List of tallest buildings in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Lakhta Center in Saint Petersburg is the tallest skyscraper in Europe

Seven of Europe's ten tallest skyscrapers are located in the Moscow International Business Center (MIBC).
The 2020 development concept of MIBC and its adjacent territory implies the construction of even more skyscrapers (orange color) during the period 2020–2027.[1][2]

This list of tallest buildings in Europe ranks skyscrapers in Europe by height exceeding 160 meters. For decades, only a few major cities, such as Frankfurt, London and Moscow contained skyscrapers. In recent years, however, construction has spread to many other cities on the continent, including Milan, Paris, Madrid, Rotterdam, Istanbul, and Warsaw. The tallest building in Europe is the Lakhta Center, located in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Skyscrapers of Europe (1 of 8) Skyscrapers of Europe (2 of 8) Skyscrapers of Europe (3 of 8) Skyscrapers of Europe (4 of 8)

Skyscrapers of Europe (5 of 8) Skyscrapers of Europe (6 of 8) Skyscrapers of Europe (7 of 8) Skyscrapers of Europe (8 of 8)

Tallest buildings[edit]

View of Levent from the Istanbul Sapphire
Skyline of Frankfurt, Germany

This list ranks skyscrapers in Europe that stand at least 160 metres (525 ft) tall, based on standard height measurements. Architectural details do not include antenna masts. The height data is subject to fluctuations due to simple changing of mast extensions. Existing structures are included for ranking purposes based on present height. Many non-architectural extensions (such as radio antennas) are easily added and removed from tall buildings without significantly changing the style and design of the building, which is seen as a significant part of the value of these buildings.

