List of tallest buildings
This list of tallest buildings includes skyscrapers with continuously occupiable floors and a height of at least 350 m. Non-building structures, such as towers, are not included in this list (see list of tallest buildings and structures).
Historically, the world's tallest man-made structure was the Great Pyramids of Giza in Egypt, which held the position for over 3,800 years until the construction of the Lincoln Cathedral in England in 1311. Until the completion of the Washington Monument in 1884, the world's tallest buildings were churches and cathedrals, Christian places of worship, in Europe. The early skyscraper was pioneered in Chicago, forming the basis for which the United States would hold the position of the world's tallest building for much of the 20th century until 1998, when the Petronas Twin Towers were completed. Since then only two more buildings have held the title: Taipei 101 and Burj Khalifa.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, China, the Middle East as well as Southeast Asia have seen a boom in skyscraper construction.
Ranking criteria and alternatives
The international non-profit organization Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was formed in 1969 and announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and sets the standards by which buildings are measured. It maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world. The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m (2,717 ft). The CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete however, and some buildings included within the lists in this article are not considered finished by the CTBUH.
- height to structural or architectural top;
- height to floor of highest occupied floor;
- height to top of roof (removed as category in November 2009); and
- height to top of any part of the building.
Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, changes to which would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers, with their spires, are thus ranked higher than the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers' lower roofs and lower highest point.
Until 1996, the world's tallest building was defined by the height to the top of the tallest architectural element, including spires but not antennae. This led to a rivalry between the Bank of Manhattan Building and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building (aka 40 Wall Street) employed only a short spire and was 282.5 m (927 ft) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 38.1 m (125 ft) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 318.9 m (1,046 ft), although it had a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires were excluded.
Upset by Chrysler's victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of the Bank of Manhattan Building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor, at 255 m (837 ft). They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 30 m (98 ft) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and inaccessible.
Tallest buildings in the world
As of 2019[update], this list includes all 64 buildings (completed and architecturally topped out) which reach a height of 350 metres (1,150 ft) or more, as assessed by their highest architectural feature. Of these, 32 (50%) are in China. Six of the last seven buildings to have held the record as 'tallest building' are still found in the list, with the exception being the North Tower of the original World Trade Center at 417 metres (1,368 ft) after its destruction in the September 11 attacks of 2001. If the twin towers were not destroyed and One World Trade Center never built, the WTC towers would rank 28 and 29 on the list today.
|bold||Denotes building that is or was once the tallest in the world|
|1||Burj Khalifa||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||828||2,717||163||2010||Currently the tallest building and tallest structure in the world from 2010 onwards; tallest building completed in the 2010s.|
|2||Shanghai Tower||Shanghai||China||632||2,073||128||2015||It is the tallest building in China and in East Asia; tallest twisted building.|
|3||Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||601||1,971||120||2012||Tallest building with a clock face; second-tallest in the Middle East and tallest in Saudi Arabia.|
