List of tallest buildings and structures in London

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Skyline of Canary Wharf in April 2010

This list of the tallest buildings and structures in London ranks skyscrapers and towers in London, United Kingdom by height. Since November 2010 the tallest structure in London is the Shard London Bridge, still under construction and due to reach 310m by 2012, when it will become the tallest building in the European Union. The tallest completed structure is the 50-storey One Canada Square, which rises 235 metres (771 ft) in Canary Wharf and was completed in 1991.[1] It also stands as the tallest building in the United Kingdom and the 15th-tallest building in Europe. The second-tallest building in London is Heron Tower in the City of London which was topped out in 2010, and stands at a height of 230 metres.

The history of tall structures in London began with the completion of the 27-metre (90 ft) White Tower, a part of the Tower of London, in 1098.[2][3] The first structure to surpass a height of 100 metres (328 ft) was Old St Paul's Cathedral. Completed in 1310, the cathedral stood at a height of 150 metres (493 ft).[4] It was the world's tallest structure until 1311, when its height was surpassed by Lincoln Cathedral in Lincoln, England.[4] It regained the title when the spire of the Lincoln Cathedral fell in 1549.[5] Although the spire of the Old St Paul's Cathedral was destroyed by lightning on 4 June 1561, it still stood as the tallest structure in London,[5] while the world's tallest structure became Strasbourg Cathedral in Strasbourg, France.[5] The Old St Paul's Cathedral was destroyed by the Great Fire of London in September 1666.[4] The title of tallest structure in London passed to Southwark Cathedral, which stands at a height of 50 metres (163 ft)[6] and no structure in London again rose above 100 metres (328 ft) until 1710, when the current St Paul's Cathedral was completed.[7] At 111 metres (365 ft), the cathedral remained the tallest building in London until overtaken by the BT Tower, completed in 1962.

Despite its long history and constant rebuilding, London does not have a large number of skyscrapers. This is due to restrictions on building heights originally imposed by the London Building Act of 1894, which followed the construction of the fourteen-storey Queen Anne's Mansions. Though restrictions have long since been eased, strict regulations remain to preserve protected views, especially those of St Paul's Cathedral, the Tower of London and Westminster Palace, as well as to comply with the requirements of the Civil Aviation Authority.

The lifting of height restrictions caused a boom in the construction of tall buildings during the 1960s. One of London's first notable tall buildings was the 117-metre (384 ft) Centre Point, completed in 1966. The NatWest Tower followed in 1980, which at 183 metres (600 ft) became London's first genuine "skyscraper" by international standards. It was followed in 1991 by the 235-metre (771 ft) One Canada Square, which formed the centrepiece of the Canary Wharf development. Following a 10-year gap, several new skyscrapers appeared on London's skyline: 8 Canada Square, 25 Canada Square, the Heron Quays buildings, the Barclays headquarters, the Broadgate Tower and the award-winning 30 St Mary Axe. Some of the awards given to 30 St Mary Axe include the Emporis Skyscraper Award in 2003[8] and the RIBA Stirling Prize for Architecture in 2004.[9]

With the precedent set by the towers of Canary Wharf and with the encouragement of former Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, a renewed trend for building tall has been established in recent years. There are 9 structures actively under construction in London that will rise at least 100 metres (328 ft) in height. The tallest of these at 310 m (1,017 ft) is Shard London Bridge, which began construction in February 2009. The next tallest is the 288-metre "Pinnacle" which will form the centrepiece of the City skyscraper cluster.

Tallest buildings and structures

This list ranks externally complete London skyscrapers and free-standing towers that stand at least 100 metres (328 ft) tall, based on standard height measurement. This includes spires and architectural details but does not include antenna masts. An equal sign (=) following a rank indicates the same height between two or more buildings. The "Year" column indicates the year in which a building was completed. The Shard London Bridge, still under construction, overtook 1 Canada Square in November 2010, but will not reach its full height until early 2012.

