 1972, a memorial consisting of a 70 ft (21 m) walkway from nearby Ford Island that terminates in a platform with a flagpole and a plaque.[96] Other relics of the Utah are preserved at the Utah State Capitol and are regularly on display.[97] USS Utah BB-31 in 2010.jpg
HMS Prince of Wales  Royal Navy 327 killed[98] 10 December 1941[99] 3°33′36″N 104°28′42″E / 3.56000°N 104.47833°E / 3.56000; 104.47833 (HMS Prince of Wales (53)) South China Sea[100] Capsized under 71 meters (233 ft) of water. Reported to have been heavily salvaged.[100] Prince of Wale's bell was recovered, restored, and displayed in the Merseyside Maritime Museum in Liverpool.[100] HMS Prince Of Wales in Singapore.jpg
Asahi  Imperial Japanese Navy 16 killed[101] 25 May 1942[102] 10°N 110°E / 10°N 110°E / 10; 110 (Japanese battleships Asahi) 100 miles (160 km) from Cape Paderan, Vietnam[102] Unknown
The Royal Navy (1907) (14775946872).jpg
Roma  Regia Marina 1,393 killed[103] 9 September 1943[104] 41°9′28″N 8°17′35″E / 41.15778°N 8.29306°E / 41.15778; 8.29306 (Italian battleship Roma (1940)) 30 kilometers (19 mi) north of Sardinia Capsized and blown in half under 1,000 meters (3,300 ft).[105]
Italian battleship Roma (1940) starboard quarter view.jpg
Hiei  Imperial Japanese Navy 188 killed[106] 14 November 1942[106] 9°N 159°E / 9°N 159°E / 9; 159 (Japanese battleship Hiei) Off Guadalcanal[107] Capsized under 900 meters (3,000 ft) of water.[108]
Hiei Yokosuka departure 1914.jpg
Kirishima  Imperial Japanese Navy 212 killed[109] 15 November 1942[109] Off Guadalcanal[107] Capsized under 1,100 meters (3,600 ft) of water.[110]
Kirishima Kure 1940.jpg
Scharnhorst  Kriegsmarine 1,932 killed, 36 captured[111] 26 December 1943[112] 72°16′N 28°41′E / 72.267°N 28.683°E / 72.267; 28.683 (German battleship Scharnhorst) near the Norwegian North Cape[113] Capsized under 290 meters (950 ft).[114]
Bundesarchiv DVM 10 Bild-23-63-12, Schlachtschiff "Scharnhorst".jpg
Strasbourg  French Navy
18 August 1944[115] Bay of Lazaret[115] Scrapped[115]
Battleship Strasbourg after bomb attack, 1944.jpg
Jean Bart[k]  French Navy
28 August 1944[117] Toulon, France[117] Scrapped[118]
French training ship Océan at Toulon c1939.jpg
