List of territorial disputes

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This is a list of territorial disputes over lands around the world, both past and in modern times. Bold indicates one claimant's full control; italics indicates one or more claimants' partial control.

Disputes between recognized sovereign states[edit]


Territory Claimants Notes
Abyei  Sudan
 South Sudan
Both Sudan and South Sudan claim the area. Controlled by Sudan after taking the area in May 2012.
Badme  Ethiopia
Basis of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War which began in 1998. Currently controlled by Ethiopia in spite of demarcation establishing Eritrean jurisdiction.[2] Ethiopia has moved settlers into the region in opposition to the Algiers Agreement and Eritrea Ethiopia Border Commission rulings.[3]
Banc du Geyser  Madagascar
France claims the reef as part of the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, a district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Bassas da India, Europa Island and Juan de Nova Island  France
De facto part of the French territory of French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Bir Tawil  Sudan
De jure no man's land. Egypt and Sudan both claim different borders in which they would have the Hala'ib Triangle, leaving the Bir Tawil to the other. As both claim the Hala'ib Triangle, neither claims Bir Tawil.
Ceuta[4]  Spain
Administered by Spain as the Autonomous City of Ceuta
Chagos Archipelago  United Kingdom
United Kingdom administers the archipelago as part of the British Indian Ocean Territory
Glorioso Islands  France
De facto part of the French territory of French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Hala'ib Triangle  Egypt
Previously under joint administration; Egypt now maintains full de facto control
Heglig  Sudan
 South Sudan
Both Sudan and South Sudan claim the area. Controlled by South Sudan in mid-April 2012 (but retaken). Internationally viewed as part of Sudan.
Ilemi Triangle  Ethiopia
 South Sudan
Islas Chafarinas  Spain
Jodha  South Sudan
Both Sudan and South Sudan claim the area.
Part of Kabale District  Uganda
Kafia Kingi  South Sudan
Both Sudan and South Sudan claim the area.
Kaka  South Sudan
Both Sudan and South Sudan claim the area.
KaNgwane  South Africa
Swaziland claims territories which it states were confiscated during colonial times.[6] The area claimed by Swaziland is the former bantustan of KaNgwane, which now forms the northern parts of Jozini and uMhlabuyalingana local municipalities in KwaZulu-Natal, and the southern part of Nkomazi, the southeastern part of Umjindi and the far eastern part of Albert Luthuli local municipalities in Mpumalanga.
Koualou village  Burkina Faso
Kpeaba village area (near Sipilou (Siquita))  Ivory Coast
Area near Logoba/Moyo District  South Sudan
Lunchinda-Pweto Province  Zambia
 Democratic Republic of Congo
Mayotte  France
Under the 2009 referendum, the population supported becoming an overseas department of France, and so became one on March 31, 2011.
Islands in Mbamba Bay, Lake Nyasa  Tanzania
Lundo Is. and Mbambo Is. are claimed as part of the lake, as Malawi claims to the shore based on 1890 Anglo-German treaty. See Lake Malawi#Tanzania–Malawi dispute
Mbañie Island, Cocotiers, and Congas Island  Gabon
 Equatorial Guinea[8]
Melilla[4]  Spain
Administered by Spain as the Autonomous City of Melilla
Migingo Island vicinity, and, farther north, the vicinity of the islands of Lolwe, Oyasi, Remba, Ringiti and Sigulu, all a maritime rights dispute in Lake Victoria.  Kenya
Several islands in the Congo River  Republic of the Congo
 Democratic Republic of Congo
Several islands in the Ntem River  Cameroon
 Equatorial Guinea
Several villages near the Okpara River  Benin
Orange River border line  Namibia
 South Africa
Namibia claims the border lies along the middle of the river, while South Africa claims it lies along the north bank.
Peñón de Alhucemas  Spain
Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera  Spain
Perejil Island  Spain
After the 2002 incident, both countries agreed to return to the status quo previous to the incident.[9]
Ras Doumeira and Doumeira Island  Eritrea
The Rufunzo Valley and Sabanerwa  Rwanda
Rukwanzi Island and the Semliki River valley  Democratic Republic of Congo
Sindabezi Island  Zambia
 Zimbabwe[citation needed]
Socotran Archipelago  Yemen
Somalia, while not formally claiming the archipelago, asked for the United Nations to look into "the status" of the Socotran archipelago (i.e., whether or not it "should" belong to Yemen or rather Somalia).[10]
South East Algeria  Algeria
Tromelin Island  France
De facto part of the French territory of French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Wadi Halfa Salient  Egypt

Asia and the Pacific[edit]