|4||Ping An Finance Center||Shenzhen||China||599||1,965||115||2017||Tallest building in Shenzhen and Guangdong Province. Shares the record of the highest observation deck with Shanghai Tower (#2) at 562 m.|
|5||Goldin Finance 117||Tianjin||China||596.6||1,957||128||2019||Tallest building in China outside of Shanghai and Guangdong province.|
|6||Lotte World Tower||Seoul||South Korea||554.5||1,819||123||2016||Tallest building in South Korea and in Asia outside of China and the Middle East. Tallest building in a nation's capital and in an OECD country.|
|7||One World Trade Center||New York City||United States||541.3||1,776||104||2014||Tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, the United States, and North America. Tallest building outside of Asia.|
|8||Guangzhou CTF Finance Center||Guangzhou||China||530||1,739||111||2016||Tallest building in Guangzhou and second tallest in Guangdong province.|
|9||Tianjin CTF Finance Center||Tianjin||China||530||1,739||98||2018|
|10||China Zun||Beijing||China||528||1,732||108||2018||Tallest building in Beijing.|
|11||Taipei 101||Taipei||Taiwan||508||1,667||101||2004||The world's tallest building from 2004 to 2010.|
|12||Shanghai World Financial Center||Shanghai||China||492||1,614||101||2008||Was the tallest building in China until the completion of the adjacent Shanghai Tower.|
|13||International Commerce Centre||Hong Kong||China||484||1,588||118||2010||Tallest building in Hong Kong.|
|14||Wuhan Greenland Center||Wuhan||China||475.6||1,560||97||2019|
|15||Central Park Tower||New York City||United States||472||1,550||131||2020||Tallest residential building in the world. Topped out in September of 2019.|
|16||Lakhta Center||Saint Petersburg||Russia||462||1,516||86||2018||Tallest building in Russia and in Europe.|
|17||Landmark 81||Ho Chi Minh City||Vietnam||461.2||1,513||81||2018||Tallest building in Vietnam and in Southeast Asia.|
|18||Changsha IFS Tower T1||Changsha||China||452.1||1,483||88||2017||Tallest building in Changsha.|
|19||Petronas Tower 1||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||451.9||1,483||88||1998||Tallest twin towers in the world; were the world's tallest buildings upon completion in 1998, and the first building since 1908 outside of the United States.|
|Petronas Tower 2||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||451.9||1,483||88||1998|
|20||Zifeng Tower||Nanjing||China||450||1,476||89||2010||Tallest building in Nanjing.|
|Suzhou IFS||Suzhou||China||450||1,476||92||2017||Tallest building in Suzhou.|
|22||The Exchange 106||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||445.5||1,461||97||2018|
|23||Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower)||Chicago||United States||442.1||1,450||108||1974||Formerly known, and still commonly referred to, as the Sears Tower. It was the tallest building in the world from 1974 until 1998. It is the second tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the tallest when measuring by roof height.|
|24||KK100||Shenzhen||China||442||1,449||100||2011||Second-tallest building in Shenzhen.|
|25||Guangzhou International Finance Center||Guangzhou||China||440||1,440||103||2010||Second-tallest building in Guangzhou.|
|27||One Vanderbilt||New York City||United States||427||1,401||67||2020||Topped out in September 2019.|
|28||432 Park Avenue||New York City||United States||425.5||1,396||88||2015||The third-tallest building in the United States and the tallest residential building in the world.|
|29||Marina 101||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||425||1,394||101||2015||Second-tallest building in Dubai.|
|30||Trump International Hotel and Tower||Chicago||United States||423.2||1,388||98||2009||Second tallest building in Chicago.|
|31||Jin Mao Tower||Shanghai||China||421||1,380||88||1999||Third tallest building in Shanghai.|
|32||Princess Tower||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||414||1,358||101||2012||Third tallest building in Dubai.|
|33||Al Hamra Tower||Kuwait City||Kuwait||412.6||1,354||80||2011||Tallest building in Kuwait.|
|34||International Finance Centre||Hong Kong||China||412||1,352||88||2003||Second tallest building in Hong Kong, and tallest on Hong Kong Island.|
|35||Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower||Busan||South Korea||411.6||1,352||101||2019||Currently under construction, will be the tallest building in Busan upon completion.|
|36||Nanning China Resources Tower||Nanning||China||402.7||1,321||85||2018||Tallest building in Nanning.|