Musashi  Imperial Japanese Navy 1,023 killed[119] 24 October 1944[120] 13°7′N 122°32′E / 13.117°N 122.533°E / 13.117; 122.533 (Japanese battleship Musashi) Sibuyan Sea[121] Heavily damaged and in multiple pieces under 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) of water.[122][123]
Japanese battleship Musashi cropped.jpg
Fusō  Imperial Japanese Navy 1,620 killed[124] 25 October 1944[124] Surigao Strait[124] Capsized 185 meters (607 ft) of water with pagoda mast snapped off.[125]
Fuso Reconstruction.jpg
Yamashiro  Imperial Japanese Navy 1,626 killed[126] 25 October 1944[127] Surigao Strait[127] Capsized in 191 meters (627 ft) of water with bow folded back over the keel of the rest of the hull, and engine room collapsed.[128]
Yamashiro torpedo net.jpg
Tirpitz  Kriegsmarine 950–1,204 killed[l] 12 November 1944[113] 69°38′50″N 18°48′30″E / 69.64722°N 18.80833°E / 69.64722; 18.80833 (German battleship Tirpitz) Håkøybotn Bay, Norway[134] Somewhat salvaged after the Second World War.[131]
Tirpitz (AWM SUK14095).jpg
Kongō  Imperial Japanese Navy 1250 killed[109] 21 November 1944[135] 26°9′N 121°23′E / 26.150°N 121.383°E / 26.150; 121.383 (Japanese battleship Kongō) Taiwan Strait[135] Unknown
金剛ポストカード.JPG
Conte di Cavour  Regia Marina
23 February 1945[136] Taranto Harbor[137] Scrapped[138]
AerialViewCavour.jpg
Yamato  Imperial Japanese Navy 3,055[139] 7 April 1945[140] 30°22′N 128°4′E / 30.367°N 128.067°E / 30.367; 128.067 (Japanese battleship Yamato) East China Sea[141] Broken in half under 340 meters (1,120 ft) of water.[141]
Yamato during Trial Service.jpg
Haruna  Imperial Japanese Navy 65 killed[109] 24 July 1945[109] Kure, Japan[109] Scrapped[109]
Sunken Japanese battleship Haruna off Koyo, Etajima (Japan), on 8 October 1945 (80-G-351726).jpg
Settsu  Imperial Japanese Navy
29 July 1945[142] Kure, Japan[142] Scrapped[142]
Japanese battleship Settsu in old postcard.jpg
Ise  Imperial Japanese Navy 50 killed[143] 28 July 1945[143] Kure, Japan[143] Scrapped[143]
Sunken Japanese battleship Ise off Ondo Seto island, circa in October 1945.jpg
Hyūga  Imperial Japanese Navy 200+ killed[144] 1 August 1945[144] 34°10′N 132°33′E / 34.167°N 132.550°E / 34.167; 132.550 (Japanese battleship Hyūga) Kure, Japan[144] Scrapped[144]
Backus, This was Hyuga.jpg