Territory Claimants Notes
Aarsal, Deir El Aachayer, Kfar Qouq, Qaa, Qasr and Tuffah  Lebanon
Abu Musa  Iran
 United Arab Emirates
Nagorno-Karabakh region and seven adjacent districts  Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan,[11] de facto controlled by the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic supported by Armenia.
Azad Kashmir Pakistan Pakistan
India India
Administered by Pakistan claimed by India, it is part of the larger Kashmir conflict.
Baekdu Mountains  North Korea
China People's Republic of China
Also possibly claimed by the Republic of China (Taiwan)[citation needed][note 1] and South Korea.[note 2]
Bhutanese enclaves in Tibet, namely Cherkip Gompa, Dho, Dungmar, Gesur, Gezon, Itse Gompa, Khochar, Nyanri, Ringung, Sanmar, Tarchen and Zuthulphuk China People's Republic of China
Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan)[citation needed][note 1]
Gilgit Baltistan Pakistan Pakistan
India India
Administrated by Pakistan and claimed by India. It's part of Kashmir conflict.
Jammu & Kashmir India India
Pakistan Pakistan
Administered by India, claimed by Pakistan, it is part of the larger Kashmir conflict. Both India and Pakistan claim the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, leading to the Indo-Pakistani war of 1947. A UN-mediated ceasefire put a halt to the conflict in January 1949. The UN resolution called for both the countries to demilitarise the region, following which a plebiscite would be held under the UN. However, no demilitarisation plan acceptable to both the countries could be agreed upon. The countries fought three further wars over Kashmir in 1965, 1971 and 1999. Following the Kargil War, the countries reached the Simla Agreement, agreeing on a cease-fire line named the Line of Control between their respective regions and committed to peacefully resolve the dispute through bilateral negotiations. An armed insurgency broke out in 1989 in the Indian-administered part of Kashmir, demanding independence from India. Pakistan is believed to provide arms and training to the insurgents.[12][13][14][15]
Various areas: Dak Jerman/Dak Duyt, Dak Dang/Dak Huyt, the La Drang area and the islands of Baie/Koh Ta Kiev, Milieu/Koh Thmey, Eau/Koh Ses, Pic/Koh Thonsáy  Cambodia
David Gareja monastery complex boundary dispute  Georgia
Demchok, Chumar, Kaurik, Shipki Pass, Jadh, and Lapthal India India
China People's Republic of China
Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan)[citation needed][note 1]
Disputed areas located between Aksai Chin and Nepal.
Doi Lang  Myanmar
Fasht Ad Dibal and Qit'at Jaradeh  Bahrain
These were not included in the 2001 International Court of Justice judgement, as low-tide elevations.
Several areas in the Fergana Valley  Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan: A tiny Kyrgyz village, Barak, in the Fergana Valley region (where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet) is bordered on the north, west and south by Uzbekistan. Tajikistan: There are three Tajik exclaves, all of them in the Fergana Valley. One of them, the village of Sarvan, is surrounded by Uzbek territory, whereas the remaining two, the village of Vorukh and a small settlement near the Kyrgyz railway station of Kairagach, are each surrounded by Kyrgyz territory. Uzbekistan: There are four Uzbek exclaves, all inside Kyrgyz territory in the Fergana Valley. Two of them are the towns of Sokh and Shakhimardan and the other two the tiny territories of Chong-Kara and Dzhangail. There may be a fifth Uzbek exclave inside of Kyrgyzstan.[16] Most of the border in the area is still not demarcated.
Golan Heights  Israel
Syrian territory captured by Israel in 1967 (the Six-Day War), and annexed by Israel in 1981 (In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favor of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497; United Nations, December 5, 2008). Since the civil war in Syria from 2011, Syria doesn't govern the areas on the east of the Golan Heights anymore.
Greater and Lesser Tunbs  Iran
 United Arab Emirates
Hong Kong  People's Republic of China
 Republic of China[note 1]
Then-Taiwanese President Lee Teng-hui claimed that Hong Kong should have returned to the ROC instead of the PRC because the ROC government had the original manuscript of the Treaty of Nanking. It is now controlled by the PRC.[17]
Isfara Valley  Kyrgyzstan
Jiandao China People's Republic of China
 North Korea
 South Korea[note 2]
Also possibly claimed by the Republic of China.[note 1]
Ambalat  Indonesia
24-mile stretch of border at pass of the Kabaw[18]  India
Kalapani region, the smaller Susta River dispute and the smaller still Antudanda and Nawalparasi disputes India India
Nepal Nepal
All administered by India. See Territorial disputes of India and Nepal.
Artsvashen exclave of Gegharkunik province, de jure part of Armenia; Karki exclave of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, Yukhari Askipara and Barkhudarli, both exclaves of Qazakh Rayon de jure part of Azerbaijan; "Yaradullu" is controlled by Azerbaijan along with occupying the much larger de jure Armenian territory surrounding it.  Armenia
Azerbaijan and Armenia have controlled these areas as part of the wider Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict.
Khuriya Muriya Islands  Oman
Korean Peninsula (Korea)  North Korea
 South Korea
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea administers North Korea, but Article 1 of the Constitution of North Korea reads: "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an independent socialist State representing the interests of all the Korean people." The Republic of Korea administers South Korea, but Article 3 of the Constitution of South Korea reads: "The territory of the Republic of Korea shall consist of the Korean peninsula and its adjacent islands."
Kula Kangri and mountainous areas to the west of this peak, plus the western Haa District of Bhutan China People's Republic of China
Possibly also the ROC.[note 1]
South Kuril Islands (Northern Territories)[1]  Russia
Liancourt Rocks  South Korea
Controlled by South Korea since 1954 but claimed by Japan in 1905
Macclesfield Bank China People's Republic of China
Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Matthew and Hunter Islands[1]  Vanuatu
Minerva Reefs  Tonga
Fiji claims that the entire reef is submerged at high tide, negating use of Minerva as a basis for any sovereignty or maritime EEZ claim by Tonga under the rules of UNCLOS.
Muhurichar river island India India
Controlled by India but claimed by Bangladesh.
Certain islands in the Naf River  Bangladesh
Part of the EEZ generated by the Natuna Islands  Indonesia
China People's Republic of China
Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
China claims the water off the Natuna Islands that fall under the Nine-dash line claim are traditional Chinese fishing grounds. Taiwan (Republic of China) also claims the area.[19]
Paracel Islands[1] China People's Republic of China
Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]

