List of surviving veterans of the Spanish Civil War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The following is a list of known surviving veterans of the Spanish Civil War (17 July 1936 – 1 April 1939). The total number of participating personnel is unknown, but an estimated 35,000 foreigners fought on the Republican side in what was known as the International Brigades. In addition, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany sent as many as 20,000 soldiers (not all at the same time) and Benito Mussolini of Italy sent as many as 60,000 soldiers to fight alongside the soldiers of Spanish General Francisco Franco.

Veterans, for this purpose, are defined as people who were members of the armed forces of one of the combatant forces up to and including the date recognized as the end of the War, which was 1 April 1939.

Republican forces – 40 veterans[edit]

Nationality Name Date of Birth Age Residence Force served Notes
France Almudéver, Vincent 6 July 1917 102 France Unified Socialist Youth Brother of Joseph. Joined in 1936. Fought at Majadahonda and Ebro.[1][2][3]
Spain Arriaga, Gregorio Urionaguena 21 March 1917 103 Spain Euzko Gudarostea Mechanic before the war. Served in the Eusko Indarra Battalion of the ANV. Witnessed the bombings of Durango and Guernica.[4][5][6]
Spain Astobiza, Juan José Spain Euzko Gudarostea Joined the Martiartu battalion of the PNV.[6]
Spain Belda, Maria "Rosariet" Rosario Llin 1922 Spain Spanish Republican volunteers Served in as a volunteer nurse at the Ontinyent military hospital.[7][8]
Spain Borrellas, Ramon Barons 25 February 1920 100 Spain Spanish Republican Army Served in the 224th Battalion. Fought at the Ebro. Lives in Cardona.[9][10]
Spain Bruguera, Juan Mariné [ca] 31 December 1920 99 Spain Spanish Republican Army "La quinta del biberón" fighter. Called up in 1938. Served on the Segre. Became a film maker after the war.[11][12]
Spain Canet Català, Andreu 1920 Spain Spanish Republican Army Enlisted in 1938 and joined the 224th Brigade. Served at Balaguer and Ebro. Lives in Cardedeu.[13][14]
Spain Colom, Tomàs Dalmau 6 June 1920 99 Spain Spanish Republican Army Fought on the Segre Front. Lives in Manresa.[15][16][10]
Spain Darbra, Miquel Morera 26 April 1922 97 Spain Spanish Republican Army Joined in 1936 with his father. Served at Teruel, Ebro, and Valsequillo.[17][14]
Spain Diaz, Alejandro del Amo 9 July 1920 99 Spain Euzko Gudarostea Joined the Meabe battalion of the JSU.[18][19]
Spain Esparraguera, Santos Cortés 10 March 1921 99 Spain Spanish Republican Army Joined the 70th Brigade in 1936. Fought at Madrid, Jarama, Guadalajara, Brunete, and Ebro.[20][21]
Spain Ernabide, Ignacio 1 February 1917 103 Spain Euzko Gudarostea Joined the Loiola battalion of the PNV. Served as an instructor due prior weapon experience before the war. Fought at Villarreal.[6]
Spain Fainé, Miquel Pecanins 13 December 1920 99 Spain Spanish Republican Army Called to service in 1938. Built pontoon bridges at Ebro.[10]
Spain Gallart, Simó 1920 Spain Spanish Republican Army "La quinta del biberón" fighter. Joined at 18 years old. Fought at Segre and Ebro.[22]
Spain Gallego-Nicasio, Manuel 17 February 1917 103 Spain Spanish Republican Army "La quinta del biberón" fighter. Affiliated with PSOE.[23]
Spain Iglesias, Mateo Balbuena 21 September 1913 106 Spain Euzko Gudarostea
Spanish Republican Army
Participated in the Strike of 1934. Joined the Leandro Carro battalion of the PCE in 1936. Fought at Álava, Biscay, and Bilbao. Later made a lieutenant in the Republican Army. Became a writer after the war.[24][25][6]
Spain Lapuente, Alfons Cànovas 4 November 1917 102 Spain Spanish Republican Army Trained with his brother Antoni to participate in the People's Olympiad. Event was cancelled following the outbreak of the Civil War and the brothers enlisted in the Republican Army. Fought on the Aragon front. Later became president of the CN Atlètic-Barceloneta.[26][27][28]