|37||China Resources Headquarters||Shenzhen||China||392.5||1,288||67||2017||Third tallest building in Shenzhen.|
|38||23 Marina||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||392.4||1,287||89||2012|
|39||CITIC Plaza||Guangzhou||China||390.2||1,280||80||1996||Third tallest building in Guangzhou.|
|40||Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1||Shenzhen||China||388.1||1,273||80||2017|
|41||30 Hudson Yards||New York City||United States||386.6||1,268||73||2018||Third tallest building in New York City.|
|42||Capital Market Authority Headquarters||Riyadh||Saudi Arabia||385||1,263||77||2016||Second building in Saudi Arabia.|
|43||Shun Hing Square||Shenzhen||China||384||1,260||69||1996|
|44||Eton Place Dalian Tower 1||Dalian||China||383||1,257||81||2015||Tallest building in Dalian.|
|45||Logan Century Center 1||Nanning||China||381.3||1,251||82||2017||Second tallest building in Nanning.|
|46||Burj Mohammed bin Rashid||Abu Dhabi||United Arab Emirates||381||1,251||88||2014||Tallest building in Abu Dhabi.|
|47||Empire State Building||New York City||United States||381||1,250||102||1931||Tallest building in the world from 1931 until 1972; tallest man-made structure in the world 1931-1967; first building in the world to contain over 100 floors; tallest building built in the U.S. and the world in the 1930s.|
|48||Elite Residence||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||381||1,248||87||2012||Fifth tallest building in Dubai.|
|49||Central Plaza||Hong Kong||China||373.9||1,226||78||1992||Third tallest building in Hong Kong.|
|50||Federation Tower (East Tower)||Moscow||Russia||373.7||1,226||95||2016||Second tallest building in Russia and in Europe.|
|51||Dalian International Trade Center||Dalian||China||370.2||1,214||86||2018||Second tallest building in Dalian|
|52||Address Boulevard||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||370||1,214||72||2017|
|53||Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A||Nanjing||China||368.1||1,208||76||2018||Second tallest building in Nanjing.|
|54||Bank of China Tower||Hong Kong||China||367||1,205||70||1990|
|55||Bank of America Tower||New York City||United States||365.8||1,200||56||2009|
|57||Vista Tower||Chicago||United States||362.9||1,191||101||2019|
|58||Almas Tower||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||363||1,191||68||2017|
|60||Gevora Hotel||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||356.3||1,169||75||2012|
|61||JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 1||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||356.3||1,166||82||2012||Tallest twin towers in Dubai and the United Arab Emirates.|
|JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 2||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||355||1,166||82||2012|
|62||Emirates Office Tower||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||355||1,163||54||2000|
|63||Raffles City Chongqing T3N||Chongqing||China||354.5||1,163||79||2018||Tallest buildings in Chongqing; tallest twin towers in China.|
|Raffles City Chongqing T4N||Chongqing||China||354.5||1,163||79||2019|
|64||OKO Tower - South Tower||Moscow||Russia||354||1,160||85||2015||Third tallest building in Russia.|
|65||The Marina Torch||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||352||1,155||86||2011|
|66||Forum 66 Tower 1||Shenyang||China||350.6||1,150||68||2015||Tallest building in Shenyang.|
|68||Xi An Glory International Financial Center||Xi'an||China||350||1,148||75||2017||Tallest building in Xi'an.|
Height to pinnacle (highest point)
This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point. This measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are easily added, removed, and modified from a building and are independent of the overall structure.
This measurement only recently came into use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower (now called Willis Tower) in height. The former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latter's antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof (now highest occupied floor) categories, and with the Petronas claiming the lead in the architectural height category.
If the World Trade Center towers were still standing today they would occupy numbers 11 (North Tower at 526.7 m (1,728 ft)) and 31 on the list (or 10 and 30 since it can be assumed the rebuilt One World Trade Center would have never been built).