Rank Name Image Height
metres / ft
Floors Year Notes
1 One Canada Square One Canada Square.jpg 235 / 771 01.050 1991 15th-tallest building in Europe. It is the tallest completed building in the UK.
2 Heron Tower Heron Tower, London.jpg 230 / 756 01.046 2011 Tallest Building in the City of London. 202m + 28m spire.
3 Crystal Palace Transmitter Cp mast.jpg 219 / 720 35.0N/A 1950 Tallest structure completed in London in the 1950s.[10]
4= 8 Canada Square HSBC Tower.jpg 200 / 655 03.042 2002 26th-tallest building in Europe, third-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[11][12]
4= 25 Canada Square 25CanadaSquare.jpg 200 / 655 04.042 2002 26th-tallest building in Europe, third-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[13][14]
6 Tower 42 Tower42sunny.JPG 183 / 600 07.047 1980 Also known as NatWest Tower. 39th-tallest building in Europe, fifth-tallest building in the United Kingdom. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1980s.[15][16]
7 30 St Mary Axe 30 St Mary Axe, 'Gherkin'.JPG 180 / 590 09.040 2003 Also known as the Swiss Re building, or Gherkin. 44th-tallest building in Europe, sixth-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[17][18]
8 BT Tower BT Tower-1.jpg 177 / 581 16.034 1962 Tallest building completed in London in the 1960s, 177m + 12m antenna.[19][20]
9 Broadgate Tower Broadgate Tower.jpg 161 / 529 14.035 2008 71st-tallest building in Europe.[21][22]
10 One Churchill Place Barclays HQ.jpg 156 / 513 22.032 2004 Tenth-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[23][24]
11= Croydon Transmitter Croydon Transmitter.JPG 153 / 502 36.0N/A 1964 [25][26]
11= 25 Bank Street 25 Bank Street 2012.JPG 153 / 502 19.033 2003 Eleventh-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[27][28]
11= 40 Bank Street 40 Bank Street Heron Quay London.jpg 153 / 502 20.033 2003 Eleventh-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[29][30]
14 10 Upper Bank Street 10 Upper Bank Street London.jpg 151 / 495 23.032 2003 Thirteenth-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[31][32]
15= Pan Peninsula East Tower Pan Peninsula London.jpg 147 / 484 02.048 2008 [33][34]
15 = Strata 80px 147 / 484 43 2010 [35][36]
17 Guy's Tower Guys hospital tower.jpg 143 / 469 17.034 1974 Tallest all-hospital building in the world. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1970s.[37][38]
18 22 Marsh Wall East Tower 22 Marsh Wall.jpg 140 / 458 40 2010
19 London Eye London Eye - TQ04 26.jpg 135 / 443 37.0N/A 1999 The world's tallest Ferris wheel until the completion of the Star of Nanchang in 2006. Is now the world's third tallest Ferris wheel, after the Singapore Flyer opened in 2008. Contains the highest public viewing point in London.[39][40]
20 Wembley Stadium Wembley Stadium, From the Outside.JPG 133 / 436 34.06 2007 2nd Tallest stadium in the world.[41][42]
21 CityPoint City Point.jpg 127 / 417 11.036 1967 [43][44]
22 Willis Building Willis Building City of London.JPG 125 / 410 29.026 2007 [45][46]
23 Euston Tower Euston Tower 2004.jpg 124 / 408 12.036 1970 [47][48]
24= Cromwell Tower Crowell Tower, London.jpg 123 / 404 08.042 1973 [49][50]
24= Lauderdale Tower Barbican Estate Tower 2005.jpg 123 / 404 06.043 1974 [51][52]
24= Shakespeare Tower Barbican Estate Tower 2007.jpg 123 / 404 05.043 1976 [53][54]
27 Pan Peninsula West Tower Pan Peninsula London.jpg 122 / 400 10.039 2008 [55][56]
28 Millbank Tower Millbank Tower, Westminster, London, 24Apr04.jpg 119 / 390 21.033 1963 [57][58]
29 Aviva Tower Aviva Tower.jpg 118 / 387 28.028 1969 Now known as St. Helen's [59][60]
30= Centre Point Centre Point London.jpg 117 / 385 15.035 1967 [61][62]
30= Empress State Building Empress State Building.JPG 117 / 385 24.031 1961 Originally stood at a height of 100 metres (328 ft) before a height extension in 2003.[63][64]
32 ArcelorMittal Orbit ArcelorMittal Orbit - November11.jpg 115 / 377 37.0N/A 2012 Topped out.[65]
33 Battersea Power Station Battersea.power.station.london.arp.jpg 113 / 370 33.010 1953 [66][67]
34 St Paul's Cathedral Cathédrale St-Paul - entrée principale.jpg 111 / 364 38.0N/A 1710 Tallest place of worship in London. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1700s.[7][68]
35= King's Reach Tower King's Reach Tower.jpg 108 / 354 18.034 1972 Approval granted for height increase and recladding.[69][70]
35= 1 West India Quay OneWestIndiaQuay.jpg 108 / 354 13.036 2004 [71][72]
37 Shell Centre Shell Centre, London, UK, June 2004.jpg 107 / 351 30.026 1961 [73][74]
38= 33 Canada Square 33 Canada Square.jpg 105 / 344 32.018 1999 [75][76]
38= 100 Middlesex Street Nido 100 Middlesex Street.jpg 105 / 344 34 2009 Also known as Nido.[77]
38= Pioneer Point North, Ilford Pioneer Point nears completion (geograph 2337704).jpg 105 / 344 31 2011 Topped out.[78][79][80]
41= 99 Bishopsgate 99 Bishopsgate from above.jpg 104 / 340 31.026 1976 [81][82]
41= Ontario Tower 80px 104 / 340 25.029 2007 [83][84]
43 Victoria Tower Westminster Palace Victoria Tower.jpg 102 / 336 39.0N/A 1858 Tallest non-religious building in the world upon completion. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1800s. Architectural height 102m, roof height 98.5m. [85][86]
44= Portland House Portland House, London, England.jpg 101 / 331 26.029 1963 [87][88]
44= London Hilton on Park Lane The London Hilton on Park Lane.JPG 101 / 331 26.028 1963
44= Royal London Hospital Tower 2 Royal London Hospital redevelopment.jpg 101 / 331 32.018 2010 [89]
47 Stock Exchange Tower Former London Stock Exchange Building - geograph.org.uk - 1501273.jpg 100 / 328 26.027 1970 [90][91] Reclad 2007.