Converted battleships[edit]

Name Navy Casualties Date sunk Location Condition Image
Kaga  Imperial Japanese Navy 811 killed[145] 4 June 1942[146] 30°23′N 179°17′W / 30.383°N 179.283°W / 30.383; -179.283 (Japanese aircraft carrier Kaga) Unknown Japanese Navy Aircraft Carrier Kaga.jpg
HMS Eagle  Royal Navy 131 killed[147] 11 August 1942[147] 38°3′0″N 3°1′12″E / 38.05000°N 3.02000°E / 38.05000; 3.02000 (HMS Eagle (1918)) near Majorca[147] Unknown EagleSinkingA 011302.jpg
Shinano  Imperial Japanese Navy 1435 killed[148] 29 November 1944[148] 32°7′N 137°4′E / 32.117°N 137.067°E / 32.117; 137.067 (Japanese aircraft carrier Shinano) 105 kilometers (65 mi) south of mainland Japan.[148] Unknown Japanese aircraft carrier Shinano.jpg

Lost at sea[edit]

Name Navy Casualties Date sunk Location Condition Image
Petropavlovsk  Russian Navy 679 killed[149] 13 April 1904[150] Yellow Sea[151] Unknown Destruction battleship Petropavlosk.jpg
Hatsuse  Imperial Japanese Navy 496 killed[152] 15 May 1904[153] 38°37′N 121°20′E / 38.617°N 121.333°E / 38.617; 121.333 (Japanese battleship Hatsuse) Yellow Sea[154] Unknown Hatsuse-Main-Mast-Falls.jpg
Yashima  Imperial Japanese Navy
15 May 1904[155] 38°34′N 121°40′E / 38.567°N 121.667°E / 38.567; 121.667 (Japanese battleship Yashima) Yellow Sea[156] Unknown IJN Yashima at Jarrow, c1897.jpg
HMS Montagu  Royal Navy
30 May 1906[157] Lundy Island, England[157] Almost entirely salvaged.[158] HMS Montagu (1901) Aground Lundy Island 1906.jpg
Iéna  French Navy 120 killed[159] 12 March 1907[160] Toulon, France[160] Scrapped[161] Iéna.JPG
Liberté  French Navy 250 killed[162] 25 September 1911[162] Toulon, France[163] Scrapped[163] Battleship Liberté1.png
HMS Audacious  Royal Navy One killed[164] 27 October 1914[164] 55°32′16″N 7°24′33″W / 55.53778°N 7.40917°W / 55.53778; -7.40917 (HMS Audacious (1912)) 39 kilometers (24 mi) of Tory Island[165] Capsized under 64 meters (210 ft) of water.[166][165] HMS Audacious crew take to lifeboats.jpg
HMS Bulwark  Royal Navy 736 killed[167] 26 November 1914[167] 51°25′N 0°39′E / 51.417°N 0.650°E / 51.417; 0.650 (HMS Bulwark (1899)) Off Sheerness, England[167] Unknown HMS Bulwark explodes.jpg
HMS Ocean  Royal Navy Unknown 18 March 1915[168] Dardanelles[168] Unknown HMS Ocean (Canopus-class battleship).jpg
Bouvet  French Navy 639 killed[55] 18 March 1915[169] 40°01′15″N 26°16′30″E / 40.02083°N 26.27500°E / 40.02083; 26.27500 (French battleship Bouvet) Dardanelles[169] Unknown Bouvet capsizing March 18 1915.jpg
Benedetto Brin  Regia Marina 454 killed[170] 27 September 1915[170] Brindisi, Italy[170] Unknown BenedettoBrin.jpg
HMS King Edward VII  Royal Navy
6 January 1916[171] Off Cape Wrath, Scotland.[171] Capsized under 108 meters (354 ft) of water.[172] HMS King Edward VII (1903) sinking on 6 January 1916.jpg
HMS Russell  Royal Navy 125 killed[173] 27 April 1916[174] 35°54′N 14°36′E / 35.900°N 14.600°E / 35.900; 14.600 (HMS Russell (1901)) Off Valletta, Malta[173][174] Capsized under 110 meters (360 ft) of water.[173][174] HMS Russel stern Quebec Tercentenary 1908 LAC 3393695.jpg
Leonardo da Vinci  Regia Marina 448 killed[175] 2 August 1916[176] Taranto, Italy[177] Scrapped[176][178] Upside-down Leonardo da Vinci.jpg