Entirely controlled by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan[citation needed]
"Pedra Branca"; several islets at the eastern entrance to the Singapore Strait  Singapore
The International Court of Justice rendered its decision on 23 May 2008 that sovereignty over Pedra Branca belongs to Singapore; sovereignty over Middle Rocks belongs to Malaysia. It said sovereignty over South Ledge would remain disputed until the states could determine the ownership of the territorial waters in which it is located.[20]
"Point 20"; a small area of land reclaimed from the sea by Singapore  Singapore
Malaysia claims the land was reclaimed in its territorial waters
Part of Poipet commune  Thailand
Prachinburi area  Thailand
Preah Vihear Temple area (Khao Phra Wihan)  Thailand
Temple complex awarded to Cambodia by an International Court of Justice ruling in 1962; "promontory" measuring 0.3 km2 immediately adjacent to temple awarded to Cambodia by ICJ ruling in 2013; both countries acknowledge continuing dispute over an additional 4.3 km2 immediately northwest of the 2013 ruling's area.
Qarooh and Umm Al Maradim  Kuwait
 Saudi Arabia
Sabah (North Borneo)  Malaysia
The Philippines retains a claim on the eastern part of Sabah (see North Borneo dispute) on the basis claimed by the Government of the Philippines that the territory is only leased by the former Sultanate of Sulu to British North Borneo Company, of which the Philippines argued that it should be the successor state of all Sulu past territories.[1]
Saudi Arabia–United Arab Emirates border dispute  United Arab Emirates
 Saudi Arabia
Scarborough Shoal  People's Republic of China
Philippines Philippines
Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Controlled by the PRC since the 2012 Scarborough Shoal standoff.
Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai or Diaoyu Dao)[1]  Japan
China People's Republic of China
Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Controlled by Japan But claimed by the PRC and ROC
Shaksgam Valley India India
China People's Republic of China
Possibly also the ROC.[note 1] Currently controlled by the PRC.
Shatt al-Arab  Iran
Shebaa Farms  Israel
When Israel withdrawal from South Lebanon the UN declared the blue line, Line where Israel need to withdrawal too. Therefor Lebanon has no claim on that territory.
Siachen Glacier and Saltoro Ridge area India India
Controlled by both nations equally after the Kargil war but still is a disputed territory for bith countries.
Sir Creek India India
A dispute over where in the estuary the line falls; only small areas of marsh land are disputed, but significant maritime territory is involved. Entirely controlled by India and disputed by Pakistan.
Arunachal Pradesh India India
China People's Republic of China
Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Controlled by India but claimed by the PRC and ROC who dispute the validity of the McMahon Line
Spratly Islands Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
China People's Republic of China
 Philippines (part)
 Malaysia (part)
 Brunei (part)
Each of the claimant countries except Brunei controls one or more of the individual islands.
Swains Island[1] United States United States
This claim is unsupported by New Zealand, of whom Tokelau is a dependency. New Zealand formally recognises the USA's sovereignty over Swains Island.[21][clarification needed]
Taiwan Taiwan Republic of China
China People's Republic of China
The government of the People's Republic of China claims the entire island of Taiwan, as well as a number of minor islands, such as Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu, that are controlled by the Republic of China).
Parts of Three Pagodas Pass  Myanmar
Tiran and Sanafir Islands  Egypt
 Saudi Arabia
The islands of Ukatnyy, Zhestky and Malyy Zhemchuzhnyy[22]  Russia
Ungar-Too (Ungar-Tepa) mountain[23][24]  Uzbekistan
Vozrozhdeniya Island (now a peninsula)  Kazakhstan
Wake Island[1] United States United States
 Marshall Islands


Territory Claimants Notes
Sea of Azov  Russia
("Mutual jurisdiction")[25]
Aegean dispute, Imia/Kardak  Greece
Broad number of delimitation disputes about a.o. national airspace, territorial waters and exclusive economic zones. Includes Imia/Kardak dispute.
Mont Blanc summit dispute  France
Carlingford Lough boundary dispute  Ireland
 United Kingdom
Crimean Peninsula  Russia
See also 2014 Crimean crisis and political status of Crimea
Gibraltar  United Kingdom
Dispute over the interpretation of the Treaty of Utrecht and the location of the border.
Russia-Ukraine border  Russia
Russia delays establishment of border with Ukraine.[26]
Tuzla Island and Strait of Kerch; Sarych  Russia
The conflict arose in 2003 when the Russian authorities started to build a dam towards the island. Since then Ukraine established a border garrison on the island for a closer surveillance. The reason for the conflict is the fact that Tuzla island strategic location gives Ukraine full rights over the main channel in the Strait of Kerch and, thus, the access to the Sea of Azov. The conflict is based on the division of the Black Sea Fleet and a lease agreement of the Sevastopol Naval facilities.
Lake Constance  Austria
There is no actual dispute or conflict, but there isn't a defined border.
Lough Foyle boundary dispute  Ireland
 United Kingdom
An area near Montmalús peak  Andorra
 Spain[citation needed]
Olivenza and Vila Real (including the municipality of Táliga)  Spain
In 1801, during the War of the Oranges, Spain, with French military support, occupied the territory of Olivenza (in Portuguese Olivença). During the Treaty of Vienna (1815), the signatory powers (including Spain) agreed with the Portuguese arguments concerning its claim on Olivença but Spain never fulfilled its duty of giving the city of Olivença and its territory back to Portugal.
Croatia-Serbia border dispute  Croatia
Limited areas along the Danube
Parts of Osijek-Baranja and Vukovar-Syrmia Counties and West and South Bačka Districts
Gulf of Piran  Slovenia
An agreement was signed (and ratified by Croatia's parliament on 20 November 2009) to pursue binding arbitration to both the land and maritime portions of this continuing dispute
Prevlaka  Croatia
Sastavci  Serbia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sutorina  Bosnia and Herzegovina
See Sutorina dispute.
Island of Šarengrad  Serbia
Military complex near Sveta Gera, in the area of Žumberak/Gorjanci  Slovenia
Veliki Školj and Mali Školj (near Neum)  Croatia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Island of Vukovar  Croatia

North America[edit]

Territory Claimants Notes
Hans Island  Canada
Claimed by both Canada and Denmark (on behalf of Greenland).
Continental shelf in the eastern Gulf of Mexico beyond 200 nautical miles (370 km)  Cuba
 United States
Overlap on the eastern gap of the Gulf of Mexico between an area of continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles from Cuba, an area of continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles from Mexico and an area of continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles from the United States. (The case of the western gap was solved by a treaty between Mexico and the United States of America on the delimitation of the continental shelf in the western Gulf of Mexico beyond 200 nautical miles, of June 9, 2000.)[27]

Territory disputed between Canada and the United States[edit]

Territory Canada Canadian claimant United States U.S. claimant
Machias Seal Island New Brunswick Maine
North Rock New Brunswick Maine
Strait of Juan de Fuca British Columbia Washington
Dixon Entrance British Columbia Alaska
Portland Canal British Columbia Alaska
Beaufort Sea Northwest Territories, Yukon Alaska
Northwest Passage and some other Arctic waters Canadian territorial waters U.S. claims navigation rights

Central America and the Caribbean[edit]