Name City Country Height[3] Floors Completed
Metres Feet
Lakhta Center Saint Petersburg Russia 462.5 1,517 87 2019
Federation: East Tower Moscow Russia 373.7 1,226 93 2016
OKO: South Tower Moscow Russia 354.1 1,162 90 2015
Neva Tower 2 Moscow Russia 345 1,132 79 2019
Mercury City Tower Moscow Russia 338.8 1,112 75 2013
Varso Tower Warsaw Poland 310 1,017 53 2021
The Shard London United Kingdom 309.6 1,016 73 2012
Eurasia Moscow Russia 308.9 1,013 72 2014
Neva Tower 1 Moscow Russia 302 991 65 2020
City of Capitals: Moscow Tower Moscow Russia 301.6 990 76 2010
Capital Towers: City Tower Moscow Russia 295 968 67 2022
Capital Towers: Park Tower Moscow Russia 295 968 70 2022
Capital Towers: River Tower[4] Moscow Russia 295 968 67 2022
Skyland İstanbul: Tower 1 IstanbulA Turkey 284 932 65 2017
Skyland İstanbul: Tower 2 IstanbulA Turkey 284 932 64 2017
22 Bishopsgate London United Kingdom 278 912 62 2019
Naberezhnaya Tower C Moscow Russia 268.4 881 59 2007
Triumph Palace Moscow Russia 264.1 866 61 2005
Istanbul Sapphire IstanbulA Turkey 261 856 55 2010
Commerzbank Tower Frankfurt Germany 258.7 849 56 1997
City of Capitals: Saint Petersburg Tower Moscow Russia 256.9 843 65 2010
Messeturm Frankfurt Germany 256.5 842 55 1990
Torre de Cristal Madrid Spain 249 817 50 2008
Torre Cepsa Madrid Spain 248.3 815 45 2008
Evolution Tower Moscow Russia 245.9 807 53 2014
Federation: West Tower Moscow Russia 243.2 798 62 2007
Moscow State University Moscow Russia 240 787 36 1953
Imperia Tower Moscow Russia 238.7 783 60 2011
Torre PwC Madrid Spain 236 774 52 2008
1 Canada Square London United Kingdom 235 771 50 1991
Landmark Pinnacle London United Kingdom 233 764 75 2019
Tour First ParisB France 231 758 56 2011
Unicredit Tower Milan Italy 231 714 33 2012
Palace of Culture and Science Warsaw Poland 230.7 757 42 1955
Heron Tower London United Kingdom 230 755 46 2011
Torre Emperador Madrid Spain 228 748 57 2008
Leadenhall Building London United Kingdom 225 738 48 2014
OKO: North Tower Moscow Russia 224 735 46 2015
DC Towers: Tower 1[5] Vienna Austria 220 722 60 2013
Tour Hekla Paris France 220 722 41 2022
Istanbul Tower 205 [fr][6] IstanbulA Turkey 220 722 53 2018
Nurol Life [fr][7] IstanbulA Turkey 220 722 60 2017
Warsaw Spire Warsaw Poland 220 722 49 2016
Newfoundland Quay London United Kingdom 219.7 721 58 2019
Zalmhaven Tower Rotterdam Netherlands 215 715 58 2022
Sky Tower[8] Wrocław Poland 215 705 51 2013
South Quay Plaza I London United Kingdom 214.5 721 68 2018
House on Mosfilmovskaya: Tower 1 Moscow Russia 213.3 700 54 2011[9]
Tour Montparnasse Paris France 210 689 59 1972
Piedmont Region Headquarters Turin Italy 209 686 44 2020[10]
Allianz Tower Milan Italy 209 686 50 2015
Westend Tower Frankfurt Germany 208 682 53 1993
Hotel Ukraina Moscow Russia 206 676 34 1955
One Park Drive London United Kingdom 205 673 57 2021
Roche Tower 2 Basel Switzerland 205 673 50 2021
Spine Tower Istanbul Turkey 202 663 47 2013
Warsaw Unit Warsaw Poland 202 663 46 2021
Tour Incity Lyon France 202 663 39 2015
Deansgate Square South Tower Manchester United Kingdom 201 659 64 2019
Tower 185 Frankfurt Germany 200 656 50 2011
Main Tower Frankfurt Germany 200 656 55 1999
Intempo Benidorm Spain 200 656 47 2013
25 Canada Square London United Kingdom 200 656 45 2001
8 Canada Square London United Kingdom 200 656 45 2002
Wellton Towers 2[11] Moscow Russia 195.2 640 58 2020
Skyliner Karimpol Warsaw Poland 195 640 45 2021
Tour Majunga Paris France 195 640 45 2014
Queen Central Park Istanbul Turkey 195 640 52 2018
Anthill Residence 1[12] Istanbul Turkey 194.5 638 54 2011
Anthill Residence 2[13] Istanbul Turkey 194.5 638 54 2011
Ciftci Tower A Istanbul Turkey 194 636 45 2018
Ciftci Tower B Istanbul Turkey 194 636 45 2018
Tricolor: Tower A[14] Moscow Russia 194 636 56 2013
Tricolor: Tower B[14] Moscow Russia 194 636 56 2013
Sberbank City: Tower A[15] Moscow Russia 193 633 47 2015
Złota 44 Warsaw Poland 192 630 54 2012
Generali Tower Milan Italy 192 630 44 2018
D1: Kingchess Tower[16] Moscow Russia 191 627 59 2020
D1: Excelsior Tower Moscow Russia 191 627 59 2020
Continental[17] Moscow Russia 191 627 48 2011
ONE Frankfurt Germany 191 627 49 2020
HSB Turning Torso Malmö Sweden 190.4 625 57 2005
The Scalpel London United Kingdom 190 623 38 2018
Omniturm Frankfurt Germany 190 623 45 2020
Tour Total ParisB France 190 623 48 1985
BT Tower London United Kingdom 189 627 34 1966
Tour CB21 ParisB France 187 614 42 1974
Gran Hotel Bali Benidorm Spain 187 614 52 2002
Wardian London (East Tower) London United Kingdom 187 614 55 2019
Trianon Frankfurt Germany 186 610 45 1993