* Indicates still under construction, but has been topped out

The 16 tallest buildings in London as of May 2007

Tallest under construction, approved, and proposed

City of London's skyline in 2012 (projected). Owing to the financial recession of 2008 some developments were delayed, and will not be completed before 2014.

Under construction

Bishopsgate Tower as seen in November 2010

This lists buildings that are under construction in London and are planned to rise at least 100 metres (328 ft). Under construction buildings that have already been topped out are listed above.

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors Year (est.) Notes
Shard London Bridge 310 / 1,017 87 2012 [92] Will become tallest building in the EU
Bishopsgate Tower 288 / 945 63 2014 [93][94][95] Also known as The Pinnacle, on hold
Riverside South Tower 1 237 / 776 45 2016 [96][97][98] On hold
The Leadenhall Building 225 / 738 48 2014
Riverside South Tower 2 186 / 610 37 2016 [99][100][101] On hold
St George Wharf Tower 181 / 594 49 2014 [102][103][104]
20 Fenchurch Street 160 / 525 39 2014 [105][106]
150 High Street Stratford 133 / 433 41 2013 [107][108]
Arrowhead Quay 114 / 374 25 2012 [109][110][111] On hold
The Heron 112 / 367 35 2012 [112][113][114]
Kings Cross Plot T6 100 / 328 27 2013 [115] Student housing

Approved

This lists buildings that are approved for construction in London and are planned to rise at least 100 metres (328 ft).