Territory Claimants Notes
Isla Aves  Venezuela
Dominica abandoned the claim to the island in 2006, but continues to claim the adjacent seas, as do some neighboring states.
Bajo Nuevo Bank  Colombia
 United States
Honduras has recognized the sovereignty of Colombia; other claimants have not.
Southern half of Belize  Belize
Guatemala formerly claimed all of Belize.
Calero Island's northernmost part  Costa Rica
Conejo Island  Honduras
 El Salvador
Navassa Island [1]  United States
Sapodilla Cay  Belize
Guatemala formerly claimed all of Belize.
Serranilla Bank  Colombia
 United States
Jamaica has recognized the sovereignty of Colombia; other claimants have not.
Guanacaste  Costa Rica

South America[edit]

Territory Claimants Notes
Guayana Esequiba (Guyana west of the Essequibo River)  Guyana
Venezuela and Guyana have overlapping maritime area claims as well. Barbados and Guyana have since signed joint cooperation agreement over this area.
Ankoko Island/Isla de Anacoco  Venezuela
Arroyo de la Invernada or Rincón de Artigas and Vila Albornoz  Brazil
Dispute in the 237 km2 (92 sq mi) Invernada River region near Masoller, over which tributary represents the legitimate source of the Quaraí River/Cuareim River
Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands [1]  United Kingdom
Including Shag Rocks.See Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands sovereignty dispute
French Guiana west of the Marouini River  France
Guaíra Falls/Sete Quedas  Brazil
The disputed islands were submerged by the reservoir of Itaipú.
Guyana east of the Upper Courantyne River  Guyana
Isla Brasilera/Ilha Brasileira  Brazil
Uruguayan officials claim that the island falls under their Artigas Department
Isla Suárez/Ilha de Guajará-mirim  Bolivia
Gulf of Venezuela Sea Border  Venezuela
Colombia claims it has right to waters in this Gulf.
Southern Patagonian Ice Field between
Monte Fitz Roy and Cerro Murallón[28]
Parts of the border still officially undefined.

Disputes between UN-recognized states and others[edit]

For more details on this topic, see List of states with limited recognition.
Territory Claimants Notes
Abkhazia  Republic of Abkhazia
Village of Aibga and surrounding area[29][30]  Republic of Abkhazia
Eastern part of Bhutan  Bhutan
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
North Cyprus  Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus claims the whole island. Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (self declared state) claims the northern part of the island
Mainland China, Hainan, and other islands controlled by the PRC.  People's Republic of China
 Republic of China[note 1]
Moldovan-controlled area of Dubăsari district  Moldova
 Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
A small area of Gilgit-Baltistan  Pakistan
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1][note 3]
Kokkina/Erenköy exclave  Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
This area is separated from the rest of the land controlled by North Cyprus by land controlled by the Republic of Cyprus.
Gaza Strip State of Palestine Palestine
Hamas Government of Gaza
Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island
(eastern half)
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1][note 3]
Split by the People's Republic of China and Russia in 2004
Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island
(western half)
 People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Split by the People's Republic of China and Russia in 2004
Israel within the Green Line  Israel
State of Palestine Several Palestinian Factions
See Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Kachin State  Myanmar
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1][note 3]
North part west of the Gaoligong Mountains (高黎貢山) in western Yunnan, China, and the Division of Sagaing: Jiangxinpo (江心坡) and Nankan (南坎).
106.40 square kilometres of formerly Chinese territory in Kazakhstan  Kazakhstan
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
Kosovo  Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, while Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory. Its independence is recognised by 110 UN member states.
Kutuzov Island  Russia
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
Nagorno-Karabakh and seven adjacent districts  Armenia
Much of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and some surrounding territory is under the control of Armenia, which is claimed by Azerbaijan.[1]
Outer Mongolia  Mongolia
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Outer Mongolia has been excluded from Enforcement Rules for the Act Governing Relations between Peoples of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area since 2002. However, Outer Mongolia remains part of the ROC in the Constitution of the Republic of China.
Part of the Rasŏn administrative division  North Korea
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River  Russia
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 3]
Somaliland  Somaliland
South Ossetia  Republic of South Ossetia
'Border' checkpoint near Strovilia  United Kingdom
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
UK's claim in regard to its Sovereign Base Areas
Technically, of course, this also involves  Cyprus; the checkpoint is partially on UN-administered land, and Cyprus claims all of the island. (See: Europe)
Matsu Islands,
Pratas Islands
 Republic of China[31]
 People's Republic of China[32]
See also:
Anti-Secession Law,
Legal status of Taiwan
Transnistria  Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Tuva  Russia
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Varnita, Copanca and Bendery (also known as Tighina or Bender)  Moldova
 Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
The West Bank and eastern Jerusalem  Israel
State of Palestine Palestine
See Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Western Sahara  Morocco
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
The United Nations keeps the Western Sahara in its list of Non-Self-Governing Territories and considers the sovereignty issue as unresolved pending a final solution. To that end, the UN sent a mission in the territory to oversee a referendum on self-determination in 1991, but it never happened. Administration was relinquished by Spain in 1976.

Disputes within a state by internal entities[edit]