European Central Bank seat Frankfurt Germany 185 607 45 2014
Tour GDF Suez ParisB France 185 607 36 2008
Tour Areva ParisB France 184 604 44 1974
Tour Granite ParisB France 184 604 36 2008
Warsaw Trade Tower Warsaw Poland 184 604 45 1999
West 54 London United Kingdom 184 604 54 2021
Tower 42 London United Kingdom 183 600 47 1980
The Madison London United Kingdom 182 597 53 2019
Caleido Madrid Spain 181 594 38 2021
St George Wharf Tower London United Kingdom 181 594 49 2013
Isbank Tower 1 Istanbul Turkey 181 594 52 2000
Cajasol Tower Seville Spain 181 594 43 2015
30 St Mary Axe London United Kingdom 180 591 41 2003
Grand Tower Frankfurt Germany 180 591 47 2020
Tours Duo Paris France 180 591 39 2020
Skyland İstanbul: Hotel Tower Istanbul Turkey 180
[citation needed]
591 ? 2018
Wellton Towers 1[11] Moscow Russia 178.7 586 53 2020
Sparrow Hills Tower II[18] Moscow Russia 178 584 48 2004
Roche Tower[19] Basel Switzerland 178 584 41 2015
Tour Saint-Gobain Paris France 178 584 39 2019
Maslak 1453 A1 Tower[20] Istanbul Turkey 176.5 579 44 2017
Maslak 1453 A2 Tower[20] Istanbul Turkey 176.5 579 44 2017
Maslak 1453 A3 Tower[20] Istanbul Turkey 176.5 579 44 2017
Maslak 1453 B1 Tower[20] Istanbul Turkey 176.5 579 44 2017
Maslak 1453 B2 Tower[20] Istanbul Turkey 176.5 579 44 2017
Edelweiss Moscow Russia 176 577 43 2003
Kotelnicheskaya Embankment Moscow Russia 176 577 32 1952
Nebo: Tower 1[21] Moscow Russia 176 577 53 2020
Nebo: Tower 2 Moscow Russia 176 577 53 2020
Nebo: Tower 3 Moscow Russia 176 577 53 2020
Aliye Parusa 2[22] Moscow Russia 175.6 576 48 2003
Libeskind Tower Milan Italy 175 574 28 2020
Headliner 9[23] Moscow Russia 174.9 574 53 2022
Headliner 1[23] Moscow Russia 174.9 574 53 2019
IQ-quarter: Tower 1[24] Moscow Russia 172.8 567 42 2016
100 Bishopsgate London United Kingdom 172 564 40 2018
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Moscow Russia 172 564 27 1953
Nordstar Tower[25] Moscow Russia 171.5 563 42 2009
Tour D2 Paris France 171 561 37 2014
Millennium Tower Vienna Austria 171 663 51 1999
Maslak 1453 A4 Tower[20] Istanbul Turkey 170.5 559 42 2017
Maslak 1453 A5 Tower[20] Istanbul Turkey 170.5 559 42 2017
Aykon London One London United Kingdom 170 558 50 2020
Şişli Plaza Istanbul Turkey 170 558 46 2007
Opernturm Frankfurt Germany 170 558 42 2009
Taunusturm Frankfurt Germany 170 558 40 2014
One Limassol Limassol Cyprus 170 558 38 2022
Levent 199 Istanbul Turkey 170 558 40 2014
Özdilek Plaza Tower A Istanbul Turkey 170 558 38 2014
Soyak Crystal Tower Istanbul Turkey 170 558 40 2014
Terrace Tema Istanbul Turkey 170 558 39 2014
Odeon Tower Monaco Monaco 170 558 49 2015
Beetham Tower Manchester United Kingdom 169 554 47 2006
Belgrade Tower Belgrade Serbia 168 656 42 2021
Alcon Tower[26] Moscow Russia 168 656 36 2022
Wardian London (West Tower) London United Kingdom 168 551 50 2019
Tekstilkent Plaza 1 Istanbul Turkey 168 551 44 2000
Tekstilkent Plaza 2 Istanbul Turkey 168 551 44 2000
Klovski Descent 7A Residential part Kyiv Ukraine 168 551 48 2012
Sberbank City: Tower B[27] Moscow Russia 168 551 41 2015
Crystal[28] Moscow Russia 167.5 656 49 2022
Tour Alicante ParisC France 167 548 37 1995
Tour Chassagne ParisC France 167 548 37 1995
Torre Intesa Sanpaolo Turin Italy 167 548 39 2013
Maslak 42 1 Istanbul Turkey 167 548 42 2014
Maslak 42 2 Istanbul Turkey 167 548 42 2014
Silberturm Frankfurt Germany 166 545 32 1978
Tour Carpe Diem Paris France 166 545 34 2013
Paveletskaya City: Marlon Tower[29] Moscow Russia 165 541 46 2021
Paveletskaya City: Frank Tower Moscow Russia 165 541 46 2021
One Blackfriars London United Kingdom 165 541 52 2018
Tour Part Dieu Lyon France 165 541 42 1977
Tour EDF ParisD France 165 541 41 2001
Swissôtel Krasnye Holmy[30] Moscow Russia 165 541 34 2005
Oruzheynyy [ru] Moscow Russia 165 541 28 2016
Maastoren Rotterdam Netherlands 165 541 44 2010
Broadgate Tower London United Kingdom 165 541 35 2009
Iberdrola Tower Bilbao Spain 165 541 40 2011
InterContinental Warsaw Warsaw Poland 164 538 45 2003
Post Tower[31] Bonn Germany 162.5 533 42 2002
Wellton Towers 3[11] Moscow Russia 162.2 532 48 2020
Well House na Leninskom[32] Moscow Russia 162 531 46 2009
Palazzo Lombardia[33] Milan Italy 161.3 529 43 2010
Cœur Défense ParisB France 161 528 40 2001
Principal Tower London United Kingdom 161 528 51 2018
Sparrow Hills Tower I[34] Moscow Russia 161 528 43 2004
Sparrow Hills Tower III[35] Moscow Russia 161 528 43 2004
Cosmopolitan Twarda 2/4 Warsaw Poland 160 525 42 2012
Tour Alto Paris France 160 492 38 2020
20 Fenchurch Street London United Kingdom 160 525 34 2014
Kudrinskaya Square[36] Moscow Russia 160 525 22 1954

