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List of territorial disputes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Disputed territories shown in red

Territorial disputes have occurred throughout history, over lands around the world. Bold indicates one claimant's full control; italics indicates one or more claimants' partial control.

Ongoing disputes between UN member/observer states



Territory Claimants Notes
Abyei, Jodha, Kafia Kingi, Jau, Heglig, Megenis MTS. and Kaka  Sudan
 South Sudan
Both Sudan and South Sudan have claimed the area after the civil war that led to South Sudan's independence. Heglig was controlled by South Sudan in mid-April 2012, but retaken by Sudan.
Banc du Geyser  Madagascar
Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, a district of the French Southern Territories.
Bassas da India, Europa Island and Juan de Nova Island  France
De facto part of the French overseas territory of the French Southern Territories.
Ceuta,[2] Melilla, and other plazas de soberanía  Spain
Ceuta and Melilla are administered by Spain as autonomous cities.
After an incident on Perejil Island in 2002, both countries agreed to return to the status quo.[3]
Chagos Archipelago  United Kingdom
The United Kingdom administers the archipelago as part of the British Indian Ocean Territory. An advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice has found the United Kingdom administration to be unlawful and called upon the United Kingdom to complete the process of decolonization with respect to Mauritius.
Doumeira Mountain, Ras Doumeira and Doumeira Island  Eritrea
Basis of the Djiboutian–Eritrean border conflict of 2008. Disputed territory occupied by Eritrea following withdrawal of Qatari peacekeepers in June 2017.[4][5] Alternatively transliterated as the Dumaira Mountains.[4]
Glorioso Islands  France
De facto a part of the French overseas territory of the French Southern Territories.
Hala'ib Triangle  Egypt
Previously under joint administration; Egypt now maintains full de facto control of the Hala'ib Triangle. The boundaries claimed by Egypt and Sudan both include the Hala'ib Triangle. The area of Bir Tawil close to the triangle is unclaimed by both countries.
Ilemi Triangle  Kenya
 South Sudan
De facto controlled by Kenya. Ethiopian tribes used and made raids in the land, but the Ethiopian government has never made a claim to it, agreeing it was Sudanese in 1902, 1907, and 1972 treaties.[7][8][9]
KaNgwane and Ingwavuma  South Africa
Eswatini claims territories that it states were confiscated during colonial times.[10] The area claimed by Eswatini is the former bantustan of KaNgwane, which now forms the northern parts of Jozini and uMhlabuyalingana local municipalities in KwaZulu-Natal, and the southern part of Nkomazi, the southeastern part of Umjindi and the far eastern part of Albert Luthuli local municipalities in Mpumalanga.
Koalou village and surrounding area  Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso and Benin retain a border dispute at this 7.75  km2 triangular area of land near the tripoint border with Togo.[11][12] In a 2008 meeting, it was declared that the territory was a neutral zone, neither Burkinabé nor Beninese, making it technically unclaimed.[11] According to the UN Refugee Agency in 2015, there were issues of children being born stateless in the area, however, a Beninese civil registration office has taken control of registering births in the area.[13]
Kpéaba village area (near Sipilou/Siquita)  Ivory Coast
The Guinean military occupied this village for 1 month from January to February 2013, before withdrawing in preparation for talks.[14] In December 2016, Guinea soldiers and civilians attacked the village, killing 1 and wounding several others, before returning to their side of the border.[15] According to the Guinean Minister of Defence, the Guinean army had been asked not to send any soldiers to this area and had no involvement in this incident.[16]
Area near Logoba/Moyo District  South Sudan
A 1914 British colonial order defined the international border based on the tribal boundary between the Kuku of Kajokeji (South Sudan) and the Ma'di of Moyo (Uganda). However, the border was never formally demarcated.[17] In 2014, a conflict was triggered by the Ugandan national census when Ugandan officials were detained by South Sudan authorities.[18]
Area near Chiengi, Lunchinda-Pweto Province  Zambia
 DR Congo
Zambia and Congo have different interpretations of the borders set out in an 1894 treaty between British settlers and Leopold II, King of the Belgians. There have been incidents between the armies of both countries in 1996, 2006, and 2016. In March 2020, Zambia deployed troops on the Congolese side of the border.[19]
Right bank of the Lunkinda River (near the village of Pweto)[20]  DR Congo
Mayotte  France
Under the 2009 referendum, the population supported becoming an overseas department of France, so Mayotte became one on March 31, 2011.
Islands in Mbamba Bay, Lake Nyasa  Tanzania
Lundo Is. and Mbamba Is. are claimed as part of the lake, as Malawi has claims to the shore − based on the 1890 Anglo-German treaty. See Tanzania–Malawi dispute.
Mbañie Island [es], Cocotiers and Congas Island  Gabon
 Equatorial Guinea
Contested islands in Corisco Bay, valuable for their oil.[21][22]
Several islands in the Congo River  Republic of the Congo
 DR Congo
Most of the boundary in the Congo River remains undefined.[23]
An island in the Ntem River  Cameroon
 Equatorial Guinea
Several villages near the Okpara River  Benin
The Rufunzo Valley and Sabanerwa  Rwanda
In 1965, the Akanyaru River changed course due to heavy rains. Burundians point to Rwandan farmers for contributing to the change of course by rice-growing.[25]
Rukwanzi Island and the Semliki River valley  DR Congo
The dispute is related to fishing rights in Lake Edward and Lake Albert.[26]
Sindabezi Island  Zambia
Tourist island on the Zambezi River, west of the Victoria Falls
Tromelin Island  France
De facto a part of the French overseas territory of the French Southern Territories.
Wadi Halfa Salient  Egypt
Most of the disputed territory comprised villages flooded by Lake Nasser after the construction of the Aswan Dam.[28]
Territory east of the Oued Tourndo [ceb]  Algeria
Libya claims 32,000 square kilometers of southeastern Algeria, south of the Libyan town of Ghat.[29][30][31]