Territory Country Internal Claimants Notes
Put Point (es)  Mexico Coat of arms of Yucatan.svgCampeche
Coat of arms of Campeche.svgYucatán
Coat of arms of Quintana Roo.svgQuintana Roo
The three states claim three different borders between them.
Belgaum  India  Karnataka
Disputed since 1956 when Belgaum district was not transferred to Maharashtra.
As much as a 2821 km2-wide area in and around the Ibiapaba mountain range  Brazil  Ceará
This dispute originated in an 1880 imperial decree. In 1920 a solution to the dispute was arbitrated but in practice it was never carried out. In 2008 there were new attempted negotiations, but they broke down in 2011, and as of 2013 it is pending either a supreme court decision, a referendum or a possible mutual agreement.[33]
Hogenakkal  India  Tamil Nadu
Currently administered by Tamil Nadu
Disputed territories of Northern Iraq  Iraq  Iraq proper
 Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraq's autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan claims and controls parts of the governorates of Nineveh, Arbil, Kirkuk and Diyala.
Lubicon traditional territory between the Peace River and Athabasca River and north of Lesser Slave Lake  Canada  Alberta
 Lubicon Lake Indian Nation (Cree)
Northern Alberta
Southern edge of Labrador  Canada  Newfoundland and Labrador
This was formerly an international dispute between Canada, which includes Quebec, and the Dominion of Newfoundland, at the time a separate country. Although Canada accepted the current border, Quebec never did.
Songling District and Jiagedaqi District  People's Republic of China  Inner Mongolia
The two districts are owned by Inner Mongolia, but Jiagedaqi District(urban) was established as capital of Daxinganling Prefecture, Heilongjiang Province, resulting it and adjacent Songling District under effective control of Heilongjiang Province. Hulunbuir City(Prefecture), Inner Mongolia actively disputes these two districts, as they formerly belongs to Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir.
Belén de Bajirá  Colombia Flag of Antioquia Department.svg Antioquia
Flag of Chocó.svg Chocó
Disputed since 2000, both Departments of Antioquia and Chocó have claimed the corregimiento as part of their own respective municipalities. In 2014, amidst a rise of tensions between the claimants, the National Government under the Geographic Institute Agustín Codazzi formally started a process to find a solution for the dispute.[34]
A wide section from the 35th parallel north to one-mile south.  United States  Tennessee
Due to an inaccurate measurement in 1818, Georgia claims the correct 35th latitude north, and does so in a chance of a drought, it would have access to the Tennessee River.[35] See Tennessee River#Water rights and border dispute between Georgia and Tennessee.
parts of Fort Bonifacio  Philippines  Makati
Disputed since 1983. Taguig claims more than 729 hectares of land in Fort Bonifacio, an area administered by Makati. On August 5, 2013, the Court of Appeals Sixth Division ruled that Makati has legal jurisdiction over the area, thus invalidating Taguig's claim.[36] Taguig has not abandoned its claims and will petition the Court of Appeals to have the decision revoked.[37] Pateros also claims the area and has filed a petition before the Taguig Regional Court Branch 271 in 2012 concerning its claim. Pateros reiterated its claims in 2013 following the decision of the Court of Appeals awarding Makati jurisdiction over the area.[38][39]
Fiat Auto Poland factory and nearest areas  Poland  Tychy
The territory has historically been a part of the town of Bieruń. In years 1975–1991 Bieruń was a part of Tychy. The Fiat Auto Poland (formerly FSM factory remaining in Tychy was a condition of Bieruń’s separation. In the 90s, Bieruń has regained the Homera osiedle which was part of the disputed area.[40]


The Antarctic Treaty System, formed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica and provides administration for the continent, which is carried out through consultative member meetings. It prevents new territorial claims of all signatories (except U.S and Russia) for as long as the treaty is in force. However, it is not a final settlement; parties can choose to withdraw from the System at any time. Furthermore, only a minority of states have signed it, and it is not formally sanctioned by the United Nations. Thus, Antarctica remains the only part of the planet any (non-signatory) state can still lay claim to as terra nullius (on the grounds of it not having been part of any existing state's legal and effective territory).

Territory Claimants Antarctic territory
Area between 25°W and 53°W  United Kingdom
 British Antarctic Territory
 Argentine Antarctica
Area between 53°W and 74°W  United Kingdom
 British Antarctic Territory
 Argentine Antarctica
 Antártica Chilena Province
Area between 74°W and 80°W  United Kingdom
 British Antarctic Territory
 Antártica Chilena Province

Historical disputes, subsequently settled[edit]


Territory Former claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Agacher Strip  Burkina Faso
c. 1960 1986 Following repeated military clashes between Burkina Faso and Mali over the Agacher Strip, the International Court of Justice resolved the conflict in 1986 by dividing the disputed area approximately equally between the two countries.[41]
Aouzou Strip  Chad
History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi#Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1977–2011) Libya
c. 1973 1994 In 1994 the International Court of Justice decision found in favour of Chad sovereignty over the Aouzou strip, and ended the Libyan claim.
Bakassi  Cameroon
1913 2006 This area was handed over by Nigeria to Cameroon following an International Court of Justice ruling and the Greentree Agreement.
Bure  Ethiopia
2002 2008 Eritrea has accepted the decision and no longer disputes this location.[2]
Burkina Faso–Niger border dispute  Burkina Faso
c. 1960 2013 The International Court of Justice redefined the border between Burkina Faso and Niger in 2013. In 2015 the ruling was implemented by exchanging 18 towns between the two countries.[43]
Part of the Kahemba region  Angola
 Democratic Republic of Congo
2007 Following a March 2007 report on the disputed area on the joint border in the Kahemba region, the Congolese interior minister admitted the territory was in fact part of Angola and agreed to send a technical team to demarcate the border along colonial era lines.[44] The countries agreed to end the dispute in July 2007.[45]
Lété Island and nearby islands in the Niger River  Niger
c. 1960 2005 In 2005 the International Court of Justice awarded Lété and 15 of the other disputed islands to Niger, and the remaining nine islands to Benin.[46]
Sedudu  Botswana
1890 1999 In 1999 the International Court of Justice awarded Sedudu to Botswana, ending the Namibian claim.[47]
Tsorona-Zalambessa  Ethiopia
2002 2008 Eritrea has accepted the decision and no longer disputes this location.[2]
Yenga (border hamlet), and left bank of the Makona and Moa rivers  Sierra Leone
c. 1995 2013 The two heads of state settled this dispute in 2013.[48]

Asia and Pacific[edit]

Territory Former claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Bay of Bengal Maritime Boundary between Bangladesh and India India India
Bangladesh Bangladesh
1974 2014 India and Bangladesh had engaged in eight rounds of bilateral negotiations starting 1974 but it remained inconclusive till 2009. In October 2009, Bangladesh served India with notice of arbitration proceedings under the UNCLOS .