Timeline of tallest buildings[edit]

Name City Country Years tallest Height Floors
Metres Feet
Lakhta Center Saint Petersburg Russia 2017–present 462.5 1,517 87
Federation: East Tower Moscow Russia 2016–2017 373.7 1,226 95
OKO: South Tower Moscow Russia 2015–2016 354.1 1,162 85
Mercury City Tower Moscow Russia 2012–2014 338.8 1,112 75
The Shard London United Kingdom 2011–2012 306 1,004 87
CoC: Moscow Tower Moscow Russia 2009–2011 301.6 990 77
Naberezhnaya Tower C Moscow Russia 2007–2009 268.4 881 59
Triumph-Palace Moscow Russia 2005–2007 264.1 866 57
Commerzbank Tower Frankfurt Germany 1997–2005 259 850 56
Messeturm Frankfurt Germany 1990–1997 257 843 55
Moscow State University Moscow Russia 1953–1990 240 787 42
Kotelnicheskaya Embankment Building Moscow Russia 1952–1953 176 577 32
Tour Perret Amiens France 1949–1952 110 361 26
Terrazza Martini Tower Genoa Italy 1940–1949 108 354 31
New Town Hall (Leipzig) Leipzig Germany 1905–1940 114.8 377
Hamburg City Hall Hamburg Germany 1897–1905 112 367
City Hall Vienna Austria 1892–1897[37] 105 344
Palace of Justice Brussels Belgium 1883–1892 104 341
Victoria Tower London United Kingdom 1860–1883 98.5 323
Augsburg Town Hall Augsburg Germany 1624–1860 57 187 7

Under construction[edit]