North America

Territory Claimants Notes
Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank  Colombia
 United States
Jamaica and Nicaragua have recognized the sovereignty of Colombia; other claimants have not. On November 19, 2012, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that Colombia has sovereignty over Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla.[32] Honduras implicitly recognized Colombian sovereignty in a 1999 maritime delimitation treaty, but continues to claim the two banks in its constitution.[33]
Conejo Island  Honduras
 El Salvador
Navassa Island[1]  United States
The U.S. has claimed the island since 1857, based on the Guano Islands Act of 1856.[34] Haiti's claim over Navassa goes back to the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697 that established French possessions in mainland Hispaniola, which were transferred from Spain by the treaty as well as other specifically named nearby islands.
Sapodilla Cayes  Belize
Guatemala formally claims all of Belize; an International Court of Justice decision over the matter is pending.
Belizean-Guatemalan territorial dispute  Belize
The Guatemalan Ministry of Foreign Affairs has issued a statement in which Guatemala specifically claims territory between the Sibun and Sarstoon rivers, which makes up around half of Belizean-administered territory. However, Guatemala also claims all of Belize because its historical recognition of British Honduras was contingent on the construction of a road between Guatemala City and the Atlantic Ocean which was never built, an apparent violation of the Wyke-Aycinena Treaty. An International Court of Justice decision over the matter is pending.[35]
Territorial disputes between Canada and the United States
Territory Canada Canadian claimant United States U.S. claimant
Machias Seal Island New Brunswick Maine
North Rock

South America

Territory Claimants Notes
Guyana–Venezuela territorial dispute (Guyana west of the Essequibo River) and Ankoko Island  Guyana
Approximately two-thirds of Guyana's sovereign territory is claimed by Venezuela. Following arbitration, a demarcated border was established in 1905 following the Arbitral Award of 1899 but was later contested by Venezuela in 1962 following the publication of the Mallet-Prevost memorandum. The crisis was renewed recently following the discovery of oil deposits.
Arroyo de la Invernada or Rincón de Artigas and Vila Albornoz  Brazil
Dispute in the 237 km2 (92 sq mi) Invernada River region near Masoller, over which tributary represents the legitimate source of the Quaraí River/Cuareim River. The UN does not officially recognize the claim.[clarification needed]
Falkland Islands[1]  United Kingdom
See Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute
French Guiana and Suriname involving the Maroni River  France
The source or tributary of the Lawa River between Suriname and French Guiana is disputed but eventually follows to the tripoint with Brazil. The Netherlands, and now Suriname, contends that the boundary follows the Malani River to the east, while France asserts that the border follows the Litani River to the west.
New River Triangle (Tigri Area) involving the Courantyne River and the New River  Guyana
The New River Triangle (also known as the Tigri Area) is a region within the Guiana Highlands that has been disputed by Suriname and Guyana since the 19th century. It involves the Courantyne River and the interpreted source of the river. In 1871, the New River was discovered, questioning the boundary between the two states.
Isla Brasilera/Ilha Brasileira  Brazil
Uruguayan officials claim that the island falls under their Artigas Department (the UN does not officially recognize the claim).
Isla Suárez/Ilha de Guajará-mirim  Bolivia
An island in the river Rio Mamoré that serves as a border between Bolivia and Brazil, alongside the other 80 islands that are not assigned to any country. Isla Suárez is geographically closer to Bolivia, however economically dependent on the Brazilian city of Guajará-Mirim. Both countries signed a treaty in 1958 that keeps the island in a status quo.
Southern Patagonian Ice Field  Argentina
From Mount Fitz Roy to Cerro Murallón the border remains undefined, while in the zone of Murallón and Cerro Daudet both countries already defined a border in 1998, but their respective cartographies differ.