Imperatritsa Mariya  Russian Navy 228 killed[179] 20 October 1916[180] Sevastopol, Ukraine[180] Scrapped[181] Линейный корабль Императрица Мария после постановки в док и откачки воды, 1919 год.jpg
Regina Margherita  Regia Marina 675 killed[182] 12 December 1916[183] Off Valona, Albania[183] Laying on her starboard side under 68 meters (223 ft).[184] Italian battleship Regina Margherita ca. 1908.jpg
Peresvet[m]  Russian Navy 116–167 killed[n] 4 January 1917[187] Off Port Said, Egypt[187] Unknown Battleship Peresvet.jpg
HMS Vanguard  Royal Navy 843 killed[189] 9 July 1917[190] 58°51′24″N 3°6′22″W / 58.85667°N 3.10611°W / 58.85667; -3.10611 (HMS Vanguard (1909)) Scapa Flow[190] Unknown, rests under 14.2 meters (47 ft) of water.[190] British Battleships of the First World War Q40389.jpg
Kawachi  Imperial Japanese Navy 600–700 killed[o] 2 July 1918[193] 34°0′N 131°36′E / 34.000°N 131.600°E / 34.000; 131.600 (Japanese battleship Kawachi) Partially salvaged.[195] Japanese battleship Kawachi in early postcard.jpg
HMS Prince George[p]  Royal Navy
30 December 1921[196] 52°44′5″N 4°38′23″E / 52.73472°N 4.63972°E / 52.73472; 4.63972 (HMS Prince George (1856)) Off Camperduin, the Netherlands[196] Upright and visible from shore, partially scrapped.[196] Majestic Class Battleships- HMS Prince George Q39852.jpg
France  French Navy Three killed[197] 26 August 1922[197] 47°27′6″N 3°2′0″W / 47.45167°N 3.03333°W / 47.45167; -3.03333 (French battleship France) Quiberon Bay, France[197] Unknown France in Toulon-Agence Rol-1.jpeg
España  Spanish Navy
26 August 1923[198] Cape Tres Forcas, Morocco[198] Somewhat salvaged, including a 305 mm (12.0 in) and a 102 mm (4.0 in) gun, but mostly destroyed by severe storms.[198] Acorazado España (01).jpg
Alfonso XIII[q]  Spanish Navy Five killed[200] 30 April 1937[200] 43°31′26″N 3°40′44″W / 43.52389°N 3.67889°W / 43.52389; -3.67889 (Spanish battleship Alfonso XIII) Off Santander, Spain[200] Unknown Acorazado España.jpg
Jaime I  Spanish Navy
17 June 1937[201] Cartagena, Spain Scrapped[202] Acorazado Jaime I (en 1937).svg
SMS Schlesien  Kriegsmarine
3 May 1945[203] Off Zinnowitz, Germany[203] Scrapped[204][203] Schlesien Panama 2.jpg
Mutsu  Imperial Japanese Navy 1121 killed[205] 8 June 1943[206] 33°58′N 132°24′E / 33.967°N 132.400°E / 33.967; 132.400 (Japanese battleship Mutsu) Seto Inland Sea[206] Due to salvaging efforts that ceased in the 1990s,[206] the only major piece of the wreckage that remains is a 35-meter (115 ft) stretch of the hull from the bridge to turret No. 1 at a depth of about 12 meters (39 ft).[207] Mutsu33903u.tif
USS Oklahoma  United States Navy
17 May 1947[208] Unknown, northeast of Hawaii[208] Unknown NASPH ^118506- 19 March 1943. USS Oklahoma- Salvage. Aerial view toward shore with ship in 90 degree position. - NARA - 296975.jpg
São Paulo  Brazilian Navy
November 1951[209] Unknown Unknown Battleship sao paulo.jpg
Giulio Cesare[r]  Regia Marina 608 killed[211] 29 October 1955 44°37′7″N 33°32′8″E / 44.61861°N 33.53556°E / 44.61861; 33.53556 (Italian battleship Giulio Cesare) Sevastopol, Ukraine Scrapped[212] Novorosiysk-1950-Sevastopol-2.jpg

