List of surahs in the Quran

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The first Sura of the Quran, consisting of seven verses.

The Quran is divided into Surahs (chapters) and further divided into ayat (verses). The real translation of the word Ayat is actually "a sign". For a preliminary discussion about the chronological order of chapters see page Surah.

Each surah, except for the ninth is preceded by the phrase bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm ("In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful."), also known as the Basmala.[1] 29 surahs are preceded by Muqatta'at (lit. abbreviated or shortened), unique letter combinations whose meanings remain unclear.[2][3]

Note that the names of the surahs do not always reflect the topics discussed in the surah. Many surah names simply come from a unique word found in the surah or from the first words of the surah. The names serve merely as a means to identify which surah is being talked about, but not as an indicator of what topics the surah discusses. For example, the main topic of Suret Esh-Shu"ara' ("The Poets") is the stories of prophets that were sent to mankind before Muhammed (specifically in this Surah: Moses, Noah, Hude, Salih, Lot, and Jethro) and how their message was ultimately the same: to worship One God and be just to people. However, the name "The Poets" comes from the very last few verses of the surah which mention deviant poets and show how Muhammed is not a poet like some of the Coraish tried to claim.

Table of Suras[edit]

Surah
# Arabic title(s) Anglicized title(s) English title(s) Number of verses Meccan vs. Medinan Note on Revelation Location and Period Egyptian Standard Chronological Order[4][5][6] Nöldeke's Chronological Order[4] Muqatta'at (isolated letters)[3] Title refers to Topics and Themes
1 ،الفاتحة

أم الكتاب، أم القرآن، السبع المثاني، الحمد، الشفاء، سورة الصلاة، الأساس

'

aka: Umul Kitab, Umul Koran, Es-Seb"ol Methanny, El-Hemd, Esh-Shifa', Suret Es-Salah, El-Asas

The Opening

aka: Mother of the Book, Mother of the Koran, The Oft-Recited Seven, Praise, The Cure, Chapter of the Prayer, The Foundation

7 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 5 48 Whole Surah [7]
  • The fundamental principles of the Qur'an in a condensed form.[7]
  • A prayer to God which encompasses all needs.
2 البقرة ' The Cow 286 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD). Except 281 from Mina at the time of the Last Hajj 87 91 Alif Lam Mim v. 67-73 [7]
3 آل عمران Al Imron The House of Joachim 200 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 89 97 Alif Lam Mim v. 33, 35 [7]
4 النساء En-Nisa' Women 176 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 92 100 Whole Surah [7]
  • Unity of the human race and the mutual obligations of men and women towards one another (v. 1) [7]
  • Questions related to family life (including marriage and inheritance) and emphasis on justice[7]
  • Rights of women[7]
  • Peace and war and the hypocrites[7]
  • People of the Book
5 المائدة El-Ma'eda The Table Spread 120 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD). Except 3, revealed at Arafat on Last Hajj 112 114 v. 112-114 [7]
6 الأنعام El-En"am Cattle 165 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 20, 23, 91, 93, 114, 151, 152, 153, from Medina 55 89 v. 136ff.[7]
  • Oneness and uniqueness of God[7]
  • Refutation of the polytheists
  • Refutation of Pre-Islamic superstitions concerning animals, then countered with Islamic values [7]
7 الأعراف El-A"roff The Heights 206 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 163-170, from Medina 39 87 Alif Lam Mim Sad v. 46, 48 [7]
8 الأنفال El-Enfal Spoils of War 75 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD). Except 30-36 from Mecca 88 95 v. 1 [7]
9 ،التوبة