The Antarctic Treaty, formed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, is a key component for the management of Antarctica and helps provide administration for the continent, which is carried out through consultative member meetings.

Territory Claimants Antarctic territory
Area between 25°W and 53°W  Argentina
United Kingdom
 Argentine Antarctica
 British Antarctic Territory
Area between 53°W and 74°W  Argentina
United Kingdom
 Argentine Antarctica
 Antártica Chilena Province
 British Antarctic Territory
Area between 74°W and 80°W  Chile
United Kingdom
 Antártica Chilena Province
 British Antarctic Territory


Territorial claims in the South China Sea
Map showing disputed territories of India
The final borders of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict after the 1994 ceasefire was signed
Israel and the Israeli-occupied territories, including the Golan Heights, the West Bank and East Jerusalem
Territory Claimants Notes
Mazraat Deir al-Ashayer  Lebanon
Mazraat Deir al-Ashayer is administered and controlled by Lebanon's Zahlé District, Beqaa Governorate, but claimed by Syria's Al-Zabadani District, Rif Dimashq Governorate.[36]
Abu Musa  Iran
 United Arab Emirates
In 1971, the Iranian navy took control of Abu Musa, at the time part of the Emirate of Sharjah. The Emirate of Sharjah later joined the United Arab Emirates, who therefore inherited an official claim on Abu Musa. As of 2022, this is an ongoing dispute, with Iran in control of the island since its takeover in 1971.
Greater and Lesser Tunbs  Iran
 United Arab Emirates
Closely related to the dispute over Abu Musa, Iran had also around the same time seized control over the Greater and Lesser Tunbs while they were under control by the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah. When Ras al-Khaimah joined the United Arab Emirates, the dispute was also inherited to the UAE. The dispute is still ongoing as of 2022.
Bukit Jeli  Thailand
Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan Pakistan
India India
Administered by Pakistan and claimed by India. Part of the Kashmir conflict.
Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh  India
Part of the Kashmir conflict. Both India and Pakistan claim the former independent princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (including Ladakh, which India split off from the portion that it controls in 2019), leading to the Indo-Pakistani war of 1947. A UN-mediated ceasefire put a halt to the conflict in January 1949. The UN resolution called for both the countries to demilitarise the region, following which a plebiscite would be held. However, no demilitarisation plan acceptable to both the countries could be agreed. The countries fought two further wars in 1965 and 1971. Following the latter war, the countries reached the Simla Agreement, agreeing on a Line of Control between their respective regions and committing to a peaceful resolution of the dispute through bilateral negotiations. An armed insurgency broke out in 1989 in the Indian administered part of Kashmir, demanding "independence". Pakistan is believed to provide arms and training to the militants.[37][38][39][40]
Junagadh and Manavadar  India
India annexed Junagadh (located within Gujarat) in 1947, shortly after the partition of India. Junagadh was one of the many princely states that was contested between India and Pakistan; Manavadar was a vassal state of Junagadh, alongside Babariawad and Mangrol. The dispute fell into obscurity over the next few years due to the prioritisation of the Kashmir conflict. In August 2020, Pakistan revived the decades-old dispute by highlighting "Junagadh and Manavadar" as a part of Pakistan in an official map on its "Survey of Pakistan" website. The dispute is largely symbolic in nature and is politically connected to the dispute over Kashmir, which is much more important to Pakistan.[41][42]
David Gareja monastery complex boundary dispute  Georgia
Since the monastery complex is located on the border between Georgia and Azerbaijan, both parties have entered a dispute over which nation it belongs to.
Doi Lang  Myanmar
Fasht ad Dibal and Qit'at Jaradah  Bahrain
These are island territories that are disputed between Qatar and Bahrain. Controlled by Bahrain, Qatar argues that the territories do not qualify as "islands" and hence are not covered by the International Court of Justice ruling (2001–2003) that handed them over to Bahrain.