The Arbitration Tribunal delivered the ruling on 7 July 2014 and settled the dispute.[49]

Indo-Bangladesh enclaves, adverse possessions and undemarcated land boundaries India India
Bangladesh Bangladesh
1947 2015 Following Partition of Bengal (1947), the issues of adverse possessions, enclaves and unmarked boundary arose. Inside the main part of Bangladesh, there were 111 Indian enclaves (17,160.63 acres), while inside the main part of India, there were 51 Bangladeshi enclaves (7,110.02 acres). In 1974 Bangladesh approved a proposed treaty, Land Boundary Agreement, to exchange all enclaves within each other's territories, but India did not ratified it. Another agreement was agreed upon in 2011 to exchange enclaves and adverse possessions. In respect of adverse possessions, India received 2,777.038 acres of land and transferred 2,267.682 acres to Bangladesh. India ratified the agreement by constitutional amendment in May 2015.[50]
South Talpatti/New Moore/Purbasha Island  India
c. 1975 2010 This former dispute over a small island never more than two meters above sea level was contested from the island's appearance in the 1970s to its disappearance, likely due to climate change,[51] in the first decade of the 2000s. Though land disputes no longer exist, the maritime boundary was not settled until 2014.[49][52][53][54]
Sakhalin Island  Russian Empire
 Empire of Japan
1845 1875 Japan unilaterally proclaimed sovereignty over the whole island in 1845, but its claims were ignored by the Russian Empire. The 1855 Treaty of Shimoda acknowledged that both Russia and Japan had joint rights of occupation to Sakhalin, without setting a definite territorial demarcation. As the island became settled in the 1860s and 1870s, this ambiguity led to increasing friction between settlers. Attempts by the Tokugawa shogunate to purchase the entire island from the Russian Empire failed, and the new Meiji government was unable to negotiate a partition of the island into separate territories.

In 1875 by the Treaty of Saint Petersburg, Japan agreed to give up its claims on Sakhalin in exchange for undisputed ownership of the Kuril Islands. In 1905 under the Treaty of Portsmouth Japan gained Sakhalin to the 60th parallel, but lost it again in 1945.

Pamir Mountains  Tajikistan
 People's Republic of China
1877 2011 The Tajik Government relinquished its claim over this territory in January 2011 with final ratification of a treaty ceding 1,158 square kilometres (447 sq mi) to the PRC.[55]
Palmas Island (modern day Miangas Island) Philippines Philippine Islands
 Dutch East Indies
1906 1928 Dispute between the United States and the Netherlands over the Palmas island located south of the Philippines, which was then American territory. The Netherlands believed that the islands were part of the Dutch East Indies. The territorial dispute was solved through the Island of Palmas case which decided that the Palmas Island belongs to the Netherlands. Palmas Island, now Miangas Island, is currently a part of modern Indonesia.
Hatay Province  Turkey
1938 2004 Territory ceded from Syria to Turkey during the French Mandate of Syria, never formally recognized by Syria, but gave it up in 2004.
Yalu River (disputed sovereignty of certain islands)[1][note 2]  People's Republic of China
 North Korea
 South Korea
1949 2005 The allocation to North Korea of all of the large islands in the lower Yalu River, including Pidan and Sindo at the mouth, is now clear.[56] The river's maritime rights remain shared between the two nations.
Shaksgam Valley  Pakistan
(still claimed by:
 People's Republic of China)
1947 1963 Pakistan relinquished its claim to China; India did not.
Sinai Peninsula  Israel
1967 1982 During the Six-Day War Israel claimed Sinai. It was returned in 1982 under the terms of the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.
Taba  Israel
1979 1989 When Egypt and Israel were negotiating the exact position of the border in preparation for the 1979 peace treaty, Israel claimed that Taba had been on the Ottoman side of a border agreed between the Ottomans and British Egypt in 1906 and had, therefore, been in error in its two previous agreements. Although most of Sinai was returned to Egypt in 1982, Taba was the last portion to be returned. The issue was submitted to an international commission. In 1988, the commission ruled in Egypt's favour, and Israel returned Taba to Egypt in 1989.
Turtle Islands Philippines Philippine Islands
 North Borneo
1930 Dispute between the United States and the United Kingdom over the Turtle Islands located south of the Philippines, which was then American territory. In a 1930 treaty the United Kingdom acknowledge American sovereignty over the islands and was agreed upon that the British would remain administering the island until the United States express interest to take over control over the islands after a one-year notice. When the Philippines gained full independence from the United States in 1946, the Philippines invoked the treaty and the British turned over the islands to the Philippines in 1947.
West Bank, including East Jerusalem  Israel
1967 1988 During the Six-Day War Israel conquered these territories from Jordan. Jordan later renounced the claim on the territory, supporting instead its inclusion in a future Palestine.
Ligitan and Sipadan  Malaysia
1969 2002 The 2002 International Court of Justice ruling awarded both islands to Malaysia, but left unsettled the maritime boundary immediately southwest and west of the islands between Malaysia and Indonesia.
Hawar Islands  Qatar
1971 2001 Formerly disputed between Qatar and Bahrain, it was settled by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague. In the June 2001 decision, Bahrain kept the Hawar Islands and Qit'at Jaradah but dropped claims to Janan Island and Zubarah on mainland Qatar, while Qatar retained significant maritime areas and their resources. The agreement has furthered the goal of definitively establishing the border with Saudi Arabia and Saudi-led mediation efforts continue.
Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai  Indonesia
 East Timor
2002 2004 Ceded by Timor-Leste to Indonesia in August 2004.
Saudi Arabia–United Arab Emirates border dispute  Saudi Arabia
1934 2000 Settled by the Treaty of Jeddah (2000).