البراءة

Et-Toba

aka: El-Bara'a

Repentance

aka: The Absolution

129 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD). Except last two verses from Mecca 113 113
  • How and why to fight the unbelievers
  • Criticism of corrupt religious leaders
  • Trials during wartime and the fitna of the hypocrites
  • Who can receive charity
  • Loyalty and obedience to God and His Prophet
10 يونس Yunus Jonah 109 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 40, 94, 95, 96, from Medina 51 84 Alif Lam Ra v. 98 [7]
  • Divine origin of the Koran and that Muhammed did not fabricate it (v. 15-17, 37-38, 94) [7]
  • Response to challenges made by the Meccan polytheists
  • All creatures will return to God
  • Futility of conjecture (Polytheism is dismissed as conjecture)
  • How different people respond to guidance:
    • Noah's people reject guidance altogether
    • Pharaoh believes when it is too late
    • Jonah's people believed and were saved
11 هود Hude Hude 123 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 12, 17, 114, from Medina 52 75 Alif Lam Ra v. 50-60
  • Continuation of refutation of the polytheists
  • Stories of past prophets' struggles to comfort and encourage the Prophet and the believers:
12 يوسف Yusuf Joseph 111 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 1, 2, 3, 7, from Medina 53 77 Alif Lam Ra Whole Surah
  • The story Joseph (an illustration of God’s unfathomable direction of men’s affairs; a comfort to the Prophet and believers in the Year of Sadness) [7]
13 الرعد Er-Ra"d Thunder 43 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 96 90 Alif Lam Mim Ra v. 13 [7]
  • God's majesty reflected in the natural wonders of creation
  • Revelation and the concequences of accepting or rejecting it [7]
14 إبراهيم Ibraheem Abraham 52 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD). Except 28, 29, from Medina 72 76 Alif Lam Ra v. 35-41 [7]
  • Revelation to lead mankind from darkness to light. [7]
  • Gratitude and ingratitude to God's blessings
  • Patience and trust in God
  • The severity of God's punishments
  • Abraham's prayers
15 الحجر El-Hijr The City of Stone or The Rocky Plain 99 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 87, from Medina 54 57 Alif Lam Ra v. 80 [7]
  • Inevitability of God's decree
  • Responses to challenges of the polytheists
  • Creation of Adam and Iblis's refusal to bow
  • Angels bring Abraham good news of Isaac and the story of Lot
  • Mention of Midian and Thamud
  • Reminder to the Prophet to have forbearance and resolution
16 ،النحل

النعم

En-Nahl

aka: En-Ni"em

The Bee

aka: The Blessings

128 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD). Except the last three verses from Medina 70 73 v. 68-69 [7]
  • The many wonders of creation and God's blessings on man [7]
  • Rejection of polytheism and warnings to the polytheists
  • Importance of uprightness and keeping oaths
17 ،الإسراء

بني إسراءيل، سبحان

El-Isra'

aka: Bani Isra'eel, Subhan

The Night Journey

aka: The Children of Israel, Glory

111 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 26, 32, 33, 57, 73-80, from Medina 50 67 v. 1 [7]
18 الكهف El-Kehf The Cave 110 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD). Except 28, 83-101, from Medina 69 69 v. 13-20 [7]
  • A series of parables or allegories on the theme of faith in God versus excessive attachment to the life of this world. Including:[7]
    • The men of the cave. (v. 13-20) [7]
    • The rich man and the poor man. (v. 32-44) [7]
    • Moses and the unnamed sage. (v. 60-82) [7]
    • The allegory of ‘Dhu’l-Qarnayn, the Two-Horned One’. (v. 83-98) [7]
19 مريم Meryem Mary 98 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 58 and 71, from Medina 44 58 Kaf Ha Ya 'Ayn Sad v. 16-37 [7]
20 طه To Ha To Ha 135 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 130 and 131, from Medina 45 55 Ta Ha [notes 1] v. 1 [7]
  • The guidance offered by God through His prophets.[7]
  • The fundamental truths inherent in all revealed religions are identical.[7]
    • The story of Moses. (v. 9-98) [7]
21 الأنبياء El-Embiya' The Prophets 112 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 73 65 v. 48-91 [7]
  • The oneness, uniqueness and transcendence of God.[7]
  • The continuity and intrinsic unity of all divine revelation.[7]
    • Stories of the prophets of old. (v. 48-91) [7]
    • The believers of all faiths belong to one single community. (v. 92) [7]
22 الحج El-Hadj The Pilgrimage 78 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD). Except 52-55, revealed between Mecca and Medina 103 107 v. 25-38 [7]
  • The Mecca pilgrimage and some of the rituals connected with it. (v. 25-38) [7]
23 المؤمنون El-Mo'minune The Believers 118 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 74 64 v. 1 [7]
  • True faith.[7]
  • The evidence of the existence of an almighty Creator, and man’s ultimate responsibility before Him.[7]
  • The unity of all religious communities, broken by man’s egotism, greed and striving after power. (v. 52-53) [7]
  • The impossibility to believe in God, without believing in life after death.[7]
24 النور En-Nour Light 64 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 102 105 v. 35 [7]
  • Mutual relations and ethical rules between men and women.[7]
  • The mystic parable of the ‘light of God’ ("Verse of Light"). (v. 35) [7]
25 الفرقان El-Forconn The Criterion 77 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 68-70, from Medina 42 66 v. 1 [7]
  • The purpose of every divine revelation is to provide a stable criterion of true and false.[7]
  • The humanness of every apostle sent by God to man. (v. 20) [7]
  • Divine revelation belongs to God’s creative activity.[7]
26 الشعراء Esh-Shu"ara' The Poets 227 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 197 and 224-227, from Medina 47 56 Ta Sin Mim v. 224 [7]
  • Man’s weakness, which causes him to reject God’s message and worship power and wealth etc.[7]
27 النمل En-Neml The Ants 93 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 48 68 Ta Sin v. 18 [7]
28 القصص El-Cussus The Story 88 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 52-55 from Medina and 85 from Juhfa at the time of the Hijra 49 79 Ta Sin Mim v. 25 [7]
  • Human aspects of the life of Moses.[7]
29 العنكبوت El-"Encaboot The Spider 69 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD).