Name City Country Height Floors Estimated
completion
Metres Feet
One Tower Moscow Russia 442.8[38] 1,453 109 2024 (On hold)
National Space Centre Moscow Russia 288[39] 814 47 2023
Grand Tower Moscow Russia 283.4 930 62 2022
iCity: Space Tower Moscow Russia 257 843 61 2024
Karlatornet Gothenburg Sweden 245 804 73 2023
Elbtower Hamburg Germany 245 807 57 2026
The Link ParisD France 244 801 52 2024
Four Frankfurt Tower 1[40] Frankfurt Germany 233 764 59 2023
Level South Port[41] Moscow Russia 225 738 69 2026
Aspen London United Kingdom 216 708 64 2023
8 Bishopsgate London United Kingdom 204 699 51 2022
Sky Fort[42] Sofia Bulgaria 202 663 49 2023
MOD: Tower K3[43][44] Moscow Russia 200 660 55 2024
MOD: Tower K7 Moscow Russia 200 660 55 2024
Will Towers 1[45] Moscow Russia 199[citation needed] 653 56
Fili City[46][citation needed] Moscow Russia 197.06 647 57
South Quay Plaza II London United Kingdom 192 630 56 2024
Symphony 34[47] Moscow Russia 191 626 54 2023
High Life[48][citation needed] Moscow Russia 186 610 48
Level Mitchurinskiy[citation needed] Moscow Russia 185.9 610 54
Will Towers 2[citation needed] Moscow Russia 184.8 606 52
Will Towers 3[citation needed] Moscow Russia 184.8 606 52
Icon Tower[49] London United Kingdom 184 604 52 2022
AFI Tower [50] Moscow Russia 182.4 597 53 2022
Wave[citation needed] Moscow Russia 180 590 54 2023
Event 4 tower 1[51] Moscow Russia 178.4 585 51
Event 4 tower 2 Moscow Russia 178.4 585 51
Event 4 tower 3 Moscow Russia 178.4 585 51
City Bay: Atlantic Tower 1[52] Moscow Russia 177[citation needed] 581 54
City Bay: Atlantic Tower 2 Moscow Russia 177[citation needed] 581 54
City Bay: Indian Tower B1[52] Moscow Russia 177[citation needed] 581 54
City Bay: Indian Tower B6 Moscow Russia 177[citation needed] 581 54
Estrel Tower Berlin Germany 176 577 45 2024
Rezhissyor[53] Moscow Russia 175 574 49
Headliner 4[23] Moscow Russia 174.9 574 53
The Bridge Warsaw Poland 174 570 41 2024
Symphony 34: Silver Tower[47] Moscow Russia 173.7 570 49 2023
Four Frankfurt Tower 2[40] Frankfurt Germany 173 568 43 2023
Arkhitektor 1[54][55] Moscow Russia 169.2 555 47 2023
Arkhitektor 2 Moscow Russia 169.2 555 47 2023
Arkhitektor 3 Moscow Russia 168.7 553 46 2023
Vauxhall Square I London United Kingdom 168 656 50 2019
Vauxhall Square II London United Kingdom 168 656 50 2019
Eurovea 2 Bratislava Slovakia 168 656 46 2022
Oak Tower Pristina Kosovo 167 548 41 2025
Danube Flats Vienna Austria 167 548 47 2023
MOD: Tower K5[43][44] Moscow Russia 164.6 540 44 ?
One Nine Elms II London United Kingdom 161 528 43 2019
Trilogy West Tower Limassol Cyprus 161 528 39 2022
Sydney City 2.2[56] Moscow Russia 160 492 44 2023
Olszynki Park Rzeszów Poland 160 524 36 2025

Cancelled[edit]

This list ranks notable buildings that have been cancelled in Europe that were meant to rise to at least 160 metres (525 ft).