Territory Former Claimants Dispute Started Dispute Settled Notes
Alaska Boundary Dispute  United States
1821 1903 Disputed between the United States and Canada (then a British Dominion with its foreign affairs controlled from London). The dispute had been going on between the Russian and British Empires since 1821, and was inherited by the United States as a consequence of the Alaska Purchase in 1867. It was resolved by arbitration in 1903 with a delegation that included 3 Americans, 2 Canadians, and 1 British delegate that became the swing vote. By a 4 to 2 vote, the final resolution favored the American position. Canada did not get an outlet from the Yukon gold fields to the sea. The disappointment and anger in Canada was directed less at the United States, and more at the British government for betraying Canadian interests in pursuit of a friendly relationship between Britain and the United States.
Aroostook War  United States
United Kingdom British North America
1838 1842 Disputed border between the state of Maine and the provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec.
Atacama border dispute  Bolivia
1879 1904
Chamizal dispute  United States
1898 1963 Disputed border within the El Paso/Ciudad Juárez region.
Delaware Wedge  Delaware
1750s 1921 A gore created when the borders of the colonies Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania were defined. Dispute over the borders between the three colonies dates to the foundation of each during the middle 17th century. A series of defined lines and arcs were laid out by statute to settle the disputes, the most famous of which was the Mason–Dixon line. The Wedge was left out of all three colonies (and later U.S. states), and remained a matter of dispute until it was formally resolved to assign the Wedge to Delaware in 1921.
Eastern shore of the Narragansett Bay Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
Plymouth Colony (to 1691)
Province of Massachusetts Bay (from 1691)
1636 1898 Claimed by both Rhode Island and Plymouth Colony. Plymouth's claim was inherited by the newly created Province of Massachusetts Bay when the latter was created in 1691 from the merger of earlier Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth Colonies. A royal decree in 1746 assigned the land to Rhode Island, but Massachusetts continued to press its claim until 1898.
Isla Martín García  Argentina
1879 1973 After the Conquest of the Desert was formally launched in 1879, many indigenous leaders captured were confined there. The island was transferred to Argentine Navy jurisdiction in 1886. The island's distance from the Uruguayan territory is less than two miles, and its jurisdictional status was formally established by the Treaty of Río de la Plata between Uruguay and Argentina on November 19, 1973.
Cordillera del Cóndor-Cenepa River  Peru
1828 1998
Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case  Argentina
1881 1902 After the signature of the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina differing interpretations on whether the highest Andean peaks (favouring Argentina) or the continental divide (favouring Chile) was to be considered the boundary.
Puna de Atacama dispute  Argentina
1889 1898
Clipperton Island  Mexico
1897 1931 Disputed between France and Mexico. On January 28, 1931, King Victor Emanuel, selected as a neutral arbitrator, finally declared Clipperton to be a French possession, and it has remained relatively undisputed ever since.
Beagle conflict  Argentina
1898 1982
Río Encuentro-Alto Palena dispute  Argentina
1913 1966
Laguna del Desierto  Argentina
1949 1994
Border of New Hampshire and Canada  United States
 United Kingdom
1783 1842 Ill-defined terms of the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Revolutionary War left the boundary of the state of New Hampshire and Canada in doubt. The lack of a precise definition of the "northwesternmost head of the Connecticut River" as defined by the Treaty of Paris left the land that is now the town of Pittsburg, New Hampshire within the conflicting jurisdiction of both the United States and Great Britain. In 1832 residents of the area established the short-lived Republic of Indian Stream in the area; the minuscule population of the putative nation never exceeded about 300. The boundary was finally settled definitively by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842.
San Andrés and Providencia  Colombia
1928 2012[57]
Tacna–Arica compromise  Chile
1883 1929
Pacific Ocean Sea border  Chile
1985 2014[58]
Erik the Red's Land  Denmark
1931 1933[59]


Territory Former Claimants Dispute Started Dispute Settled Notes
Bregovo  Bulgaria
 Kingdom of Serbia
1885 1886 Bulgaria And Serbia briefly had a war over a small border village called Bregovo and this has been the recognized border ever since then.
Åland Islands  Finland
1917 1920 Sweden and Finland argued over the control of the Åland Islands (located between Sweden and Finland). The Åland movement (Ålandsrörelsen) wanted Åland to reunite with its old mother country Sweden (Finland and Åland belonged to Sweden before 1809). The movement gathered signatures from over 7000 inhabitants of legal age at the Åland Islands in 1917 (that was about 96% of the population) - they all supported a union with Sweden. When Finland became independent (December 6, 1917) Sweden wanted a plebiscite about the future of the Åland Islands to solve the problem. Finland refused and argued that the Åland Islands had always been a natural part of Finland - even when Finland was under Swedish rule. Sweden appealed to the League of Nations referring to the right of the population to determine which country they should belong to. After studying the matter closely the League of Nations decided Finland should retain sovereignty over the province but that the Åland Islands should be made an autonomous territory. The Swedish Prime Minister said he didn’t accept the verdict but he also said that Sweden was not going to use military force to get their claims.[60]
Graham Island  Two Sicilies
Malta Malta
1831 1831 A dispute between the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the British Crown Colony of Malta, the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of Spain occurred after the volcanic island appeared in 1831. The British were the first to claim the island as part of Malta, and they were followed by the Two Sicilies and France, while Spain expressed their ambitions to control the island. The island disappeared by December 1831 and the dispute stopped. A Sicilian flag was lowered over the now submerged island in 2000 to show Italian claims to the area. It is no longer disputed by Britain, France, Spain or Malta.
Lampedusa Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily
Malta Malta
1800 1814 The island was controlled by British troops as a de facto part of Malta Protectorate from 1800 onwards. After a British royal commission was sent there in 1812, the new Governor of Malta Sir Thomas Maitland withdrew British troops and the island was returned to Sicily.
Tenedos  Turkey
1920 1923 On 11 August 1920, following World War I, the Treaty of Sèvres with the defeated Ottoman Empire granted the island to Greece, who joined the war in Allies' side in May 1917. The new Turkish Government of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, based in Ankara, which was not party to the treaty, overthrew the Ottoman government, which signed but did not ratify the treaty. After the Turkish War of Independence ended in Greek defeat in Anatolia, and the fall of Lloyd George and his Middle Eastern policies, the western powers agreed to the Treaty of Lausanne with the new Turkish Republic, in 1923. This treaty made Tenedos and Imbros part of Turkey, and it guaranteed a special autonomous administrative status there to accommodate the Greeks.
Northern Ireland  United Kingdom
1920 1999 Formerly disputed between Ireland and the United Kingdom since partition on 23 December 1920, it was settled by the Good Friday Agreement in 1999, when Ireland amended its constitutional claim. Both countries acknowledged that the territory can rejoin the rest of Ireland if separate referendums in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland approve of the former's cession.
Pytalovo (Abrene in Latvia)  Russia
1991 2007 Pytalovo was part of independent Latvia as Abrene until Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union and Abrene was attached to Russian SSR in 1948. Latvia disputed Russian jurisdiction over the region until giving it up in a border treaty with Russia in 2007.
Ivangorod and Pechorsky District  Russia
1991 2007 Russia recognized them as a part of Estonia with Treaty of Tartu, 1920. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia continued administering it. Some sources argue Estonia has claims in the area.[61][62]
Sevastopol  Russia
1993 1997 On July 28, 1993, one of the leaders of the Russian Society of Crimea, Viktor Prusakov, stated that his organisation was ready for an armed mutiny and establishment of the Russian administration in Sevastopol. In May 1997, Russia and Ukraine signed the Peace and Friendship Treaty, ruling out Moscow's territorial claims to Ukraine.[63]
Black Sea and Snake Island  Ukraine
2004 2009 In 2004 Romania filed a case to International Court of Justice claiming that Ukraine's Snake Island was an uninhabitable rock under UNCLOS standards and thus not eligible to carry influence over determination of the maritime boundary between the two states. During the Soviet times the island was a small naval station with a lighthouse. In 2007 the Ukrainian parliament approved an establishment of a small hamlet (settlement) there, Bile, as part of Vylkove city Odessa Region. The maritime boundary issue was settled by the International Court of Justice in 2009.
Vilnius Region  Lithuania
1920 1945 During the Polish-Soviet War Polish armies entered the Vilnius Region which was at the time part of the Soviet Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1920, Polish General Lucjan Zeligowski led a coup and established the Republic of Central Lithuania which was annexed to the Second Polish Republic after the war as part of the historic Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and due to ethnic Poles in the region. Lithuania moved its capital to Kaunas while never giving up its claim to Vilnius. The Lithuanians found support in the Soviet Union for their cause signing the Soviet-Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty in 1939. Following the Soviet invasion of Poland, the region came under Soviet control and became part of the Lithuanian SSR after World War II which was followed by a large number of ethnic Poles being deported two times. Following the fall of the Soviet Union and Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania the Vilnius region became part of Lithuania again.
Passetto di Borgo in the vicinity of the Vatican City  Italy
 Holy See
1870 1991 Pope John Paul II recognized the sovereignty of Italy over the Passetto on May 18, 1991.[64][65]
Ems estuary and Dollart Bay (western part)  Netherlands
15th century[66] 2014 Settled in the 1960s (agreeing to disagree). Finally solved in 2014.[67]