Spain Larrouy, Eduardo [eo] 9 March 1913 107 Spain Spanish Republican Army Joined the UGT2 battalion of the PSE. Wounded twice. Later captured and imprisoned.[29][30]
Spain Martikorena, Gabriel Nogues 1920 Euzko Gudarostea [6]
France Mateu, Joseph Eduard Almudéver [ca] 30 July 1919 100 France International Brigades
Spanish Republican Army
Brother of Vincent. Joined a militia in 1936. Entered the 129th Brigade in 1938. In 2016, declared embassador by Valencia's Government during the October 9th Awards.[31][1][32][33]
Spain Masip, Antoni Vives 27 February 1920 100 Spain Spanish Republican Army Served in auxiliary forces due to an eye problem. Eventually sent to the front and was captured in 1938.[10]
Spain Mateu, Josep Herms 11 January 1920 100 Spain Spanish Republican Forces
Nationalist Army
Served as an assistant to his father who was a Republican doctor. Captured by Francoist troops in 1939 and pressed into service before the end of the war.[14][34][10]
Spain Mercader, Artur Tomàs 18 August 1918 101 Spain Spanish Republican Army Enlisted in 1937. Served as a spotter in an artillery unit. Fought at Ebro. Lives in Barcelona.[35][14]
Spain Miaja, Fernando Rodríguez 11 August 1917 102 Mexico Spanish Republican Army Nephew of General Miaja. Joined in 1936. Became a lieutenant in an Engineer unit.[36]
Spain de Miguel Montañés, Miguel 7 June 1921 98 Spain Spanish Republican Air Force Joined the FARE in 1936. Served in a bomber unit. Fought on the Aragon front.[37][38]
Spain Mur, Martín Arnal 12 November 1921 98 Spain CNT-FAI Mobilized in 1938. Fought at Ebro.[39]
Spain Oliveras, Salvador Farrés 4 September 1920 99 Spain Spanish Republican Army Enlisted in 1938. Fought at the Ebro and the Catalonia Offensive.[40][16]
Spain Peón, Ángeles Flórez 17 November 1918 101 Spain Unified Socialist Youth Joined in 1936. Served as a Cook and a Nurse. Arrested in 1937 following the capture of Asturias.[41][42][43]
Spain Pérez, Julián 1919 Spain Unified Socialist Youth
Nationalist Army
Joined Republican forces in 1936. Captured in 1937 and joined Francoist forces to escape staying at a labor camp. Served as a stretcher bearer.[44]
Spain Piernas, Juan "Tío Juan Rita" Tudela 14 February 1912 108 Spain Spanish Republican Army Served as a cook.[45][46][47]
Spain Piñón, Vicens 17 January 1918 102 Spain Spanish Republican Army Joined in 1936. Served as a medic at Belchite.[48]
Spain Pons, Andrés 1917 Argentina Spanish Republican Army Fought at Guadalajara. Became a lieutenant and was captured by Nationalist forces. Spent three years in captivity.[49]
Spain Pons, Joan/Juan Spain Spanish Republican Army "La quinta del biberón" fighter.[26]
Spain Riba, Josep Randé 7 November 1919 100 Spain International Brigades Joined the Rakosi Battalion in 1938. Taken prisoner at Corbera d'Ebre in September, 1938.[50][51]
Spain Romero, Juan Romero 21 April 1919 100 Spain Spanish Republican Army Joined in 1936. Served in the 33rd Brigade. Fought at Guadarrama,Guadalajara, Brunete, Teruel, and Ebro. Fled to France but was captured in 1940 and imprisoned. Last Spanish veteran to survive the Mauthausen concentration camp.[52][53]
Spain Ruiz, Rafael Martínez 25 March 1914 106 Spain Unified Socialist Youth Joined the JSU in 1931. Served in an artillery unit. Lives in Córdoba.[54][55][56]
Spain Sala, Josep 1919 Spain Spanish Republican Army "La quinta del biberón" fighter. Called to service in March 1938.[57]
Spain Toledo, Salvador 12 April 1919 100 Spain Spanish Republican Assault Guard Joined in 1936. Served for three years. Sent to Morocco after the war. Lives in Badajoz.[58]
Spain Torras, Jaume Navarro 2 February 1920 100 Spain Spanish Republican Army Called to service in 1938. Served at Segre and Ebro.[59][14]