Name City Height Floors
Metres Feet
Russia Tower Moscow 612 2,008 118
Palace of the Soviets Moscow 495 1,624 100
Tour Sans Fins Paris 425.6 1,396 103
Dubai Towers Istanbul: Tower 1 Istanbul 395 1,296 102
London Millennium Tower London 386 1,266 92
Hermitage plaza 1 Paris 320 1050 86
Hermitage plaza 2 Paris 320 1050 85
Dubai Towers Istanbul: Tower 2 Istanbul 316 1,037 81
City Hall and City Duma Moscow 308.4 1,012 71
Otterspool Tower Liverpool 305 1,001 79
Vortex Tower London 300 984 70
King Edward Tower Liverpool 199 653 67
Criterion Place Leeds 180 591
Lumiere Leeds 172 564 55

Tallest European skyscrapers by pinnacle height (highest point)[edit]

This lists ranks skyscrapers in Europe that stand at least 250 metres (820 ft) tall, based on architectural details and antenna height measurement.

Denotes building with pinnacle height higher than architectural
Name City Metres Feet Floors Completed
Lakhta Center Moscow 462.5 1,517 87 2019
Federation: East Tower Moscow 373.7 1,227 95 2016
OKO: South Tower Moscow 354.1 1,162 85 2015
Neva Tower 2 Moscow 345 1,132 79 2019
Mercury City Tower Moscow 338.8 1,112 75 2013
Varso Tower Warsaw 310 1,017 53 2021
CoC: Moscow Tower† Moscow 309.8 1,016 76 2009
Eurasia Moscow 308.9 1,013 72 2013
The Shard London 306 1,004 87 2012
Commerzbank Tower Frankfurt 300 985 56 1997
Neva Tower 1 Moscow 297 974 65 2020
Skyland İstanbul: Tower 1 IstanbulA 284 932 65 2017
Skyland İstanbul: Tower 2 IstanbulA 284 932 64 2017
22 Bishopsgate London 278.2 913 62 2019
Naberezhnaya Tower C Moscow 268.4 881 59 2007
Capital Towers: City Tower Moscow 267 876 61 2022
Capital Towers: Park Tower Moscow 267 876 61 2022
Capital Towers: River Tower Moscow 267 876 61 2022
Triumph-Palace Moscow 264.1 866 57 2005
Istanbul Sapphire Istanbul 261 856 54 2010
Allianz Tower Milan 259 850 50 2015
CoC: Saint Petersburg Moscow 257.2 843 65 2009
Messeturm Frankfurt 256.5 842 55 1990
many lower buildings

Cities with buildings over 150 metres[edit]

[citation needed]

City ≥450 m ≥400 m ≥350 m ≥300 m ≥250 m ≥200 m ≥150 m
Saint Petersburg 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Moscow 2 7 12 19 58
Istanbul 1 5 9 47
London 1 3 12 34
Warsaw 1 1 5 15
Frankfurt 2 5 18
Madrid 1 4 5
Paris 2 21
Milan 2 5
Vienna 2 3
Rotterdam 1 5
Manchester 1 4
Lyon 1 2
Turin 1 2
Wrocław 1 1
Benidorm 3
Barcelona 2
Limassol 1
Belgrade 1
Gdańsk 1
Brussels 1
Kyiv 1
Bilbao 1
Seville 1
Basel 1
Malmö 1
Bonn 1
Amsterdam 1

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • ^A Only skyscrapers located in the European part of Istanbul are included. See Europe for more details.
  • ^B Specifically located in the La Défense district, town of Courbevoie, in the inner suburbs of Paris
  • ^C Specifically located in Nanterre, in the inner suburbs of Paris
  • ^D Specifically located in La Défense district, town of Puteaux, in the inner suburbs of Paris
  • ^E Specifically located in Saint-Denis, in the inner suburbs of Paris
  • ^F Specifically located in La Défense, in the inner suburbs of Paris

References[edit]