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors Year* (est.) Notes
Columbus Tower 237 / 794 61 Approved by Mayor Boris Johnson, 2009
North Quay Tower 1 221 / 708 40 2017 [116][117]
Heron Quays West Tower 1 214 / 702 40 [118][119]
The Pride 209 / 686 38 [120][121]
Wood Wharf W07B 206 / 676 51 2019
North Quay Tower 3 203 / 666 38 2017 [122][123]
Lansdowne Road Tower 199 / 656 55 [124] (Odalisk)
One Park Place 197 / 647 45 [125][126][127]
Wood Wharf W06 187 / 614 45 2019
Wood Wharf W02 182 / 597 40+ 2019
100 Bishopsgate 172 / 564 40 2014 [128][129]
Morello Tower 171 / 561 53 2014 [130] Cherry Orchard Road
Principal Place 164 / 538 51 [131][132] Residential tower
Beetham Tower 163 / 535 49 2013
Ruskin Square Building 159 / 522 26 [133] Aka Croydon Gateway
Heron Quays West Tower 2 156 / 512 29 [118][119]
Wood Wharf W07C 154 / 505 30+
Baltimore Wharf Building 1 150 / 492 46 2013 [134][135][136]
Athletes' Village Tower 149 / 489 41 2013 [137] Plot N24
Newfoundland Tower 145 / 475 37 [138][139]
360-London 142 / 466 44 [140][141][142] London Park Hotel Tower
Doon Street Tower 140 / 459 43 [143]
1 Merchant Square 140 / 464 41 [144] Outline approval granted.
The Quebec Building 136 / 446 44 [145][146]
Heron Plaza 135 / 448 44 2014 [147]
Croydon Vocational Tower 134 / 440 29 [148]
Saffron Square 134 / 440 44 2016 [149] Formerly Wellesley Square
20 Blackfriars Road Residential Tower 133 / 436 43 [150][151][152] Approved after public inquiry
Wood Wharf W07A 128 / 420 30+
25 Churchill Place 124 / 406 23 2014 [153] Building contract signed
40 Marsh Wall 124 / 406 39 [154]
Broadway Chambers, Stratford 123 / 403 38 [155]
Helix-London Building B 122 / 400 35 [156][157] Trafalgar Way
Lots Road South Tower 122 / 400 37 [158][159][160]
North Quay Tower 2 120 / 394 18 2017 [161][162]
Vauxhall Sky Gardens 120 / 394 36 [163][164]
Wood Wharf W08 119 / 391 30+
Meridian Tower, Greenwich 118 / 377 32 [165]
Convoy's Wharf Tower 1 116 / 380 40 [166]
City Road Basin Site C 115 / 377 35 [167][168][169] 259 City Road
Wood Wharf W05 113 / 371 25+ 2019
The Quill 109 / 359 31 2014 [170]
Helix-London Building A 105 / 345 29 [157] Trafalgar Way
Trinity Building 3 100 / 328 25 [171] On hold
One Angel Court 100 / 328 [172] Refurbishment of existing 97m building.

* Table entries without text indicate that information regarding a building's expected year of completion has not yet been released.

Proposed

This lists buildings that are proposed for construction in London and are planned to rise at least 100 metres (328 ft). Once a planning application has been submitted, a decision by the relevant authority may take over two years.

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors Year (Proposal) Notes
The Three Spires 253 / 830 64 2009 [173][174] Three towers at 253, 210 and 106 metres
One Nine Elms East Tower 200 / 660 58 2011 [175][176] City Tower
Vauxhall Square Tower 1 170* / 560* 53 2011 [177]
Vauxhall Square Tower 2 170* / 560* 53 2011 [177]
Skylines Village Block B1 164 / 540 50 2010 [178][179] Application 2010/01/28, refused
One Nine Elms West Tower 160 / 530 47 2011 [175][176] River Tower
Cuba Street Tower 1 157 / 515 52 2010 [180] Application 2011/06/09
Millharbour West Building A 150 / 492 46 2009 [181][182]
Vauxhall Bondway Tower 149 / 489 43 2009 [183] Appeal, rejected
Vauxhall Cross Tower 1 140 / 464 41 2010 [184][185] Application 2010/06/15
Millharbour East Building E 140 / 464 46 2009 [182][186]
Skylines Village Block B 138 / 458 40 2010 [179][187] Application 2010/01/28, refused
Angel House 131 / 435 43 2008 [188] Application 2009/09/11, refused
Eileen House 128 / 420 42 2009 [189][190] Application 2009/02/23, refused
Millharbour East Building A 126 / 414 37 2009 [182][191]
Cuba Street Tower 2 122 / 401 40 2010 [180] Application 2011/06/09
Millharbour West Buildings B, C 121 / 398 37 2009 [182][192]
Vauxhall Sainsbury's Tower 120* / 395* 37 2011 [193]
Vauxhall Cross Tower 2 115 / 368 32 2010 [184][185] Application 2010/06/15
1 Crown Place, Hackney 114 / 365 24 2009 [194] Application 2009/11/17
Dollar Bay Tower 109 / 358 31 2011 [195][196] Application 2011/07/29
Millharbour West Building D 108 / 355 24 2009 [182][197]
2–12 High Street, Stratford 105 / 340 35 2010 [198] Application 2010/10/28
Poplar Business Park Block C 103 / 337 31 2010 [199] Application 2010/09/16
Stratford Gateway Towers 1 & 2 102 / 334 32 2011 [200] Plot N06

* Approximate figure.

Scale models of the skyscrapers planned for Central London. (2012)

Cancelled constructions

This lists proposals for the construction of buildings in London that were planned to rise at least 100 metres (328 ft), for which planning permission was rejected or which were otherwise withdrawn.