Scuttled battleships[edit]

Name Navy Casualties Date sunk Location Condition Relics Image
Sevastopol  Russian Navy 11 killed[213] 2 January 1905[214] Port Arthur[213] Unknown
Poltava&Sevastopol1900Kronshtadt.jpg
HMS Hood  Royal Navy
4 November 1914[215] 50°34′9″N 2°25′16″W / 50.56917°N 2.42111°W / 50.56917; -2.42111 (HMS Hood (1891)) Portland Harbour[215]
Portland harbour south.JPG
Masséna  French Navy
9 November 1915[216] Cape Helles, Gallipoli[216] Unknown
French battleship Massena as breakwater.png
Slava  Russian Navy Three killed[217] 17 October 1917[218] Moon Sound, Estonia[218] Scrapped[219]
Russian liner sunk.jpg
Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya[s]  Russian Navy
18 June 1918[181] 44°42′23″N 37°48′43″E / 44.70639°N 37.81194°E / 44.70639; 37.81194 (Russian battleship Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya) Novorossiysk, Russia[181] Unknown
RU068-16.jpg
SMS König  Imperial German Navy
21 June 1919[222] Gutter Sound, Scapa Flow[222] Capsized under about 35 meters (115 ft) of water.[223] Somewhat damaged by metal scavenging.[224]
SMS Konig illustration.jpg
SMS Kronprinz Wilhelm  Imperial German Navy One killed[225] 21 June 1919[225] Gutter Sound, Scapa Flow[225] Capsized under about 45 meters (148 ft) of water.[226]
SMS Kronprinz Wilhelm in Scapa Flow.jpg
SMS Markgraf  Imperial German Navy Two killed[227] 21 June 1919[227] Gutter Sound, Scapa Flow[227] Capsized under about 45 meters (148 ft) of water.[228]
SMS Konig.jpg
SMS Kaiser  Imperial German Navy
21 June 1919[229] Gutter Sound, Scapa Flow[229] Scrapped[229]
SMS Kaiser firing salute.jpg
SMS Friedrich der Grosse  Imperial German Navy
21 June 1919[229] Gutter Sound, Scapa Flow[229] Scrapped[229] Friedrich der Grosse's bell was returned to the Federal Republic of Germany and today is on display at the German Navy sea base at Glücksburg.[229] SMS Friedrich der Grosse en route to Scapa Flow.jpg
SMS Kaiserin  Imperial German Navy
21 June 1919[229] Gutter Sound, Scapa Flow[229] Scrapped[229]
SMS Kaiserillustration.jpg
SMS Prinzregent Luitpold  Imperial German Navy
21 June 1919[229] Gutter Sound, Scapa Flow[229] Scrapped[229]
Bundesarchiv DVM 10 Bild-23-61-53, Großlinienschiff "SMS Prinzregent Luitpold".jpg
SMS König Albert  Imperial German Navy
21 June 1919[229] Gutter Sound, Scapa Flow[229] Scrapped[229]
Linienschiff SMS KÖNIG ALBERT.jpg
SMS Grosser Kurfürst  Imperial German Navy
21 June 1919[222] Gutter Sound, Scapa Flow[222] Scrapped[222] Grosser Kurfürst's bell was purchased at auction by the National Museum of the Royal Navy, Portsmouth, Hampshire.[230] SMS Konig.jpg
SMS Bayern  Imperial German Navy
21 June 1919[231] Gutter Sound, Scapa Flow[231] Scrapped[231] Bayern's bell is on display at the Kiel Fördeklub.[231] SMS Bayern sinking.jpg
Rostislav  Russian Navy
November 1920[232] 45°25′0″N 36°37′43″E / 45.41667°N 36.62861°E / 45.41667; 36.62861 (Russian battleship Rostislav) Strait of Kerch[232] Partially salvaged, reported to be extant albeit sinking into silt.[233]
Rostislav1910sSevastopol-1.jpg
Dunkerque  French Navy
27 November 1942[234] Toulon, France[234] Scrapped[234]
Dunkerque-1.jpg
Provence  French Navy 27 November 1942[72] Toulon, France[72] Scrapped[72]
Provence-3.jpg
HMS Centurion  Royal Navy
9 June 1944[235] Off Normandy[235] Unknown HMS Centurion's badge is on display at Shugborough Hall.[236] HMS Centurion as breakwater during storm off Omaha Beach in June 1944.jpg
Courbet  French Navy
9 June 1944[237] Off Sword Beach, Normandy[237] Scrapped[237]
Courbet-Marius Bar-img 3152.jpg
SMS Schleswig-Holstein  Kriegsmarine
21 March 1945[238] Off Osmussaar, Gulf of Finland[239] Wreckage buried in 1966.[240] Schleswig-Holstein's bell is on display Military History Museum of the Bundeswehr in Dresden as of 1990.[204] Bundesarchiv Bild 102-11521, Linienschiff "Schleswig-Holstein".jpg
Gneisenau  Kriegsmarine
27 March 1945[241][242] Gotenhafen (Gdynia), Poland[242] Scrapped[243] One of her Gneisenau' was removed and placed at Austrått Fort, near Trondheim, as the coastal gun "Orlandert."[242] Gdynia Gneisenau.jpg
SMS Zähringen  Kriegsmarine
26 March 1945[244] Gotenhafen (Gdynia), Poland[244] Scrapped[244]
SMS Zahringen.jpg