Except 1-11, from Medina

85 81 Alif Lam Mim v. 41 [7]
  • The parable of ‘the spider house’, a symbol of false beliefs that are destined to be blown away by the winds of truth. (v. 41) [7]
30 الروم Er-Room Byzantium 60 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD).

Except 17, from Medina

84 74 Alif Lam Mim v. 1 [7]
  • Predictions of the near victory of the Byzantines [over the Persians] and the Battle of Badr (2 A.H.). (v. 1-7) [7]
  • God’s ability to resurrect the dead at the end of time, and the people’s ignorance of this.[7]
31 لقمان Lucman Lucman 34 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 27-29, from Medina 57 82 Alif Lam Mim v. 12-19 [7]
  • The story of Luqman, a legendary sage, counselling his son. (v. 12-19) [7]
32 ،السجدة

المضاجع، الم تنزيل

Es-Sejda

aka: El-Madoji", Alif Lam Meem Tenzeel

Prostration

aka: The Beds, Alif Lam Meem Revelation

30 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD). Except 16-20, from Medina 75 70 Alif Lam Mim v. 15 [7]
  • God's creation.[10]
  • God's revelation and man's acceptance or denial.[10]
  • The Day of Judgement.[10]
33 الأحزاب El-Ahzab The Confederates 73 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 90 103 v. 9-27 [7]
34 سبأ Saba' Sheba 54 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 58 85 v. 15-20 [7]
  • The insignificance of the knowledge accessible to man. (v. 9) [7]
  • The story of the people of Sheba, as an example of the impermanence of human power, wealth and glory. (v. 15-20) [7]
  • Always be conscious of God. (v. 46) [7]
35 ،فاطر

الملائكة

Fotter

aka: El-Mala'ika

The Originator

aka: Angels

45 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 43 86 v. 1 [7]
  • God’s power to create and resurrect.[7]
  • God’s revelation of His will through His prophets.[7]
36 يس Ya Seen Ya Seen 83 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 45, from Medina 41 60 Ya Sin [notes 2] v. 1 [7]
  • Man’s moral responsibility, resurrection and God’s judgment.[7]
  • To be recited over the dying and in the prayers of the dead.[7]
37 الصافات Es-Soffat Those Ranged in Ranks 182 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 56 50 v. 1 [7]
  • Resurrection and the certainty that all human beings will have to answer before God.[7]
  • Man’s constant need of prophetic guidance.[7]
    • Stories of earlier prophets. (v. 75-148) [7]
38 ،ص