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors* Year Notes
London Millennium Tower 386 92 1996
London Bridge Tower (Old Design) 366 87 2000 [201]
The Spark Plug (Battersea Eco-tower) 300 40 2008 [202][203]
Minerva Building 246 53 2002
Elephant & Castle, Tower 1 228 55 2001 [204]
6–8 & 22–24 Bishopsgate Redevelopment (Original Design) 216 50 2002 [205]
New London Bridge House Redevelopment 211 50 2004 [206]
Stratford City Tower 210 50 [207]
Citypoint (Santiago Calatrava) 203 27 1997 [208]
Ropemaker Place Tower 200 38 2001 [209]
Elephant & Castle, Tower 2 182 35 2001 [210]
King's Cross Towers 1 & 2 180 44 1987 [211][212]
The Blade, Paddington 150 44 [213][214]
Ram Brewery Tower 1, Wandsworth 145 / 476 42 2008 [215][216][217] Rejected
The Leaf Block F, Ealing 138 49 [218][219]
Victoria Interchange Buildings 2 & 7 134 42 [220][221]
70–100 City Road Block A 131 / 430 39 2008 [222]
Clapham Junction Towers 1 & 2 127 / 417 40 2008 [223][224]
Bishops Place Building 1 126 / 414 32 2006 [131][225]
St. John's Tower, Stratford 116 / 381 30 [226]
Ram Brewery Tower 2, Wandsworth 114 / 374 32 2008 [217][227] Rejected
Walbrook Square Building 1 107 / 351 22 2006 [228][229] Redesigned
4–5 South Quay Square 100 / 328 30 2006 [230] Application withdrawn

Demolished buildings

This lists all demolished buildings in London that stood at least 100 metres (330 ft) tall.

Name Image Height
metres / ft
Floors Year built Year demolished Notes
Drapers' Gardens Drapersgardens cropped.jpg 100 / 328 30 1967 2007 Designed by Richard Seifert, replaced by building 74 metres (243 ft) tall.
Southwark Towers Southwark Towers, PwC, London.jpg 100 / 328 25 1976 2009 Replaced by Shard London Bridge.

Visions of skyscrapers

Name Height
metres
Floors Year Notes
Mile High Eco Tower 1500 500 2007 [231][232]
Citygate Ecotower 485 108 2002 [233]
Mallory Clifford Project 470 100 1998 [234] Aka Southwark Tower
Green Bird 442 83 1990 [235]
Wembley Park Tower 353 1890 [236]
Aldegate Tower 325 85 1989 [237]
Glass Tower 304 80 1852 [238]
Vortex Tower 300 70 2004 [239]
Credit Suisse First Boston Building 250 50 1989 [240]
Glengall View Place 230 54 2006 [241][242] Greenwich View Place
Cricklewood Tower 216 47 [243][244]
80 & 88–104 Bishopsgate Redevelopment 214 50 [245]
Folgate Street (Project Cosmos) 50 [246]
Skyhouse 168 50 [247][248] Originally 305m
Royal Courts of Justice 165* 1865 [249]
Corporation of London Tower 150* 1944 [250]

* Estimated height.

Fantasy skyscrapers

Name Height
metres
Floors Year Notes
Goodmans Fields 70 [251]
Firalia Tower 300 80 [252]
Rubix Tower 200 50 [253]
Echo Tower 150 40 [254]
Flower Tower 100 20 [255]

Timeline of tallest buildings and structures

The White Tower stood as the tallest structure in London from 1098 until 1310.

This lists free-standing structures that once held the title of tallest structure in London.

Name Location Years as tallest Height
metres / ft
Floors Reference
White Tower Tower Hill 1098–1310 01.027 / 90 03.0N/A [3]
Old St Paul's Cathedral[A] City of London 1310–1666 07.0150 / 493[B] 08.0N/A [4]
Southwark Cathedral Southwark 1666–1677 02.050 / 163 04.0N/A [256]
Monument to the Great Fire of London City of London 1677–1683 03.062 / 202 05.0N/A [257]
St Mary-le-Bow City of London 1683–1710 04.072 / 236 06.0N/A [258]
St Paul's Cathedral City of London 1710–1939 05.0111 / 365 07.0N/A [68]
Battersea Power Station[D] Kirtling Street 1939–1950 06.0113 / 370 01.010 [66]
Crystal Palace transmitting station[C] Crystal Palace Park 1950–1991 08.0219 / 720 09.0N/A [10]
One Canada Square Canary Wharf 1991–2010 09.0235 / 771 02.050 [259]
Shard London Bridge Southwark 2010— 240+ 87 [260]

