List of super cyclonic storms

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Satellite image of the 1999 Odisha cyclone nearing eastern India as one of the most intense tropical cyclones in North Indian Ocean

Super cyclonic storm is the highest category used by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) to classify tropical cyclones, within the North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone basin between the Malay Peninsula and the Arabian Peninsula. Within the basin, a super cyclonic storm is defined as a tropical cyclone that has 3-minute mean maximum sustained wind speeds of at least 120 knots (220 km/h; 140 mph). The category was formally introduced during the 1999 season alongside Very Severe Cyclonic Storms, in order to replace the previously used Severe Cyclonic Storm with Core of Hurricane Winds. There have been at least nine storms that have attained such an intensity. The most recent super cyclonic storm was Cyclone Amphan in 2020 North Indian Ocean cyclone season.

Background[edit]

The North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone basin is located to the north of the Equator, and encompasses the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, between the Malay Peninsula and the Arabian Peninsula.[1][2] The basin is officially monitored by the India Meteorological Department's Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in New Delhi.[1][2] Within the basin a Super Cyclonic Storm is defined as a tropical cyclone, that has 3-minute mean maximum sustained wind speeds of at least 120 knots (220 km/h; 140 mph).[1][2] The category was introduced during 1999 alongside Very Severe Cyclonic Storms in order, to replace the previously used Severe Cyclonic Storm with Core of Hurricane Winds..[2] Should a Super Cyclonic Storm impact land at or near its peak intensity, then it is expected to cause large scale flooding and extensive structural damage to residential and industrial buildings as well as bridges.[3] It is also expected to disrupt communications and the power supply as well as large-scale disruption to rail and road traffic.[3]

Systems[edit]

Name Dates as a
super cyclonic storm[nb 1]
Duration Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damage
(USD)[nb 2]
Refs
"Calcutta" October 1737 Not Specified Not Specified Not Specified West Bengal 300,000 Unknown [4]
Odisha September 1885 Not Specified Not Specified 919 hPa (27.14 inHg) Odisha 5,000 Unknown [4]
Rameswaram December 8, 1964 Not Specified 240 km/h (150 mph) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Sri Lanka, India 1,800 $150 million [5]
Andhra Pradesh November 18 - 19, 1977 1 day 230 km/h (145 mph) 943 hPa (27.85 inHg) [6]
Unnamed November 23 - 24, 1978 1 day 220 km/h (140 mph) 938 hPa (27.70 inHg) [7]
Gay November 1989 Not Specified 230 km/h (145 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Thailand, Myanmar, India
Andhra Pradesh May 8, 1990 18 hours 235 km/h (146 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) India 967 $600 million [8]
Bangladesh April 29, 1991 1 day 235 km/h (146 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg) Bangladesh, Northeastern India, Myanmar 138,866 $1.7 billion [9]
Odisha October 28 - 29, 1999 18 hours 260 km/h (161 mph) 912 hPa (26.93 inHg) Thailand, Myanmar, Bangladesh, India 9,887 $4.44 billion [10]
Gonu June 6, 2007 6 hours 235 km/h (146 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) Oman, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Pakistan 78 $4.44 billion [11]
Kyarr October 27 - 29, 2019 2 days 3 hours 240 km/h (150 mph) 922 hPa (27.23 inHg) Western India, Oman, United Arab Emirates
Socotra, Somalia
[12]
Amphan May 18 - 19, 2020 1 day 240 km/h (150 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Sri Lanka, Eastern India, Bangladesh 118 $13.4 billion

Climatology[edit]

Super cyclonic storms by month.[13]
Month Number of storms
April
1
May
2
June
1
September
1
October
3
November
3
December
1
Super cyclonic storms by decade.[13]
Period Number of storms
Pre-1970's
3
1970s
2
1980s
1
1990s
3
2000s
1
2010s
1
2020s
1

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dates are given in Coordinated Universal Time.
  2. ^ All damage values are in USD of their respective years.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee. Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea 2019 (PDF) (Report). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Best track data of tropical cyclonic disturbances over the north Indian Ocean (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. July 14, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
  3. ^ a b http://www.rsmcnewdelhi.imd.gov.in/images/pdf/cyclone-awareness/damage-potential-cyclone/damage.pdf
  4. ^ a b "Historical records of 12 most devastating cyclones, which formed in the Bay of Bengal and made landfall on the East coast of India". National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project. Archived from the original on June 5, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  5. ^ Kulshrestha, Shashi M; Gupta, Madan G (June 1966). "Satellite Study of the Rameswaram Cyclonic Storm of 20–23 December 1964". Journal of Applied Meteorology. 5 (3): 373–376. Bibcode:1966JApMe...5..373K. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1966)005<0373:SSOTRC>2.0.CO;2.
  6. ^ Pant, P S; Ramakrishnan, A R; Jamdunathan, R. "Cyclones and Depressions over the Indian Seas in 1977" (PDF). Mausam. 31 (3): 337–356.
  7. ^ Srinivasan, V; Ramakrishnan, A R; Jamdunathan, R. "Cyclones and Depressions over the Indian Seas in 1978" (PDF). Mausam. 31 (4): 495–506.
  8. ^ "2. Pre Monsoon Season Cyclonic Disturbances". Report on Cyclonic Disturbances (Depressions and Tropical Cyclones) over North Indian Ocean in 1990 (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. January 1991. pp. 3–18. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  9. ^ Bangladesh Cyclone, April 24-30 1991 (PDF) (Report on Cyclonic Disturbances (Depressions and Tropical Cyclones) over North Indian Ocean in 1991). India Meteorological Department. January 1992. p. 4. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  10. ^ Report on Cyclonic Disturbances Over North Indian Ocean During 1999 (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. February 2000. pp. 50–64. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  11. ^ Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North Indian Ocean during 2007 (PDF) (Report). January 2008. Archived from the original on November 26, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  12. ^ http://www.rsmcnewdelhi.imd.gov.in/images/pdf/publications/preliminary-report/kyarr.pdf
  13. ^ a b "Monthly and annual frequency of SuCS (Max wind 120 knots or more) over NIO during 1965-2018" (xls). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved May 8, 2020.