List of supercontinents

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This is a list of supercontinents.


The list is written in reverse-chronological order ("stratolithic order"). Dates are given as the approximate beginning of the formation of the supercontinent; dates in parentheses are approximate date of the fully formed supercontinent. The Notes column provides the geologic time period of the fully formed supercontinent.

Minor supercontinent
Major supercontinent
List of Supercontinents
Name Ga
(Billions of years ago)
Geologic time period[1] / Notes
Laurasia ~0.253–~0.056 Phanerozoic > Mesozoic[2]
Pangaea ~0.335 (0.299[3]) –~0.173 Phanerozoic > Paleozoic > Permian[4]
Euramerica 0.433-0.056 Was next to Gondwana
Gondwana ~0.62–~0.132 Appeared in 550mya or the breakup of Pannotia.
Pannotia, also called Vendian 0.62–~0.555 Precambrian > Proterozoic > Neoproterozoic > Ediacaran[5]
Avalonia 0.63-0.056
Protogondwana 1.071-0.62
Protolaurasia 1.071–0.592
Rodinia[6] 1.071–~0.75 Precambrian > Proterozoic > Neoproterozoic > Tonian
Cimmeria 1.25–present
Baltica 1.8-present
Laurentia 1.816-present
Columbia, also called Nuna ~1.82–1.35[7] Precambrian > Proterozoic > Paleoproterozoic > Statherian
Nena 1.95-0.592 Formation is 1.95bya
Atlantica 2.11-0.114 Protracted tectonic magma plume rifting occurred 1.31 Ga. Final breakup occurred ~114 Ma.
India (continent) 2.525-present
Siberia (continent) 2.695-present
Sclavia 2.665-2.33 Kenorland is a "one-piece" alternative to Superia, Vaalbara, and Sclavia.
Kenorland ~2.72–2.1 Neoarchean sanukitoid cratons and new continental crust formed Kenorland. Protracted tectonic magma plume rifting occurred 2.48 to 2.4 Ga and this contributed to the Paleoproterozoic glacial events in 2.4 to 2.22 Ga. Final breakup occurred ~2.1 Ga.
Ur ~3.0-2.803 Classified as the earliest known landmass, Ur was a continent that existed three billion years ago. While probably not a supercontinent, one can argue that Ur was a supercontinent for its time as it was possibly the only continent on Earth, even if it was smaller than Australia is today. Still, an older rock formation now in Greenland dates back from Hadean times.
Congo (continent) (Protoafrica) 3.6-present This former continent thought to be parental to the São Francisco craton, Congo craton and the Central Africa.
Vaalbara ~3.6-2.803 Possibly the first supercontinent
Superior craton 4.031-present existed when Vaalbara was formed.

Present day[edit]

List of Supercontinents
Name Millions of years
Afro-Eurasia -5 - +215[citation needed]
Ocean-Eurasia -5 - +215[citation needed]
America -15 - +150[citation needed]
Eurasia -253 - +215[citation needed] If not considered a part of Afro-Eurasia

Future (speculative)[edit]

List of Supercontinents
Name Millions of years in the future Notes
Novopangaea 250 This assumes closure of the Pacific Ocean, docking of Australia with East Asia, and northward motion of Antarctica.
Pangaea Ultima 250 Africa will meet North America by then.
Aurica[8][better source needed] 300
Amasia 250
Afro-Euraustralasia 27–215


  1. ^ Inc., Advanced Solutions International,. "GSA Geologic Time Scale". Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  2. ^ "Tectonics of the Triassic Period". Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  3. ^ "The Permian Period". Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  4. ^ "The Permian Period". Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  5. ^ "The Ediacaran Period". Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  6. ^ Science, Carnegie (2017-12-14). "One of The Supercontinents Is Different from the Others (It's Rodinia)". Carnegie Institution for Science. Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Here's what the Earth could look like in 200million years – FOUR new supercontinents revealed".

External links[edit]