See also

Notes

Footnotes

A.^ This structure was destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666, allowing a shorter structure to become the tallest in the city.[261]
B.^ The exact height of the Old St. Paul's Cathedral remains unknown. Heights ranging between 140 metres (460 ft) and 150 metres (490 ft) have all been reported.[261]
C.^ If the Crystal Palace Transmitter is excluded as a "building", then the record was held by the "Post Office Tower" (later The British Telecom Tower) from 1962 to 1980, at a height excluding antenna of 177 metres (581 ft) and containing 34 floors, and from 1980 to 1991 by Tower 42 at 183 metres (600 ft).
D.^ If counting the tallest habitable floors in buildings, then the record would be held between 1961 and 1962 by the Shell Centre, at 107 metres (351 ft) and having 26 floors; and before it by the Victoria Tower at 98.5 metres (323 ft), completed in 1858 and having 14 floors.[262][263]

Citations

  1. ^ "One Canada Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 28 June 2008.
  2. ^ "The White Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  3. ^ a b "The Tower of London". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  4. ^ a b c d "Old St. Paul's Cathedral". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  5. ^ a b c "Old St. Paul's Cathedral". Emporis.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  6. ^ "Southwark Cathedral". Emporis.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  7. ^ a b "St. Paul's Cathedral". Emporis.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  8. ^ "Winning Design". Emporis Awards. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  9. ^ "Winner 2004". Architecture.com. Winter 2004. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  10. ^ a b "Crystal Palace Transmitter". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  11. ^ "8 Canada Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  12. ^ "8 Canada Square". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  13. ^ "25 Canada Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  14. ^ "25 Canada Square". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  15. ^ "Tower 42". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  16. ^ "Tower 42". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  17. ^ "30 St Mary Axe". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  18. ^ "30 St Mary Axe". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  19. ^ "BT Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  20. ^ "BT Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  21. ^ "Broadgate Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  22. ^ "Broadgate Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  23. ^ "One Churchill Place". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  24. ^ "One Churchill Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  25. ^ "Croydon Transmitter". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  26. ^ "Croydon TV Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  27. ^ "25 Bank Street". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  28. ^ "25 Bank Street". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  29. ^ "40 Bank Street". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  30. ^ "40 Bank Street". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  31. ^ "10 Upper Bank Street". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  32. ^ "10 Upper Bank Street". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  33. ^ "Pan Peninsula East Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  34. ^ "Pan Peninsula Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  35. ^ "Strata". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  36. ^ "Strata". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  37. ^ "Guy's Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  38. ^ "Guy's Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  39. ^ "BA London Eye". Emporis.com. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
  40. ^ "London Eye". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  41. ^ "Wembley Stadium". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  42. ^ "Wembley Stadium". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  43. ^ "CityPoint". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  44. ^ "CityPoint". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  45. ^ "The Willis Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  46. ^ "The Willis Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  47. ^ "Euston Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  48. ^ "Euston Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  49. ^ "Cromwell Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  50. ^ "Cromwell Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  51. ^ "Lauderdale Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  52. ^ "Lauderdale Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  53. ^ "Shakespeare Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  54. ^ "Shakespeare Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  55. ^ "Pan Peninsual West Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  56. ^ "Pan Peninsula West Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  57. ^ "Millbank Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  58. ^ "Millbank Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  59. ^ "Aviva Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  60. ^ "St. Helen's". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  61. ^ "Centre Point". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  62. ^ "Centre Point". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  63. ^ "Empress State Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  64. ^ "Empress State Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  65. ^ "The Orbit". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  66. ^ a b "Battersea Power Station". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  67. ^ "Battersea Power Station". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  68. ^ a b "St. Paul's Cathedral". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  69. ^ "King's Reach Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  70. ^ "Kings Reach Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  71. ^ "No.1 West India Quay". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  72. ^ "No.1 West India Quay". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  73. ^ "Shell Centre". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  74. ^ "Upstream Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  75. ^ "33 Canada Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  76. ^ "33 Canada Square". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  77. ^ "100 Middlesex Street". skyscrapercity.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  78. ^ "Pioneer Point North". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  79. ^ "Pioneer Point, North Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  80. ^ "Pioneer Point North". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  81. ^ "99 Bishopsgate". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  82. ^ "99 Bishopsgate". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  83. ^ "Ontario Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  84. ^ "Ontario Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  85. ^ "Victoria Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  86. ^ "Houses of Parliament". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  87. ^ "Portland House". Emporis.