Expended as targets[edit]

Name Navy Date sunk Location Condition Image
USS Texas[t]  United States Navy 22 March 1912[246] 37°43′10″N 76°05′0″W / 37.71944°N 76.08333°W / 37.71944; -76.08333 (USS Texas (1892)) Tangier Sound, Chesapeake Bay[246] Remains demolished and buried[247] U. S. Protected Cruiser Texas.jpg
HMS Empress of India  Royal Navy 4 November 1913[248] Lyme Bay[248] Capsized under about 32 meters (105 ft) of water.[249] Ships of the Royal Navy Q38789.jpg
Imperator Nikolai I[u]  Russian Navy 3 October 1915[250] Unknown Unknown Iki1906Yokosuka.jpg
USS Indiana  United States Navy 1 November 1920[251] Chesapeake Bay[251] Scrapped[251] Indiana bombing 1920.jpg
USS Massachusetts  United States Navy January 1921[252] Off Pensacola, Florida[253] Sunk as an artificial reef[253] USS Massachusetts (BB-2) sinking 1921.jpg
SMS Ostfriesland  Imperial German Navy 21 July 1921[254] 37°9′8″N 74°34′3″W / 37.15222°N 74.56750°W / 37.15222; -74.56750 (SMS Ostfriesland) Chesapeake Bay[254] Unknown SMS Ostfriesland sinking close.jpg
SMS Baden  Imperial German Navy 16 August 1921[255] 49°49′42″N 2°23′21″W / 49.82833°N 2.38917°W / 49.82833; -2.38917 (SMS Baden) Hurd Deep, English Channel[255] Unknown, under 180 meters (590 ft) of water.[255] Salvage at Scapa Flow.jpg
USS Alabama  United States Navy 27 September 1921[256] Chesapeake Bay[256] Scrapped[256] Ex-USS Alabama (BB-8) - NH 52583.jpg
SMS Prinz Eugen  Austro-Hungarian Navy June 1922[257] Near Toulon[257] Unknown Prinz-eug.jpg
USS Iowa[v]  United States Navy 23 March 1923[258]

[259]

Gulf of Panama[258] Unknown Radio-controlled USS Coast Battleship No. 4 (ex-Iowa) underway c1922.jpg
USS New Jersey  United States Navy 5 September 1923[260] Diamond Shoals, Cape Hatteras[260] Unknown USS New Jersey in 1919.tiff
USS Virginia  United States Navy 5 September 1923[261] Diamond Shoals, Cape Hatteras[261] Unknown USS Virginia (BB-13) after aireal bombing test.jpg
Retvizan[w]  Russian Navy 25 July 1924[262] Bungo Channel[263] Unknown Battleship Retvisan.jpg
Oryol[x]  Russian Navy 10 July 1924[264] Off Jōgashima, Tokyo Bay[264] Unknown OryolDamaged03.jpg
Aki  Imperial Japanese Navy 2 September 1924[194] 35°1′30″N 139°51′22″E / 35.02500°N 139.85611°E / 35.02500; 139.85611 (Japanese battleship Aki) Tokyo Bay[194] Unknown Japanese battleship Aki 2.jpg
Satsuma  Imperial Japanese Navy 7 September 1924[265] Bōsō Peninsula, Tokyo Bay[265] Unknown Japanese battleship Satsuma.jpg
HMS Monarch  Royal Navy 21 January 1925[266] Hurd's Deep[266] Unknown HMS Monarch LOC ggbain 16828.jpg
HMS Emperor of India  Royal Navy 6 June 1931[267] Owers Bank[267] Scrapped[268] HMS Emperor of India LOC 00192u.jpg
USS Arkansas  United States Navy 25 July 1946[269] Bikini Atoll[270] Capsized under 180 feet (55 m) of water.[270] Participated in Operation Crossroads.[271] USS Arkansas (BB-33) in November 1944.jpg
Nagato  Imperial Japanese Navy 30 July 1946[272] Bikini Atoll[273] Capsized under 33.5 meters (110 ft) of water.[274] Participated in Operation Crossroads.[272] NagatoPainting.jpg
USS Pennsylvania  United States Navy 10 February 1948[275] Off Kwajalein Atoll[275] Participated in Operation Crossroads[275] USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) sinking off Kwajalein03 1948.jpg
USS New York  United States Navy 8 July 1948[276] Pacific Ocean[276] Participated in Operation Crossroads[276] USS New York-7.jpg
USS Nevada  United States Navy 31 July 1948[277] About 60–65 miles (97–105 km) off Pearl Harbor[277] Participated in Operation Crossroads, but was sunk by naval aircraft.[278] Nevada (BB-36) aground and burning off Waipio Point, after the end of the Japanese air raid..jpg