داود

Sod

aka: Dawood

Sod

aka: David

88 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 38 59 Sad v. 1 [7]
  • Divine guidance and its rejection by those who are lost in fast pride.[7]
39 ،الزمر

الغرف

Ez-Zomar

aka: El-Ghuref

The Crowds

aka: The Dwellings

75 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 59 80 v. 71, 73 [7]
  • The evidence of the existence and oneness of God in all manifestations of nature.[7]
  • God forgives all sins to him who repents before his death.[7]
  • Allegories of the Last Hour and the Day of Judgment.[7]
40 ،غافر

المؤمن، الفضل

Ghoffer

aka: El-Mo'min, El-Fuddle

The Forgiver

aka: The Believer, Bounty

85 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 56, 57, from Medina 60 78 Ha Mim v. 3 [7]
  • Man’s false pride, worship of false values (wealth, power etc.) and his denial of divine guidance.[7]
    • Stories of earlier prophets.[7]
41 ،فصلت

حم سجدة، المصابيح، الأقوات

Foussilat

aka: Ha Meem Sejda, El-Masobeeh, El-Aquat

Expounded

aka: Ha Meem Prostration, Lamps, Means of Sustenance

54 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 61 71 Ha Mim v. 3[7]
  • Man’s acceptance or rejection of divine revelation.[7]
42 ،الشورى

حم عسق

Esh-Shura

aka: Ha Meem "Ain Seen Coff

Counsel

aka: Ha Meem Ain Seen Coff

53 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD). Except 23, 24, 25, 27, from Medina 62 83 Ha Mim 'Ayn Sin Qaf v. 36 [7]
  • God is undefinable and unfathomable. (v. 11, 16) [7]
  • All prophets taught the oneness of God, so all believers of all ‘denominations’ should see themselves as ‘one single community’. (v. 13, 15) [7]
  • The law of cause and effect: In the life to come man will only harvest ‘what his own hands have wrought’ in this world.[7]
43 الزخرف Ez-Zukhruf Gold Ornaments 89 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD). Except 54, from Medina 63 61 Ha Mim v. 35 [7]
  • To equal anyone or anything with God is sprititually destructive and logically unacceptable.[7]
  • People’s blind adherence to the faith of their forefathers. (v. 22-23) [7]
44 الدخان Ed-Dukhon Smoke 59 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 64 53 Ha Mim v. 10 [7]
  • Through revelation worldly pride is eventually brought to naught.[10]
45 ،الجاثية

الشريعة

El-Jathia

aka: Esh-Shari"a

Kneeling

aka: The Clear Path

37 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD). Except 14, from Medina 65 72 Ha Mim v. 28 [7]
  • The humility with which all human beings will face their final judgment on resurrection. (v. 28) [7]
46 الأحقاف El-Ahcoff The Sand Dunes 35 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD). Except 10, 15, 35, from Medina 66 88 Ha Mim v. 21 [7]
47 ،محمد

القتال

Muhammed

aka: El-Kitale

Muhammed

aka: Fighting

38 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD). Except 13, revealed during Muhammad's Hijrah 95 96 v. 2 [7]
  • Fighting (qital) in God’s cause.[7]
48 الفتح El-Fet-h Victory 29 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD).Revealed while returning from Hudaybiyya 111 108 v. 1 [7]
49 الحجرات El-Hojorot The Private Chambers 18 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 106 112 v. 4 [7]
  • Social ethics.[7]
    • Reverence to Muhammad and the righteous leaders after him.[7]
    • The brotherhood of all believers and all mankind. (v. 10, 13) [7]
    • The difference between true faith and outward observance of religious formalities. (v. 14 ff.) [7]
50 ،ق

الباسقات

Coff

aka: El-Bassicot

Coff

aka: Towering

45 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 38, from Medina 34 54 Qaf v. 1 [7]
  • Death and resurrection.[7]
  • God is closer to man than his neck-vein. (v. 16)[10]
51 الذاريات Eth-Thariyat The Scattering Winds 60 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 67 39 v. 1 [7]
52 الطور Et-Tour The Mountain 49 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 76 40 v. 1 [7]
53 النجم En-Nejm The Star 62 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD). Except 32, from Medina 23 28 v. 1 [7]
  • Muhammad’s experience of an ascension to heaven (Mi’raj, including his vision of the Sidrat al-Muntaha, the Lote-Tree of the Extremity). (v. 13-18) [7]
54 ،القمر