Territory Former Claimants Dispute Started Dispute Settled Notes
Bouvet Island  Norway
 United Kingdom
1927 1929 The United Kingdom claimed this Antarctic island as Lindsay/Liverpool Island based on sightings going back to 1808, but Norway landed there in 1927. In November 1929, Britain renounced its claim to the island.[68]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w The Republic of China (ROC), now based in Taiwan, is involved in territorial disputes with many governments bordering mainland China. Due to the One-China policy, it has no formal diplomatic relations with any of these states. The ROC recognizes neither the People's Republic of China (PRC) nor its border agreements or treaties with any other countries. Article 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of China states that "The territory of the Republic of China according to its existing national boundaries shall not be altered except by resolution of the National Assembly." Section 5 of Article 4 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China now overrides this provision, with the power of the National Assembly to alter transferred to the Legislative Yuan and the electorate.
  2. ^ a b c The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) do not recognize each other.
  3. ^ a b c d Relinquished by the People's Republic of China but still claimed by the Republic of China.

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ a b c "Eritrea accepts 'virtual' border with Ethiopia". Retrieved 2016-05-05. 
  3. ^ . UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Retrieved 2016-05-05.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  7. ^ "Guinea,Cote d'Ivoire Border Dispute Reportedly Resurfaces". Guinee News. 
  8. ^ Compte rendu du déplacement d'une délégation du groupe interparlementaire France-Afrique centrale au Gabon, en Guinée équatoriale et à Sao Tomé-et-Principe, parliamentary report of the Senate of France, 2003.
  9. ^ Comunicados y notas de prensa de la OID Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "For First Time in History, Somalia Claims Socotra as Its Own". Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  11. ^ "General Assembly adopts resolution reaffirming territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, demanding withdrawal of all Armenian forces". United Nations. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 23 Dec 2016. 
  12. ^ Korbel, Josef (1966), Danger in Kashmir, Princeton University Press 
  13. ^ Schofield, Victoria (2003) [First published in 2000], Kashmir in Conflict, London and New York: I. B. Taurus & Co, ISBN 1860648983 
  14. ^ Bose, Sumantra (2003), Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01173-2 
  15. ^ Varshney, Ashutosh (1992), "Three Compromised Nationalisms: Why Kashmir has been a Problem" (PDF), in Raju G. C. Thomas, Perspectives on Kashmir: the roots of conflict in South Asia, Westview Press, pp. 191–234, ISBN 978-0-8133-8343-9 
  16. ^ Enclaves III: The Fergana Valley Archived October 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
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  24. ^ "Uzbek side withdrew a police post from Ungar-Too". Kabar. Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  26. ^ Woronowycz, R. Ukraine and Russia move on border delimitation. Kyiv Press Bureau. "The Ukrainian Weekly". 25 November 2001
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  28. ^ "Acuerdo para precisar el recorrido del Límite desde el Monte Fitz Roy hasta el Cerro Daudet". Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  29. ^ "Moscow, Sokhumi Dispute Village in 'Border Talks'". 2 April 2011. 
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  31. ^ Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China, Article 9, Section 2
  32. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Preamble
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  35. ^ Shaila Dewan, Georgia Claims a Sliver of the Tennessee River, The New York Times, February 22, 2008
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  38. ^ "Pateros: Fort Bonifacio is ours". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
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  40. ^ Tomczyk, Krzysztof (4 March 2010). "Tychy kontra Bieruń. Jak Kargul i Pawlak, ale z Fiatem w tle". Moje Miasto Silesia (in Polish). Media Regionalne. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
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  47. ^ Cases: Kasikili/Sedudu Island (Botswana/Namibia)
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  56. ^ Even official Chinese maps award these islands to North Korea, such as the provincial map on p. 41 in the 2005 Chinese atlas "Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Jiaotong Dituji" ISBN 7-80104-652-8, (
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External links[edit]