Several areas in the Fergana Valley  Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan: Barak is a tiny Kyrgyz village in the Fergana Valley region (where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet). In August 1999, the area around Barak was occupied by Uzbekistan. Barak became a de facto enclave only 1.5 km from the shifted main border.[43][44][45] (Map) In August 2018, Kyrgyz and Uzbek authorities agreed to a land swap that would eliminate the exclave, claiming that the exchange process may take up to two years.[46] As of a February 2022 report, only 85 percent of the land was traded, and then work stopped, leaving only 15 families to preserve Barak.[47] Tajikistan: There are three Tajik exclaves, all of them in the Fergana Valley. One of them, the village of Sarvan, is surrounded by Uzbek territory, whereas the remaining two, the village of Vorukh and a small settlement near the Kyrgyz railway station of Kairagach, are each surrounded by Kyrgyz territory. Uzbekistan: There are four Uzbek exclaves, all inside Kyrgyz territory in the Fergana Valley. Two of them are the towns of Sokh and Shakhimardan and the other two the tiny territories of Chon-Qora and Jani-Ayil. There may be a fifth Uzbek exclave inside of Kyrgyzstan.[48] Most of the border in the area is still not demarcated.
Isfara Valley  Kyrgyzstan
In April 2021, a violent disagreement broke out in Isfara Valley, supposedly over the installation of surveillance cameras by the Tajiks at a water intake station of a reservoir.[49] It escalated into an armed conflict that reached hundreds of civilian casualties. The area's dispute is mainly due to faulty allocation of resources during and after the breakup of the Soviet Union and its republics, leading to tense relations between nations over said allocation of resources, namely water.
Ambalat  Indonesia
Golan Heights  Israel
Syrian territory captured by Israel in 1967 (the Six-Day War), and unilaterally annexed by Israel in 1981. In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favor of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497; United Nations, December 5, 2008). During the Syrian civil war period, Syrian Arab Republic had lost direct control of the Eastern Golan areas and retreated from cease-fire line with Israel (in favor of various rebel and Jihadist groups), though did regain the area in 2018.
Hatay Province  Turkey
Annexed by Turkey in 1939, claimed by Syria.[50]
Shebaa Farms  Israel
Israel within the Green Line  Israel
State of Palestine Palestine
See Israeli–Palestinian conflict
West Bank and East Jerusalem  Israel
 Civilian rule by Israel proper applied in East Jerusalem
 Military occupation has jurisdiction over all matters in Area C and security-related matters in Area B

has jurisdiction over all matters in Area A and civil matters in Area B

See Israeli occupation of the West Bank
Kalapani region, the smaller Susta River dispute and Antudanda disputes  India
Kalapani is administered by India while Susta is administered by Nepal. The few remaining border disagreements with Nepal since delineation was announced 98% complete in 2019.[51] See Territorial disputes of India and Nepal.
Artsvashen exclave of Gegharkunik province, de jure part of Armenia; Karki exclave of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, Yukhari Askipara, Barkhudarli and Sofulu exclaves of Qazakh Rayon, de jure part of Azerbaijan  Armenia
Azerbaijan and Armenia have controlled these areas as part of the wider Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
Khuriya Muriya Islands  Oman
Korean Peninsula  North Korea
 South Korea
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea administers North Korea, but Article 1 of the Constitution of North Korea reads: "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an independent socialist State representing the interests of all the Korean people." The Republic of Korea administers South Korea, but Article 3 of the Constitution of South Korea reads: "The territory of the Republic of Korea shall consist of the Korean peninsula and its adjacent islands."
South Kuril/Chishima Islands (Northern Territories) and Kuril/Chishima Islands[1][52]  Russia
After the end of World War II, the Japanese government renounced its claims of the sovereignty over the Kuril Islands (except for a few islands in the south) and South Sakhalin in The Treaty of San Francisco.[53] However, since the Soviet Union did not sign that treaty and the treaty did not explicitly approve Russian sovereignty over these areas, the Japanese government has stated that attribution of these regions has not yet been determined. Therefore, they do not recognize Soviet rule in those areas (current the Russian Federation).[54] For this reason, these lands are shown as No Man's Land in white color on most official maps in Japan.
Dokdo/Takeshima  South Korea
 North Korea
The Liancourt Rocks, known as Dokdo in Korean and Takeshima in Japanese, are a set of disputed islets in the Sea of Japan. Japan claims sovereignty over the islets, pointing out the fact that in the San Francisco Peace Treaty of 1951, Dokdo/Takeshima was not included among the territories to be renounced by Japan.