اقتربت الساعة

El-Camar

aka: Ictarabet Es-Sa"a

The Moon

aka: The Hour Has Drawn Nigh

55 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 44-46, from Medina 37 49 v. 1 [7]
55 الرحمن Er-Rahman The Compassionate 78 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 97 43 v. 1 [7]
56 الواقعة El-Wacki"a The Inevitable 96 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 81 and 82, from Medina 46 41 v. 1 [7]
57 الحديد El-Hadeed Iron 29 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 94 99 v. 25 [7]
58 ،المجادلة

الظهار

El-Mojaddela

aka: Eth-Thihar

She who Disputes

aka: Zihar

22 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 105 106 v. 1 [7]
  • Divorce.[7]
  • Faith and denial.[7]
  • Hypocrisy.[7]
  • The attitude believers should have toward non-believers.[7]
59 ،الحشر

بنو نضير

El-Husher

aka: Banu Nadeer

The Gathering

aka: Banu Nadir

24 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 101 102 v. 2 [7]
  • The conflict between the Muslim community and the Jewish tribe of Banu’n-Nadir of Medina.[7]
60 ،الممتحنة

الامتحان، المودة

El-Mumtahana

aka: El-Imtihan, El-Mawedda

She who is Examined

aka: The Examination, Affection

13 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 91 110 v. 10 [7]
  • The believers’ relations with unbelievers.[7]
61 ،الصف

الحواريون، عيسى

Es-Suff

aka: El-Hawariyoon, "Esa

The Ranks

aka: The Apostles, Jesus

14 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 109 98 v. 4 [7]
  • A call to unity between professed belief and actual behaviour.[7]
62 الجمعة El-Jumu"a The Congregation 11 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 110 94 v. 9-10 [7]
63 المنافقون El-Monafecune The Hypocrites 11 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 104 104 Whole Surah [7]
  • Hypocrisy.[7]
64 التغابن Et-Taghabun Mutual Disposession 18 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 108 93 v. 9 [7]
65 ،الطلاق

سورة النساء القصرى

Et-Talock

aka: Suret En-Nisa' El-Cusra

Divorce

aka: The Shorter Chapter of Women

12 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 99 101 Whole Surah
  • Divorce (waiting period, remarriage).[7]
66 ،التحريم

لما تحرم، المتحرم، سورة النبي

Et-Tahreem

aka: Lima Toharrimu, El-Motaharrim, Suret En-Nebi

Forbiddance

aka: Why do you Forbid?, The Forbidden, Chapter of the Prophet

12 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 107 109 v. 1 [7]
  • Certain aspects of Muhammad’s personal and family life.[7]
67 ،الملك

تبارك، تبارك الذي بيده الملك، المانع، المنجية

El-Mulk

aka: Tebarec, Tebarec Ellathee Biyedihi El-Mulk, El-Mani", El-Munjiya

Dominion

aka: Blessed, Blessed is the One who Holds the Dominion, The Shield, The Savior

30 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 77 63 v. 1 [7]
  • Man’s inability to understand the mysteries of the universe, and his dependence on guidance through divine revelation.[7]
68 القلم El-Cullem The Pen 52 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610 - 618 AD). Except 17-33 and 48-50, from Medina 2 18 Nun v. 1 [7]
69 الحاقة El-Hacka The Undeniable Reality 52 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 78 38 v. 1
70 ،المعارج

المواقع، سأل

El-Ma"arij

aka: El-Mawacki", Sa'ala

The Ascending Ways

aka: The Impending Matters, Someone Asked

44 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 79 42 v. 3 [7]
  • The unwillingness to believe, caused by the restlessness inherent in human nature.[7]
71 نوح Nuh Noah 28 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 71 51 Whole Surah
  • The story of Noah.[7]
    • The struggle against blind materialism and the lack of spiritual values.[7]
72 الجن El-Jinn The Jinn 28 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 40 62 v. 1 [7]
73 المزمل El-Muzzemmil The Enwrapped One 20 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610 - 618 AD). Except 10, 11 and 20, from Medina 3 23 v. 1 [7]
74 المدثر El-Muddetthir The Covered One 56 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 4 2 v. 1 [7]
  • This short early surah outlines almost all fundamental Qur'anic concepts.[7]
75 ،القيامة