Spain Vivancos, Eduardo [es] 19 September 1920 99 Canada Spanish Republican Army Esperantist, served with the 26th Division (Spain).[60]

Nationalist forces – 10 veterans[edit]

Nationality Name Date of Birth Age Residence Force served Notes
Spain Alpuin, Pedro Placeres 29 June 1920 99 Spain Nationalist Army Enlisted in 1936. Served at Aragon. Left service in 1941. Lives on the Canary Islands.[61]
Spain Casalderrey, José Pérez 1 August 1919 100 Spain Nationalist Army Enlisted in 1936. Fought at Asturias, Teruel, Aragon, and Cartagena.[62]
Spain Andrés Díaz de Rábago [gl] 17 October 1917 102 Taiwan Nationalist Army
Spain López, José López 1916 Spain Nationalist Army Joined in 1936. Fought at the Ebro. Joined the Blue Division in 1942 and later served in Russia.[63]
Italy Maiorano, Domenico 11 July 1916 103 Italy Italian Royal Navy Enlisted as a volunteer in 1937.[64][65]
Spain Mateu, Josep Herms 11 January 1920 100 Spain Spanish Republican Forces
Nationalist Army
Served as an assistant to his father who was a Republican doctor. Captured by Francoist troops in 1939 and pressed into service before the end of the war.[14][66][10]
Spain Olmo, José Fernández 11 March 1919 101 Spain Nationalist Army Mobalized at 18 years old. Had two brothers in Republican forces. Fought at Madrid and Catalonia.[10]
Spain Pérez, Julián 1919 Spain Unified Socialist Youth
Nationalist Army
Joined Republican forces in 1936. Captured in 1937 and joined Francoist forces to escape staying at a labor camp. Served as a stretcher bearer.[67]
Spain Revesado, Jesús 1918 Spain Nationalist Army Joined at 18 years old. Served in the 13th Battalion. Lives in Salamanca.[68]
Italy Vangeli, Quinto 1 September 1919 100 Italy Italian Royal Navy Volunteered for service between 1938 and 1939. Served on the destroyer Freccia.[69]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fraser, Pauline (2018). "Record attendance at annual Battle of Jarama weekend" (PDF). ¡NO PASARÁN!. No. 35. International Brigade Memorial Trust. p. 7. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  2. ^ "Les 100 ans de Vincent Almudever" (in French). La Dépêche du Midi. 22 July 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  3. ^ "Hommage rendu à Valencia aux frères Almudever". acer.aver.fr (in French). 29 April 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  4. ^ Gorriti, Iban (12 March 2018). "The gudari durangués of the battalion Eusko Indarra of ANV, Gregorio Urionaguena, celebrates 101 healthy years". Mugalari Kultura. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  5. ^ Belles, Mauro Saravia. "AZKEN BATAILOIA: EL ÚLTIMO BATALLÓN" (PDF) (in Spanish).
  6. ^ a b c d e Gorriti, Iban (3 September 2019). "El gudari durangués Urionaguena y los otros soldados vivos de Aguirre" (in Spanish). Mugalari Kultura. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  7. ^ Mantilla, Jesus Ruiz (3 March 2019). "Las brigadistas judías en la Guerra Civil: de España, rumbo a la tragedia europea". El Pais. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  8. ^ "¿Los 'ángeles' de Ontinyent?" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  9. ^ "La Lleva del Biberó, una generació que s'apaga" (in Spanish). Ara. 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "ENTREVISTES A "BIBERONS" SUPERVIVENTS DEL BAGES (any 2019)" [INTERVIEWS IN “BIBERONS” SURVIVAL OF BAGES (year 2019)] (in Catalan). l’Associació Memòria i Història de Manresa. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  11. ^ Conde, Jesús (1 January 2018). "Juan Mariné, el cineasta que rodó el entierro de Durruti: "El cine me ha ayudado a seguir viviendo hasta hoy"" (in Spanish). El Diario. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  12. ^ Grodira, Fermín (4 September 2017). "Juan Mariné, el hombre que filmó el entierro de Durruti" (in Spanish). Público. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  13. ^ Navarro, Xavier (8 March 2017). "Andreu Canet Català, un "biberó" a Cardedeu" (in Catalan). El NAS de Cardedeu. