List of tallest trees

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The Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is the tallest tree species on earth.

Two main opposing forces affect a tree's height; one pushes it upward while the other holds it down. By analyzing the interplay between these forces, a team of biologists led by George Koch of Northern Arizona University calculated the theoretical maximum tree height or the point at which opposing forces balance out and a tree stops growing. This point lies somewhere between 122 and 130 m (400 and 426 feet)[1]. On the one hand, the researchers found, trees in forests "desire" to grow as tall as possible to overtake neighboring trees and reach stronger sunlight. On the other hand, gravity makes it more and more difficult to haul water upwards from the roots to the canopy as the tree grows, and leaves thus become smaller near the top. They discovered that despite the moistness of the ground far below, the leaves at the treetops struggle to get enough water, so they are effectively living in a constant drought. The difficulty of getting water so far up into the sky is what ultimately constrains growth, suspects Koch's team[2].

Although giant trees grow in both tropical and temperate regions, they are very restricted geographically and phylogenetically. All the known giant trees occur in mesic climates, but nearly all of them (32 species) are found in three regions: western North America from California to British Columbia, Southeast Asia (especially Borneo) and southeastern Australia (especially Tasmania).

The heights of the tallest trees in the world have been the subject of considerable dispute and much exaggeration. Modern verified measurements with laser rangefinders or with tape drop measurements made by tree climbers (such as those carried out by canopy researchers), have shown that some older tree height measurement methods are often unreliable, sometimes producing exaggerations of 5% to 15% or more above the real height.[3] Historical claims of trees growing to 130 m (430 ft), and even 150 m (490 ft), are now largely disregarded as unreliable, and attributed to human error.

Tallest living individuals by species[edit]

The following are the tallest reliably measured specimens from the top species. This table shows only currently standing specimens.

List of tallest trees by species
Rank Species Height Tree name Class Location Continent Tallest ever recorded (Meters / Feet) References
Meters Feet
1 Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) 115.92 380.3 Hyperion Conifer Redwood National Park, California, United States Western North America [4][5]
2 Yellow meranti (Shorea faguetiana) 100.8 331 Menara Flowering plant Danum Valley Conservation Area, in Sabah on the island of Borneo Southeast Asia [6][7][8]
3 Mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans) 100.5 329.7 Centurion Flowering plant Arve Valley, Tasmania, Australia Southeastern Australia [9][10][11][12]
4 Coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) 99.7 327 Doerner Fir Conifer Brummit Creek, Coos County, Oregon, United States Western North America [13][14][15]
5 Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) 96.7 317 Raven's Tower Conifer Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, California, United States Western North America [16][17]
6 Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) 95.7 314 Conifer Sequoia National Forest, California, United States Western North America [18][19]
7 Kashmir Cypress (Cupressus cashmeriana) 94.6 310 Conifer At the road leading to Kathok Yoesel Samtenling Monastery, Kazhi Gewog, Wangdue Phodrang District, Bhutan Central-South Asia [20][21][better source needed]
8 Manna gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) 92 302 White Knight Flowering plant Evercreech Forest Reserve, Tasmania Southeastern Australia [22][23]
9 Southern blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) 90.7 298 Neeminah Loggerale Meena, or Mother and Daughter. Flowering plant Tasmania Southeastern Australia 101 / 331 [24][25][26]
10 Noble Fir (Abies procera) 89.9 295 Conifer Goat Marsh Research Natural Area, Washington, United States Western North America 99.06 / 325 [27][28]
11 Dinizia excelsa 88.5 290 Flowering plant Near the boundary of Amapa and Para states, Brazil. Central-Northeastern South America [29][30] [31]
12 Alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis) 87.9 288 Flowering plant Tasmania Southeastern Australia [25]
13 Brown top stringbark (Eucalyptus obliqua) 86 282 King Stringy Flowering plant Tasmania Southeastern Australia [32]
14 Mengaris (Koompassia excelsa) 85.76 281.4 Pontiankak Putih Cantik Flowering plant Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo Southeast Asia [33][34]
15 Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor) 85 279 Stewart Karri Flowering plant ~20 km west from Manjimup, at Record Brook river – an eastern tributary of Donnelly River, Western Australia, Australia Southwestern Australia [35][36]
16 Shorea argentifolia 84.85 278.4 Flowering plant Gaharu ridge of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. Southeast Asia [33][34]
17 Shorea superba 84.41 276.9 Flowering plant Gergassi Ridge of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. Southeast Asia [33][34]
18 Shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens) 84.3 277 Flowering plant O'Shannassy Catchment, Victoria Southeastern Australia [37]
19 Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) 83.45 273.8 Conifer near Yosemite National Park, California, United States. Western North America [38]
20 Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) 83.34 273.4 Tsunami Conifer Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, California, United States. Western North America [39]
21 Hopea nutans 82.82 271.7 Flowering plant Gaharu ridge of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. Southeast Asia [33][34]
22 Shorea johorensis 82.39 270.3 Flowering plant Coco-Park boundary of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. Southeast Asia [33][34]
23 Shorea smithiana 82.27 269.9 Flowering plant Coco-Park boundary of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. Southeast Asia [33][34]
24 Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) 81.77 268.3 Phalanx Conifer in Myers Creek drainage of Rogue River – Siskiyou National Forest, Oregon, United States. Western North America [40]
25 Entandrophragma excelsum 81.5 267 Flowering plant at Kilimanjaro, Tanzania Eastern Africa [41]
26 Sydney blue gum (Eucalyptus saligna) 81.5 267 Flowering plant Woodbush State Forest, Magoebaskloof, Limpopo, South Africa. The world's tallest planted tree. Southern Africa (non native), but endemic to eastern Australia) [42][43]
27 Grand fir (Abies grandis) 81.4 267 Conifer in the Glacier Peak Wilderness, Washington, United States. Western North America [44]
28 Shorea gibbosa 81.11 266.1 Flowering plant River Flats of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. Southeast Asia [33][34]
29 Lawson cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) 81.08 266.0 Conifer In Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park, California, United States. Western North America [45]

Other tree species above 75m[edit]

Historical records of giant tree species:

There are also some other very tall tree species with claimed heights of 80 metres (260 ft) and even more:

Very tall tree species nearly 80 metres (260 ft) height:

  • Ribbon Gum (Eucalyptus nobilis); 79.9 metres (262 ft).[61] Flowering plant native to Southeastern Australia.
  • Eucalyptus deglupta; tallest known living tree 78 metres (256 ft).[62] Flowering plant native to Southeastern Asia.
  • Abies magnifica; 76.8 metres (252 ft)[63]. Conifer native to Western North America.
  • Dyera costulata; tallest known living tree 76.2 metres (250 ft).[62] Flowering plant native to Southeastern Asia.
  • Dryobalanops aromatica; tallest known living tree 76.2 metres (250 ft).[62] Flowering plant native to Southeastern Asia.
  • Flooded gum (Eucalyptus grandis); 76 metres (249 ft).[61] Flowering plant native to Eastern Australia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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