South Korea currently maintains control over the territory, which it has administered since June 1954. The status of Dokdo/Takeshima remains a point of contention between the two countries.

Islands in the Mekong river[20]  Laos
Noktundo  Russia
 South Korea
In 1990, the former Soviet Union and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) signed a border treaty which made the border run through the center of the Tumen river, leaving Noktundo as a former island in Russia. South Korea refused to acknowledge the treaty.[55][56][57]
"Pedra Branca"; several islets at the eastern entrance to the Singapore Strait  Singapore
The International Court of Justice rendered its decision on 23 May 2008 that sovereignty over Pedra Branca belongs to Singapore; sovereignty over Middle Rocks belongs to Malaysia. It said sovereignty over South Ledge would remain disputed until the states could determine the ownership of the territorial waters in which it is located.[58]
"Point 20"; a small area of land reclaimed from the sea by Singapore  Singapore
Malaysia claims the land was reclaimed in its territorial waters.
O'Tangav area (claimed as part of Stung Treng Province)  Laos
Area near Preah Vihear Temple (Khao Phra Wihan)  Thailand
Temple complex awarded to Cambodia by an International Court of Justice ruling in 1962; "promontory" measuring 0.3 km2 immediately adjacent to temple awarded to Cambodia by ICJ ruling in 2013; both countries acknowledge continuing dispute over an additional 4.3 km2 immediately northwest of the 2013 ruling's area.
Part of Sabah (North Borneo)  Malaysia
The Philippines retains a claim on the eastern part of Sabah (see North Borneo dispute) on the basis claimed by the Government of the Philippines that the territory is only leased by the former Sultanate of Sulu to British North Borneo Company, of which the Philippines argued that it should be the successor state of all Sulu past territories.[1]
Saudi Arabia–United Arab Emirates border dispute  Saudi Arabia
 United Arab Emirates
Siachen Glacier and Saltoro Ridge area  India
Controlled by India after Operation Meghdoot in 1984.[60]
Sir Creek A dispute over where in the estuary the line falls; only small areas of marsh land are disputed, but significant maritime territory is involved. It is divided mid-creek.
Parts of Three Pagodas Pass  Myanmar
The islands of Ukatnyy, Zhestky and Malyy Zhemchuzhnyy[61]  Russia
Ungar-Too (Ungar-Tepa) mountain[62][63]  Uzbekistan