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  14. ^ a b c d e f "81 años de la Batalla del Ebre: cuatro supervivientes y las lecciones del diálogo y la unidad pendientes". Agència Catalana de Notícies. Diari Més. 25 July 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  15. ^ Mañé, Pepa. ""Un tinent ens va rebre un a un: 'Bienvenidos a la España de Franco'"" (in Spanish). Regio7date=30 November 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  16. ^ a b "Manresa and the Bages make a sense and emotional tribute to the Camí del Biberó" (in Spanish). Nació Digital. 2 December 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  17. ^ Terol, Alan Ruiz (20 July 2017). "'Some students don't even know who Franco was' says 97-year-old Civil War veteran". Catalan News. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  18. ^ "Reclaman en Artxanda "más implicación institucional" con la memoria histórica" (in Spanish). Mugalari Kultura. 18 June 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  19. ^ Gorriti, Iban (18 June 2018). "UNO ES DE DURANGO · Buscamos a los últimos gudaris y milicianos que mantienen vivo el Eusko Gudarostea de 1936" (in Spanish). Mugalari Kultura. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  20. ^ Serrato, Fran (4 March 2018). "La batalla del Jarama hasta el último detalle" (in Spanish). El Pais. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  21. ^ Campelo, Patricia (26 February 2017). "De la batalla del Jarama a la II Guerra Mundial". Diario Público. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  22. ^ Amela, Víctor M. (30 March 2019). "Simó Gallart, superviviente de la Guerra Civil y de la posguerra militar". La Vanguardia. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  23. ^ "Manuel Gallego-Nicasio, cien años, cuenta su historia en NuevaTribuna.es".
  24. ^ Martín, Susana (12 March 2018). "Mateo Balbuena, el teniente escritor" (in Spanish). Deia. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  25. ^ Gorriti, Iban (29 May 2016). "Mateo Balbuena, el republicano centenario que todavía publica libros" (in Spanish). Deia. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  26. ^ a b Survivors of the Spanish civil war 80 years on – in pictures
  27. ^ Juanico, Núria (9 August 2017). "Mor Antoni Cànovas, combatent antifeixista i participant a l'Olimpíada Popular del 1936". Ara. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  28. ^ "Alfons Cánovas Lapuente". Enciclopèdia.cat.
  29. ^ Basurto, José (18 March 2013). "Un esperantista centenario" (PDF) (in Spanish). Deia. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  30. ^ "El Lehendakari participa en el centenario de Indautxuko Eskola" (in Spanish). Irekia. 18 March 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  31. ^ "José Almudéver Mateu: "El fascismo procede directamente de la decadencia del capitalismo"". mundoobrero.es. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  32. ^ "Guerre d'Espagne : le dernier survivant européen des Brigades internationales vit en Ariège" (in French). La Dépêche du Midi. 13 September 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  33. ^ Rogatyuk, Denis (8 February 2017). "Jose Almudéver (97), the anti-fascist veteran looks at the battles he fought during the Spanish Civil War and the global fight against the right wing today". Kämpfer und Freunde der Spanischen Republik 1936–1939 e. V. (KFSR). Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  34. ^ Serra, Isabela (December 2015). "JOSEP HERMS" (PDF). El Pedris (in Spanish). No. 30. Esquerra Republicana Avinyó. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  35. ^ Gosálbez, Carles (17 August 2018). "Artur Tomàs celebra que ha vivido el último siglo de la ciudad de Tarragona". Diari Més.