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ U-331's captain, Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Diedrich von Tiesenhausen, believed that only one of his torpedoes struck Barham.[9] von Tiesenhausen was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for this action.[10]
  2. ^ Poltava was sunk by Japanese artillery 5 December 1904 during the Siege of Port Arthur,[19] then she was captured, refloated, given the Japanese name Tango, and refitted.[20][21][22] She was sold back to the Russian Empire during World War I and renamed Chesma.[21][23]
  3. ^ Pobeda, like Poltava, was sunk by Japanese artillery at the Siege of Port Arthur on 7 December 1904,[24] but was refloated by the Japanese and given the name Suwo, and also refitted.[25]
  4. ^ McLaughlin gives a death toll of 470 men,[27] while Campbell gives 514.[6] Neither Forczyk nor McLaughlin give numbers for the amount of sailors rescued,[4] but Campbell states that 385 men were saved by Russian destroyers.[6]
  5. ^ Originally, Triumph was built for the Chilean Navy and christened Libertad, or Liberty.[43]
  6. ^ R. A. Burt's British Battleships 1889–1904 states 49 men died in HMS Majestic's sinking,[45] while according to Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906–1921, only 40 men were killed.[46]
  7. ^ SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm would be sold to the Ottoman Empire in 1910, and she was renamed Barbaros Hayreddin.[47]
  8. ^ Prior to her service in the Hellenic Navy, Kilkis was the American battleship USS Mississippi.[73]
  9. ^ Before being purchased by the Greek government and renamed, Lemnos was the American battleship USS Idaho.[76]
  10. ^ Also known by the names Marat, after the French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat,[81] and Volkhov.[82]
  11. ^ In 1936, Jean Bart was renamed the Océan to free the name up for the Richelieu-class battleship of the same name, then under construction.[116]
  12. ^ Ranges for casualties aboard the Tirpitz range wildly. William Garzke and Robert Dulin place fatalities at "about 950";[129] Siegfried Breyer and Erich Gröner give a sum of 1204 deaths;[130][131] Niklas Zetterling and Michael Tamelander estimated nearly 1000 fatalities;[132] and John Sweetman gives 1000 out of a crew of 1900 as lost with the Tirpitz.[133]
  13. ^ The ship launched as Peresvet and was scuttled by the Russian Empire at the Siege of Port Arthur on 7 December 1904, but was raised and put to sea again by the Japanese and christened the Sagami.[185] The Japanese then sold the ship back to the Russians, who gave her the name Chesma.[186]
  14. ^ Anthony Preston gives the death toll of the ship's second (and final) sinking at 167[187] while McLaughlin, in Russian & Soviet Battleships, gives a more modest 116 fatalities.[188]
  15. ^ The number of casualties that resulted from the explosion of the Kawachi are high, they are disputed amongst the sources provided. Hans Lengerer's journal Battleships Kawachi and Settsu says that 600 men died,[191] and Sander Kingsepp tacks on an additional 18 fatalities.[192] Gardiner and Gray and Jentschura, Jung and Mickel, however, agree on a figure of 700 killed.[193][194]
  16. ^ Sometime in mid-1918, Prince George was renamed Victoria II,[196] after her sister ship HMS Victorious,[46] but her name reverted to Prince George in February 1919.[46]
  17. ^ The Alonso XIII was renamed the España,[199] the name of her sister ship, which had foundered in 1923,[198] after the unpopular king of Spain had been exiled.[199]
  18. ^ After World War Two, the Giulio Cesare was given to the Soviet Union and was given the name Novorossiysk.[210][211]
  19. ^ Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya was laid down as Ekaterina II, but this was only a formality.[220] Later, she was renamed Svobodnaya Rossiya (Russian: Free Russia) by February Revolutionists.[221]
  20. ^ USS Texas was renamed the San Marcos 15 February 1911 to free the name for USS Texas.[245]
  21. ^ On 6 June 1905, the Imperator Nikolai I was renamed Iki.[250]
  22. ^ On 30 April 1919, the Iowa was renamed Coast Battleship No. 4 to free her name for one of the six new South Dakota-class battleships,[258] which would be abandoned.
  23. ^ After being raised and put into Japanese service, the Retvizan was renamed the Hizen.[262]
  24. ^ After being captured by the Japanese, the Oryol was given the name Iwami.[264]