لا أقسم

El-Kiama

aka: La Uksimu

Resurrection

aka: I Swear

40 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 31 36 v. 1 [7]
  • The concept of resurrection.[7]
76 ،الإنسان

هل أتى، الدهر، الأبرار

El-Insan

aka: Hel Ata, Ed-Dehr, El-Abrar

The Human

aka: Hasn't There Come?, Endless Time, The Pious

31 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 98 52 v. 1 [7]
77 المرسلات El-Morsalat Those Sent Forth 50 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD). Except 48, from Medina 33 32 v. 1 [7]
  • The gradual revelation of the Qur'an.[7]
78 ،النبأ

المعصرات، التساءل

En-Naba'

aka: El-Mo"sirot, Et-Tasa'ol

The Tiding

aka: Rain Clouds, Questioning one Another

40 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 80 33 v. 2 [7]
  • Life after death.[7]
  • Resurrection and God’s ultimate judgment.[7]
79 ،النازعات

الساهرة، الطامة

En-Nazi"at

aka: Es-Sahira, Et-Tomma

The Snatchers

aka: The Wide Expanse, The Calamity

46 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 81 31 v. 1 [7]
80 ،عبس

الصاخة، السفرة

"Abasa

aka: Es-Sokkha, Es-Seffara

He Frowned

aka: The Piercing Cry, The Scribes

42 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 24 17 v. 1 [7]
81 التكوير Et-Taqueer The Enfolding 29 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 7 27 v. 1 [7]
  • The Last Hour and man’s resurrection.[7]
82 الإنفطار El-Infitar The Splitting 19 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 82 26 v. 1 [7]
83 المطففين El-Motaffifeen The Defrauders 36 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 86 37 v. 1 [7]
84 ،الإنشقاق

انشقت

El-Inshicac

aka: Inshuckut

The Bursting Open

aka: Burst Open

25 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 83 29 v. 1 [7]
85 البروج El-Borouge The Constellations 22 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 27 22 v. 1 [7]
86 الطارق Et-Taric The Night Visitant or The Morning Star 17 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 36 15 v. 1 [7]
87 الأعلى El-A"la The Highest 19 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 8 19 v. 1 [7]
88 الغاشية El-Ghashia The Overwhelming Event 26 Meccan Late Mecca phase (620 - 622 AD) 68 34 v. 1 [7]
89 الفجر El-Fejr The Dawn 30 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 10 35 v. 1 [7]
90 البلد El-Ballad The City 20 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 35 11 v. 1 [7]
91 الشمس Esh-Shems The Sun 15 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 26 16 v. 1 [7]
92 الليل El-Lail The Night 21 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 9 10 v. 1 [7]
93 الضحى Ed-Doha The Morning Brightness 11 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 11 13 v. 1 [7]
  • Man’s suffering and God’s justice.[7]
  • A message of hope and consolation is given to man from Allah's past mercies.
  • Man is bidden to pursue the path of goodness and proclaim the bounties of Allah.
94 ،الشرح

الانشراح

Esh-Shar-h

aka: El-Inshirah

Expansion

aka: Solace

8 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 12 12 v. 1
95 التين Et-Teen The Fig 8 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 28 20 v. 1 [7]
  • A fundamental moral verity, common to all true religious teachings.[7]
96 ،العلق

اقرأ

El-"Alak

aka: Ikra'

The Blood Clot

aka: Read!