  36. ^ Castro-Villacañas, Javier (1 April 2019). "Miaja, único testigo vivo del hundimiento" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  37. ^ Orozco, Luis Garrido (April 2018). "La odisea de los aviadores de la 185 Compañía de Trabajadores Extranjeros" (PDF). ICARO. No. 125. La Asociación de Aviadores de la República. pp. 10–13. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  38. ^ "Breve resumen mecanografiado del currículum de Miguel de Miguel Montañés" (in Spanish). University of Alicante. 3 July 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  39. ^ Bayona, Eduardo (15 July 2018). "FRANQUISMO DICTADURA El relato vital del último maqui de Aragón: "Era el momento de echar a Franco y liberar a España"" (in Spanish). Diario Público. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  40. ^ Sardans, Jordi (12 November 2018). ""De Calaf, ens van fer anar a peu fins a Sanaüja, on vam fer els primers dies d'instrucció amb una escombra, perquè no teníem armes"" (in Catalan). El Pou Digital. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  41. ^ Martínez, Gabriella (6 June 2018). "Maricuela, la última superviviente de la milicia socialista, tiene casi 100 años" (in Spanish). El Pais. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  42. ^ Nebot, Marta (5 June 2018). "Maricuela, la última miliciana socialista: "Necesitamos una izquierda unida"" (in Spanish). Diario Público. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  43. ^ de Bas, Ana (16 November 2018). "Maricuela, la última miliciana, cumple cien años" (in Spanish). La Hora Digital. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  44. ^ Sanza, Alex (23 December 2019). "Un huésped en los campos de Franco" (in Spanish). Público. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  45. ^ Paniagua, Antonio (6 April 2018). "106 años dando el cante". Las Provincias. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  46. ^ Espadas, F. (14 February 2018). "106 años de Tío Juan Rita". La Verdad. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  47. ^ "El Tío Juan Rita cumple hoy 107 años". La Opinión de Murcia. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  48. ^ Vera, Esther (11 September 2018). "VIDES CENTENÀRIES". Ara. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  49. ^ Pisapia, Guillermo (7 July 2019). "La increíble historia de Andrés, sobreviviente de la guerra civil española" (in Spanish). Crónica. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  50. ^ Nerín, Gustau (26 October 2018). "La UB recorda les Brigades Internacionals, a 80 anys de la seva retirada" (in Spanish). El Nacional.
  51. ^ "RANDÉ RIBA, Josep" (in Spanish). University of Barcelona. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  52. ^ "Juan Romero Romero" (in Spanish). Deportados.es. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  53. ^ Hernández, Carlos (25 February 2020). "Muere a los 101 años Juan Aznar, uno de los últimos españoles que logró sobrevivir al campo nazi de Mauthausen" (in Spanish). El Diario. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  54. ^ Reina, Carmen (26 March 2014). "100 años de comunismo con nombre y apellidos" (in Spanish). eldiario.es. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  55. ^ Raya, M. J. "Un 'chaval' de 103 años" (in Spanish). Diario Córdoba. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  56. ^ Miranda, Alba Doblas (10 May 2018). "Rafael Martínez Ruiz cumple 104 años". Mundo Obrero. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  57. ^ Pareja, Pol (14 June 2019). "Josep Sala, superviviente de los campos de concentración franquistas: "No éramos ni siquiera un número, no éramos nada"" (in Spanish). El Diario. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  58. ^ Martín, José M. (1 April 2019). ""El día que acabó la guerra civil empezó el hambre"" (in Spanish). Hoy. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  59. ^ Mañé, Pepa (30 November 2018). ""Cridaven 'ens disparen, mare, ens volen matar!',i va ser una desfeta"" (in Spanish). Regio7. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  60. ^ Botella, Antonio Marco. "Eduardo Vivancos (in Esperanto)".
  61. ^ García, Saúl (19 October 2016). "Pedro Placeres: el comercio, Mala y el Siglo XX" (in Spanish). Diario de Lanzarote. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  62. ^ López, María (12 January 2019). ""Con 18 años me pusieron un fusil y me fui a la Guerra"" (in Spanish). Faro de Vigo. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  63. ^ Cárdenas, Andrés (20 January 2019). "José López López, el último divisionario azul" (in Spanish). Granada Hoy. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  64. ^ Laganella, Giuseppe (16 July 2019). "Domenico Maiorano compie 103 anni e cerca ancora moglie" (in Italian). Quotidiano di Foggia. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  65. ^ Laganella, Giuseppe (20 July 2016). "Domenico Maiorano ha compiuto 100 anni" (in Italian). Abitare a Roma. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  66. ^ Serra, Isabela (December 2015). "JOSEP HERMS" (PDF). El Pedris (in Spanish). No. 30. Esquerra Republicana Avinyó. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  67. ^ Sanza, Alex (23 December 2019). "Un huésped en los campos de Franco" (in Spanish). Público. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  68. ^ "La Salamanca del siglo XX narrada por dos centenarios" (in Spanish). DGratis Salamanca. 9 November 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  69. ^ Remaggi, Diego (1 September 2019). "Quinto compie 100 anni, grande festa a Vezzanello nel comune di Fivizzano" (in Italian). Eco Della Lunigiana. Retrieved 7 September 2019.

External links[edit]