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  88. ^ "Portland Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  89. ^ "Royal London Hospital Tower 2". skyscrapernews.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  90. ^ "Stock Exchange Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  91. ^ "Stock Exchange Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  92. ^ "Shard London Bridge". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  93. ^ "The Pinnacle". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  94. ^ "The Pinnacle". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  95. ^ "Bishopsgate Tower". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  96. ^ "Canary Wharf RS1". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  97. ^ "Riverside South (South Tower)". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  98. ^ "Riverside South (North Tower)". Skyscrapercity.com. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  99. ^ "Canary Wharf RS2". Emporis.com. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  100. ^ "Riverside South (North Tower)". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  101. ^ "Riverside South (South Tower)". Skyscrapercity.com. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  102. ^ "No.1 The Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  103. ^ "No.1 The Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  104. ^ "St George Wharf Tower". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  105. ^ "20 Fenchurch Street Redevelopment". Emporis.com. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  106. ^ "20 Fenchurch Street Redevelopment". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  107. ^ "150 High Street Stratford Block A". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  108. ^ "150 High Street Stratford". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  109. ^ "Arrowhead". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  110. ^ "Arrowhead". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  111. ^ "Arrowhead". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
  112. ^ "The Heron". theheron.co.uk. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  113. ^ "The Heron". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  114. ^ "The Heron". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  115. ^ "Plot T6". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  116. ^ "Canary Wharf NQ1". Emporis.com. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  117. ^ "North Quay (Tower 1)". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  118. ^ a b "Heron Quays West". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  119. ^ a b "Heron Quays West". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  120. ^ New vision for city pride site (4 July 2008). "New vision for city pride site". Wharf. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  121. ^ "The Pride". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  122. ^ "Canary Whaft NQ3". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  123. ^ "North Quay (Tower 3)". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  124. ^ "Lansdowne Road Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  125. ^ "One Park Place". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  126. ^ "One Park Place". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  127. ^ "One Park Place". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  128. ^ "100 Bishopsgate". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  129. ^ "100 Bishopsgate". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  130. ^ "Cherry Orchard Road Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  131. ^ a b "Bishops Place Building 3". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  132. ^ "Bishops Place". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  133. ^ "Ruskin Square Building BO1". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  134. ^ "Baltimore Wharf Building 1". Emporis.com. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  135. ^ "Baltimore Wharf Building 1". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  136. ^ "Baltimore Wharf". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  137. ^ "Athletes' Village Tower". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  138. ^ "Newfoundland". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  139. ^ "Newfoundland Tower". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  140. ^ "360-London". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  141. ^ "360-London". skyscrapernews.com. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
  142. ^ "360-London". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  143. ^ "Doon Street Tower". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  144. ^ "1 Merchant Square". skyscrapernews.com. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  145. ^ "The Quebec Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  146. ^ "Quebec Building". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  147. ^ "Heron Plaza". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  148. ^ "Croydon Vocational Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  149. ^ "Saffron Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  150. ^ "20 Blackfriars Road Residential Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  151. ^ "20 Blackfriars Road (Residential tower)". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  152. ^ "20 Blackfriars Road Residential Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  153. ^ "25 Churchill Place". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  154. ^ "40 Marsh Wall". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
  155. ^ "Broadway Chambers". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  156. ^ "Helix-London Building B". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  157. ^ a b "Helix-London". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  158. ^ "Lots Road South Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  159. ^ "Hammersmith & Fulham Tower, Lots Road". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  160. ^ "Lots Road". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  161. ^ "Canary Wharf NQ2". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  162. ^ "North Quay (Tower Two)". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  163. ^ "Vauxhall Sky Gardens". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
  164. ^ "Vauxhall Sky Gardens". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  165. ^ "Meridian Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  166. ^ "Convoy's Wharf". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  167. ^ "City Road Basin Site C". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  168. ^ "City Road Basin 1". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  169. ^ "City Road Basin". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  170. ^ "The Quill". skyscrapercity.com. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  171. ^ "Trinity Building 3". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  172. ^ "One Angel Court". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
  173. ^ "The Three Houses". skyscrapernews.com. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  174. ^ 03:42 PM (16 January 2009). "Three Spires | Southwark | 250m/200m/100m | 66/50/31 fl | Pre-planning". SkyscraperCity. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  175. ^ a b "One Nine Elms". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  176. ^ a b "One Nine Elms". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  177. ^ a b "Vauxhall Square". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