19 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 1 1 v. 2 [7]
  • The first five verses revealed to Muhammad. (v. 1-5) [7]
97 القدر El-Cadr Power 5 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 25 14 v. 1 [7]
98 ،البينة

لم يكن

El-Bayina

aka: Lem Yecun

The Clear Proof

aka: They will Not

8 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 100 92 v. 1 [7]
99 الزلزلة Ez-Zelzela The Earthquake 8 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD) 93 25 v. 1 [7]
100 العاديات El-"Adiyat The Chargers 11 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 14 30 v. 1 [7]
101 القارعة El-Cari"a The Catastrophe 11 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 30 24 v. 1 [7]
102 التكاثر Et-Tecathor Vying for Increase 8 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 16 8 v. 1 [7]
  • Man’s greed and tendencies.[7]
103 العصر El-"Asr Time 3 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 13 21 v. 1 [7]
104 الهمزة El-Homaza The Slanderer 9 Meccan Middle Mecca phase (618 - 620 AD) 32 6 v. 1 [7]
105 الفيل El-Feel The Elephant 5 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 19 9 v. 1 [7]
106 قريش Coraish Quraysh 4 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 29 4 v. 1 [7]
  • The Quraysh, custodians of the Kaaba, should be thankful to God for protecting them from hunger and danger.[10]
107 الماعون El-Ma"oon Assistance 7 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD). Only 1-3 from Mecca; the rest from Medina 17 7 v. 7 [7]
  • The meaning of true worship through sincere devotion and helping those in need.[10]
108 الكوثر El-Cothar Abundance 3 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 15 5 v. 1 [7]
  • Spiritual riches through devotion and sacrifice.
  • Hatred results in the cutting off of all hope.[10]
109 الكافرون El-Cafirune Disbelievers 6 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 18 45 v. 1 [7]
  • The correct attitude towards those who reject faith.[10]
110 النصر En-Nasr Help 3 Medinan Medina phase (622 - 632 AD).Revealed at Mina on Last Hajj, but regarded as Medinan sura 114 111 v. 1 [7]
  • The last complete surah revealed before Muhammad’s death.[7]
111 ،المسد

اللهب

El-Messad

aka: El-Laheb

Palm Fiber

aka: The Flame

5 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 6 3 v. 5 [7]
112 ،الإخلاص

المنفرة، النجاة، المعرفة، المذكرة، نور القرآن

El-Ikhloss

aka: El-Muneffira, En-Najah, El-Ma"rifa, El-Muzeckira, Nur El-Koran

Sincerity

aka: Casting Away, Deliverance, Recognition, The Reminder, Light of the Koran

4 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 22 44
  • The oneness of God.[7]
113 الفلق El-Falak Daybreak 5 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 20 46 v. 1 [7]
  • Seek refuge in God from evil of others.[10]
114 الناس En-Nass Mankind 6 Meccan Early Mecca phase (610-618 AD) 21 47 v. 1 [7]
  • Trust in God's protection from temptations.[10]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 'Ta Ha' has also been interpreted as the invocation 'O man'. In this case, it is not counted as a Muqatta'at. Asad 1980, Footnote to the verse.
  2. ^ 'Ya Sin' has also been interpreted as the invocation 'O thou human being'. In this case, it is not counted as a Muqatta'at. Asad 1980, Footnote to the verse.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Asad 1980, Introduction to Sura 1.
  2. ^ https://www.scribd.com/doc/296556298/Who-Rearranged-the-Quran)
  3. ^ a b Asad 1980, Appendix II.
  4. ^ a b Robinson, Neal (2003). Discovering the Qurʼan: A Contemporary Approach to a Veiled Text (PDF). Georgetown University Press. pp. 25–97. ISBN 1589010248. 
  5. ^ Qran.org: Quran Verses in Chronological Order
  6. ^ Chronological Order of Quranic Surahs, by Kevin P. Edgecomb (2002).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp Asad 1980, Introduction to the Sura.
  8. ^ Peters, F.E. (1993). A Reader on Classical Islam. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 176–177. ISBN 9781400821181. 
  9. ^ Gwynne, Rosalind Ward (2014). Logic, Rhetoric and Legal Reasoning in the Qur'an: God's Arguments. Routledge Studies in the Qur'an. Routledge, UK. ISBN 1134345003. pp. 1-2.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1934). The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary. Introduction to the Sura.
  11. ^ Asad 1980, Footnote(s) to the verse(s).

References[edit]

External links[edit]