  1. ^ Собянин назвал сроки реализации проекта развития 'Большого Сити' (in Russian). Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  2. ^ Собянин обещал достроить «Большой Сити» через семь лет. Rbc.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  3. ^ "Create Lists/Graphics - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  4. ^ "Capital Tower 1 - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  5. ^ "DC Towers Facts and Figures". DC Towers. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  6. ^ "Istanbul Tower 205". CTBUH Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  7. ^ "Nurol Life, Istanbul". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  8. ^ "Sky Tower 1, Wrocław". Emporis. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  9. ^ Topped out in 2009, but still under construction
  10. ^ Under constructio; inauguration scheduled for 2020.
  11. ^ a b c "Документы". www.wellton-towers.ru.
  12. ^ "Anthill Residence 1". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  13. ^ "Anthill Residence 2". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  14. ^ a b "Tricolor 1, Moscow – 1191639". Emporis. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  15. ^ "Mirax Plaza – Tower A". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  16. ^ "Жилой комплекс бизнес-класса «D1»: официальный сайт ЖК «Дмитровский 1» от застройщика «MR Group»". d1-dom.ru.
  17. ^ "Continental". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  18. ^ "Vorobiovy Gory Tower II". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  19. ^ "presents Building 1, its new main office building in Basel". Roche. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g "Luxury homes Maslak 1453 central Istanbul". Property Turkey.
  21. ^ "ЖК "Небо"". {{cite web}}: Check |url= value (help)
  22. ^ "Aliye Parusa 2". Emporis.com. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  23. ^ a b c "О жилом комплексе «Headliner»: расположение, документы и фотографии ЖК «Хедлайнер»". head-liner.ru.
  24. ^ Документы проекта (in Russian).
  25. ^ "Nordstar Tower". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  26. ^ "Alcon Tower: Business class apartment complex in Moscow". Alcon Tower.
  27. ^ "Mirax Plaza – Tower B". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  28. ^ "Купить квартиру от застройщика в Москве и Подмосковье | Квартиры в новостройках ЖК по выгодным ценам - продажа жилой недвижимости от Концерна «КРОСТ»". www.krost.ru.
  29. ^ "Paveletskaya City: Presentation" (PDF).
  30. ^ "Swissotel Krasnye Holmy". SkyscraperPage. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  31. ^ "Post Tower, Bonn". Emporis. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  32. ^ Krassotkin, Alexander (22 February 2009). Well House на Ленинском (in Russian). Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  33. ^ "Palazzo Lombardia". CTBUH. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  34. ^ "Vorobiovy Gory Tower I". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  35. ^ "Vorobiovy Gory Tower III". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  36. ^ "Kudrinskaya Square". Emporis.com. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  37. ^ Vienna City Hall was originally 98 meters high, until the Rathausmann was added on top of the central tower in 1892.[circular reference]
  38. ^ "Многофункциональный высотный жилой комплекс в ММДЦ «Москва Сити», 2 этап | Sergey Skuratov Architects". skuratov-arch.ru.
  39. ^ Свыше 700 человек строят Национальный космический центр в Москве (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 24 September 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  40. ^ a b "UNStudio gets thumbs-up for cluster of four inner-city towers". 4 June 2020.
  41. ^ "Level Group". level.ru.
  42. ^ Първият истински небостъргач на София (in Bulgarian). capital.bg. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  43. ^ a b "MOD". www.mr-group.ru.
  44. ^ a b "MOD residential complex".
  45. ^ "ЖК Will Towers". www.metrium.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  46. ^ MR Group получила разрешение на строительство новой 58-этажной башни Famous и клубного дома Noble. mr-group.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  47. ^ a b "Symphony 34". www.mr-group.ru.
  48. ^ "Квартиры премиум-класса в центре Москвы - HIGH LIFE Летниковская, 11". highlife.ru.
  49. ^ "Icon Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  50. ^ "ЖК Afi Tower (Афи Тауэр) - цены на сайте от официального застройщика AFI Development, планировки жилого комплекса, ипотека, акции новостройки - Москва, проезд Серебрякова, 11-13к1 - ЦИАН". www.cian.ru.
  51. ^ "ЖК Событие: квартиры бизнес и премиум класса в Москве в районе Раменки | Донстрой". donstroy.moscow.
  52. ^ a b "City Bay". www.mr-group.ru.
  53. ^ "ФСК". ФСК.
  54. ^ "Residential complex Arkhitektor". наш.дом.рф. Retrieved 2 October 2020. {{cite web}}: Check |url= value (help)
  55. ^ "ФСК". ФСК.
  56. ^ "ФСК". ФСК.

External links[edit]