  178. ^ "Skylines Village Block B1". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  179. ^ a b "Skylines". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  180. ^ a b "Cuba Street". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  181. ^ "Millharbour West Building A". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  182. ^ a b c d e "Millharbour". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  183. ^ "Vauxhall Bondway Tower". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  184. ^ a b "Vauxhall Cross". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  185. ^ a b "Vauxhall Cross". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  186. ^ "Millharbour East Building E". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  187. ^ "Skylines Village Block B". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  188. ^ "Angel House". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  189. ^ "Eileen House". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  190. ^ "Eileen House". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  191. ^ "Millharbour East Building A". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  192. ^ "Millharbour West Buildings B, C". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  193. ^ "Vauxhall Sainsbury's Tower". oval-news.org. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  194. ^ "1 Crown Place". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  195. ^ "Dollar Bay Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  196. ^ "Dollar Bay Tower". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  197. ^ "Millharbour West Building D". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  198. ^ "2–12 High Street Stratford". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  199. ^ "Poplar Business Park Block C". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  200. ^ "Stratford Gateway Towers". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
  201. ^ "London Bridge Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  202. ^ "The Spark Plug". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  203. ^ "Battersea Eco-Tower". WorldArchitectureNews. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  204. ^ "Elephant & Castle Main Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  205. ^ "6–8 Bishopsgate". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  206. ^ "New London Bridge House Redevelopment". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  207. ^ "Stratford City Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  208. ^ "Citypoint". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  209. ^ "Ropemaker Place Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  210. ^ "Elephant & Castle Eco Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  211. ^ "King's Cross Twin Towers 1". Emporis.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  212. ^ "King's Cross Twin Towers 2". Emporis.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  213. ^ "The Blade". Emporis.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  214. ^ "Merchant Square (Residential Building)". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
  215. ^ "Ram Brewery Tower 1". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  216. ^ "Ram Brewery Tower 1". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  217. ^ a b "Ram Brewery". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  218. ^ "The Leaf Block F". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  219. ^ "The Leaf". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  220. ^ "Victoria Interchange Building 2". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  221. ^ "Victoria Interchange Building 7". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  222. ^ "70–100 City Road Block A". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  223. ^ "Clapham Junction Tower 1". Emporis.com. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  224. ^ "Clapham Junction Tower 2". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  225. ^ "Bishops Place Building 2". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  226. ^ "St. John's Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  227. ^ "Ram Brewery Tower 2". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  228. ^ "Walbrook Square Building 1". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  229. ^ "Walbrook Square". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  230. ^ "4–5 South Quay Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  231. ^ "Mile High Eco Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  232. ^ "Mile High Eco Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  233. ^ "Citygate Ecotower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  234. ^ "Mallory Clifford Project". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  235. ^ "Green Bird". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  236. ^ "Wembley Park Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  237. ^ "Aldegate Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  238. ^ "Glass Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  239. ^ "Vortex Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  240. ^ "Credit Suisse First Boston Building". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  241. ^ "Glengall View Place". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  242. ^ "Glengall View Place". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  243. ^ "Cricklewood Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  244. ^ "Cricklewood Tower". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  245. ^ "80 & 88–104 Bishopsgate Redevelopment". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  246. ^ "Folgate Street (Project Cosmos)". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  247. ^ "Skyhouse". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  248. ^ "Skyhouse". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  249. ^ "Royal Courts of Justice". SkyscraperNews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  250. ^ "Corporation of London Tower". SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  251. ^ "Goodmans Fields". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  252. ^ "Firalia Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  253. ^ "Rubix Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  254. ^ "Echo Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  255. ^ "Flower Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  256. ^ "Southwark Cathedral". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  257. ^ "The Monument". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  258. ^ "Church of St. Mary-Le-Bow". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  259. ^ "Heron Tower". Member from SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
  260. ^ "Shard Overtakes One Canada Square – Article #2711". Skyscrapernews.com. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  261. ^ a b "Old St. Paul's Cathedral". Emporis.com. Retrieved 28 June 2008.
  262. ^ House of Commons Information Office;The Palace of Westminster; Factsheet G11; General Series; Revised May 2009: http://www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/G11.pdf
  263. ^ Jackson-Rowe case study: http://www.jackson-rowe.com/jr_admin/cases/pdf/JR_CASE_vi.pdf

References

External links