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References[edit]

Journals[edit]

  • Allen, M. J. (1964). "The Loss & Salvage of the "Leonardo da Vinci"". Warship International. Naval Records Club. I (Reprint).
  • Allen, Francis J. (1993). ""Old Hoodoo": The Story of the U.S.S. Texas". Warship International. International Naval Research Organization. XXX (3). ISSN 0043-0374.
  • Fernández, Rafael; Mitiukov, Nicholas; Crawford, Kent (March 2007). "The Spanish Dreadnoughts of the España class". Warship International. International Naval Research Organization. 44 (1): 106. ISSN 0043-0374. OCLC 1647131.
  • Windsor, H. H., ed. (November 1911). "French Battleship Blown up in Toulon Harbor". Popular Mechanics. 16 (5).
  • Kingsepp, Sander (March 2007). Ahlberg, Lars (ed.). "Reader Reactions and Questions". Contributions to the History of Imperial Japanese Warships (Paper II).(subscription required)
  • Lengerer, Hans (September 2006). Ahlberg, Lars (ed.). "Battleships Kawachi and Settsu". Contributions to the History of Imperial Japanese Warships (Paper I).(subscription required)
  • Lengerer, Hans (September 2008). Ahlberg, Lars (ed.). "Tango (ex-Poltava)". Contributions to the History of Imperial Japanese Warships (Paper V).(subscription required)
  • Lengerer, Hans (September 2008). Ahlberg, Lars (ed.). "Hizen (ex-Retvizan)". Contributions to the History of Imperial Japanese Warships (Paper V).(subscription required)
  • Lengerer, Hans (September 2008). Ahlberg, Lars (ed.). "Sagami (ex-Peresvet) and Suwō (ex-Pobeda)". Contributions to the History of Imperial Japanese Warships (Paper V).(subscription required)
  • McLaughlin, Stephen (September 2008). Ahlberg, Lars (ed.). "Peresvet and Pobéda". Contributions to the History of Imperial Japanese Warships (Paper V).(subscription required)
  • "Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute". Proceedings. United States Naval Institute. 66. 1940.
  • Sieche, Erwin F. (1991). "S.M.S. Szent István: Hungaria's Only and Ill-Fated Dreadnought". Warship International. International Warship Research Organization. XXVII (2). ISSN 0043-0374.
  • Wright, Christopher C., ed. (March 2002). "The US Navy's Study of the Loss of the Battleship Arizona". Warship International. International Naval Research Organization. XXXIX–XL (3–4, 1). ISSN 0043-0374.

Online resources[edit]

News publications[edit]

External links[edit]