|bold||†Denotes building with pinnacle height higher than architectural|
|1||Burj Khalifa†||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||829.8 m||2,722 ft||163||2010|
|2||Shanghai Tower||Shanghai||China||632 m||2,073 ft||128||2015|
|3||Abraj Al-Bait Towers||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||601 m||1,971 ft||120||2012|
|4||Ping An Finance Center||Shenzhen||China||599 m||1,965 ft||115||2016|
|5||Goldin Finance 117||Tianjin||China||596.6 m||1,957 ft||128||2019|
|6||Lotte World Tower†||Seoul||South Korea||555.7 m||1,823 ft||123||2016|
|7||One World Trade Center†||New York City||United States||546.2 m||1,792 ft||104||2014|
|8||Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre||Guangzhou||China||530 m||1,739 ft||111||2016|
|8||Tianjin CTF Finance Centre||Tianjin||China||530 m||1,739 ft||98||2018|
|10||China Zun||Beijing||China||528 m||1,732 ft||108||2018|
|11||Willis Tower†||Chicago||United States||527 m||1,729 ft||108||1974|
|12||Taipei 101||Taipei||Taiwan||508 m||1,667 ft||101||2004|
|13||Shanghai World Financial Center†||Shanghai||China||494.3 m||1,622 ft||101||2008|
|14||International Commerce Centre||Hong Kong||China||484 m||1,588 ft||118||2010|
|15||Wuhan Greenland Center||Wuhan||China||475.6 m||1,560 ft||96||2019|
|16||Landmark 81†||Ho Chi Minh City||Vietnam||469.5 m||1,513 ft||81||2018|
|17||Lakhta Center||St. Petersburg||Russia||462 m||1,516 ft||86||2018|
|18||John Hancock Center†||Chicago||United States||456.9 m||1,499 ft||100||1969|
|19||The Exchange 106||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||453.5 m||1,488 ft||97||2018|
|20||Changsha IFS Tower T1||Changsha||China||452 m||1,483 ft||94||2017|
|21||Petronas Tower 1||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||451.9 m||1,483 ft||88||1998|
|21||Petronas Tower 2||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||451.9 m||1,483 ft||88||1998|
|23||Zifeng Tower||Nanjing||China||450 m||1,476 ft||89||2009|
|24||Suzhou IFS||Suzhou||China||450 m||1,476 ft||98||2017|
|25||Empire State Building†||New York City||United States||443.2 m||1,454 ft||102||1931|
|26||Kingkey 100||Shenzhen||China||442 m||1,449 ft||100||2011|
|27||Guangzhou International Finance Center||Guangzhou||China||438.6 m||1,445 ft||103||2009|
|28||Wuhan Center||Wuhan||China||438 m||1,437 ft||88||2017|
|29||432 Park Avenue||New York City||United States||425.5 m||1,396 ft||85||2015|
|30||Marina 101||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||425 m||1,394 ft||101||2017|
|31||Trump International Hotel and Tower||Chicago||United States||423.2 m||1,388 ft||96||2009|
|32||Jin Mao Tower||Shanghai||China||421 m||1,381 ft||88||1998|
|33||Princess Tower†||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||414 m||1,358 ft||101||2012|
|34||Al Hamra Tower||Kuwait City||Kuwait||412.6 m||1,354 ft||80||2010|
|35||Two International Finance Centre||Hong Kong||China||412 m||1,352 ft||88||2003|
|36||Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower||Busan||South Korea||411.6 m||1,352 ft||101||2019|
|37||Guangxi China Resources Tower||Nanning||China||402.7 m||1,321 ft||85||2018|
Height to occupied floor
This height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
|1||Burj Khalifa||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||584.5 m (1,918 ft)||163||2010|
|2||Goldin Finance 117||Tianjin||China||584.1 m (1,916 ft)||128||2019|
|3||Shanghai Tower||Shanghai||China||583.4 m (1,914 ft)||128||2015|
|4||Ping An Finance Center||Shenzhen||China||562.2 m (1,844 ft)||115||2016|
|5||China Zun||Beijing||China||515 m (1,690 ft)||108||2018|
|6||Lotte World Tower||Seoul||South Korea||497.6 m (1,633 ft)||123||2016|
|7||Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre||Guangzhou||China||495.5 m (1,626 ft)||111||2016|
|8||Abraj Al-Bait Towers||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||494.4 m (1,622 ft)||120||2012|
|9||Shanghai World Financial Center||Shanghai||China||474 m (1,555 ft)||101||2008|
|10||Wuhan Greenland Center||Wuhan||China||467 m (1,532 ft)||96||2019|
|11||International Commerce Centre||Hong Kong||China||468.8 m (1,538 ft)||118||2010|
|12||Tianjin CTF Finance Centre||Tianjin||China||439.4 m (1,442 ft)||98||2018|
|13||Taipei 101||Taipei||Taiwan||438 m (1,437 ft)||101||2004|
|14||Changsha IFS Tower T1||Changsha||China||437.1 m (1,434 ft)||94||2017|
|15||KK100||Shenzhen||China||427.1 m (1,401 ft)||100||2011|
|16||Guangzhou International Finance Center||Guangzhou||China||415.1 m (1,362 ft)||103||2010|
|17||Willis Tower||Chicago||United States||412.7 m (1,354 ft)||108||1974|
|18||Suzhou IFS||Suzhou||China||406.4 m (1,333 ft)||98||2017|
Buildings under construction
This is a list of buildings taller than 350 m that are currently under construction. More than half of the buildings are located in China.
List by continent
The following list shows the tallest completed buildings located in each continent listed by greatest to least height (click on name of continent for continent-specific list):
|Asia||Burj Khalifa||828 m (2,717 ft)||163||2010||United Arab Emirates||Dubai|
|North America||One World Trade Center||541.3 m (1,776 ft)||104||2014||United States||New York City|
|Europe||Lakhta Center||462 m (1,516 ft)||86||2018||Russia||St. Petersburg|
|Australia||Q1||323 m (1,060 ft)||78||2005||Australia||Gold Coast|
|South America||Gran Torre Santiago||300 m (980 ft)||64||2012||Chile||Santiago|
|Africa||Carlton Centre||225.5 m (740 ft)||50||1973||South Africa||Johannesburg|
|Antarctica||Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Payload Preparation Buildings||15 m (49 ft)||—||2005||Antarctica||McMurdo Station|
- History of the world's tallest buildings
- List of tallest buildings by height to roof
- List of tallest twin buildings and structures
- List of buildings with 100 floors or more
- List of architects of supertall buildings
- List of cities with the most skyscrapers
- List of future tallest buildings
- List of tallest buildings in Asia
- List of tallest buildings in Southeast Asia
- List of tallest buildings and structures in South Asia
- List of tallest buildings and structures
- List of largest buildings
- List of tallest freestanding structures
- List of tallest hotels
- List of tallest residential buildings
- List of tallest structures
- List of tallest structures by country
- Skyscraper Index
- "Burj Dubai now a record 688m tall and continues to rise". Emaar Properties. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
- "The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall". CTBUH. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". CTBUH. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Lynn S. Beedle. "Tallest: Petronas vs. Sears Tower Controversy". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- "CTBUH changes height criteria, Burj Khalifa height increases". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
- Binder, Georges (August 2006). 101 of the world's tallest buildings. Images Pub. p. 102. ISBN 978-1864701739.
- "Tall Buildings In Numbers Vanity Height". Ctbuh.org. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- "Most of the World's Tallest Buildings Game the System With 'Vanity Height' - Jenny Xie". The Atlantic Cities. 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- "Create Lists/Graphics - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
- Young, Michael (September 17, 2019). "Central Park Tower Officially Tops Out 1,550 Feet Above Midtown, Becoming World's Tallest Residential Building". New York YIMBY. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
- Gannon, Devin (September 17, 2019). "One Vanderbilt tops out at 1,401 feet, becomes tallest office building in Midtown". 6sqft.com. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
- "One World Trade Center". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "All Global Buildings". CTBUH. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "Kingdom Tower in Saudi Arabia Will Soon Be the World's Tallest Building". Mashable.com. Retrieved 2014-12-28.
- "Tower M". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Evergrande IFC 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Greenland Centre". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Corporate Avenue 1 : The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- "Tianshan Gate of the World Plots 27 and 28". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "One Bangkok O4H4". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Diamond Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Chongqing Tall Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Shandong IFC". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Dongfeng Plaza Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "One Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "La Maison by HDS". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Iconic Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Guiyang World Trade Center Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Guangdong Business Center". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Citimark Financial Center Phase 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Coronation Square Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Xujiahui Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Uptown Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Hai Tian Center Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Galaxy Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Galaxy Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Oberoi Oasis Residential Tower;". CTBUH. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
- "Greenland Group Suzhou Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- "Il Primo Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Ciel Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Agricultural Development Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "East Gate Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
- "Costanera Center es oficialmente el edificio más alto de Latinoámerica". La Segunda. 2012-02-14.
- Pacheco, Luis Eduardo. "McMurdo Station, Antarctica - Stratospheric balloon launches". stratocat.com.ar. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- Jones, W. Vernon. "Report on the Balloon Program" Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, NASA Astrophysics Subcommittee Meeting. 16 April 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Skyscrapers.|