As of January 2023, Russian President Vladimir Putin cited recognition of Russia's sovereignty over the annexed territories (pictured) as a condition for peace talks with Ukraine.[64]
Territory Claimants Notes
Crimea (including Sevastopol)  Russia
In 2014, Russia annexed the Crimean Peninsula in a disputed referendum. Russian ownership of Crimea is recognized by a minority of countries.[65] The General Assembly Resolution 68/262 by votes 100 "in favor", 11 "against", 58 "abstained" and 24 abstentions noted that Crimea was part of Ukraine. Nonetheless, Crimea is practically a de facto subdivision of Russia as most of the control is in Russia's hands.[66] Russia and Ukraine both divide Crimea into two subdivisions, including a "republic" (Ukraine's Autonomous Republic and Russia's Republic) and the independent city of Sevastopol (Ukraine's "special city" and Russia's "federal city").
Donetsk Oblast  Ukraine
See 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
Kherson Oblast
Luhansk Oblast
Zaporizhzhia Oblast
This part of Mykolaiv was under Russia's control when Russian unilaterally annexed Kherson oblast, but Russia has since withdrawn during the Liberation of Kherson.
Imia/Kardak  Greece
Broad number of delimitation disputes about a.o. national airspace, territorial waters and exclusive economic zones. Includes Imia/Kardak dispute.
Mont Blanc summit dispute  France
France asserts that the principal peaks on the Mont Blanc massifDôme du Goûter, Punta Helbronner, and Mont Blanc lie in French territory, while Italy asserts that the summits are shared.[68]
Gibraltar  United Kingdom
Dispute over the interpretation of the Treaty of Utrecht and the location of the border.
Rockall Bank dispute  Ireland
 United Kingdom
Rockall is an uninhabited islet in the North Atlantic Ocean with disputed claims to its basin.[69]
Olivenza and Vila Real (including the municipality of Táliga)  Spain
In 1801, during the War of the Oranges, Spain, with French military support, occupied the territory of Olivenza (in Portuguese Olivença). During the Vienna Treaty, the signatory powers (including Spain) agreed with the Portuguese arguments concerning its claim on Olivença but Spain never fulfilled its duty of giving the city of Olivença and its territory back to Portugal.
Croatia-Serbia border dispute  Croatia
Limited areas along the Danube
Parts of Osijek-Baranja and Vukovar-Syrmia Counties and West and South Bačka Districts.
Island of Šarengrad
Island of Vukovar
Military complex near Sveta Gera  Slovenia
The complex is in the area of Žumberak/Gorjanci
Drina river[20]  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sections along the Drina in dispute.
Prevlaka  Croatia
An area on the Dragonja River  Slovenia
K Island  Ukraine


Territory Claimants Notes
Matthew Island and Hunter Island[1]  France ( New Caledonia)
Minerva Reefs  Tonga
Fiji claims that the entire reef is submerged at high tide, negating use of Minerva as a basis for any sovereignty or maritime EEZ claim by Tonga under the rules of UNCLOS.
Swains Island[1] United States United States
Tokelau's claim is unsupported by New Zealand, of whom Tokelau is a dependency. New Zealand recognises US sovereignty over Swains Island.[70][clarification needed]
Wake Island[1] United States United States
 Marshall Islands

Ongoing disputes involving states with limited international recognition

Territory Claimants Notes
Abagaitu Islet  Russia
 China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Generally held to have been resolved in October 2004 by the Complementary Agreement between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on the Eastern Section of the China-Russia Boundary. However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China, which would consider the Argun as the basis of the Sino-Russian border there per the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689.[note 2]
Abkhazia  Abkhazia
Aksai Chin and Depsang Plains  China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Arunachal Pradesh  India
 China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Controlled by India but claimed by the PRC and ROC who dispute the validity of the McMahon Line.
Bạch Long Vĩ Island  Vietnam
 Republic of China[note 2]
Transfer to Vietnam by the PRC in 1957. However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China.[note 2]
Chinese side of Baekdu Mountain[75]  China
 South Korea
 Republic of China[note 2]
Settled by the PRC and DPRK in 1962. However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China,[note 2] and the Republic of Korea.
Korean side of Baekdu Mountain[75]  North Korea
 South Korea
 Republic of China[note 2]
Also formerly claimed by the PRC until 1962.
Beyul Khenpajong, the Menchuma Valley, and Chagdzom[76]  Bhutan
 China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Eastern part of Bhutan  Bhutan
 Republic of China[note 2]
Bhutanese exclaves in western Tibet, namely Cherkip Gompa, Dho, Dungmar, Gesur, Gezon, Itse Gompa, Khochar, Nyanri, Ringung, Sanmar, Darchen, Doklam, and Zuthulphuk  China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Demchok sector / Parigas region  India
 China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Chumar, Gue, Kaurik, Shipki La, Tashigang, Barahoti, Lapthal, Jadhang, Nelang, Pulam Sumda and Sang  India
 China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Controlled by India but claimed by Zanda County, Ngari Prefecture, Tibet, China. Disputed areas located between Aksai Chin and Nepal.
3,700 square miles (9,600 km2) of territory surrounding the Siachen Glacier in Gilgit-Baltistan[77]  Pakistan
 Republic of China[note 1][note 2]
The People's Republic of China relinquished its claim to Pakistan. India and the Republic of China did not.
James Shoal  Malaysia
 China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
The Republic of China would claim its southernmost point to be at 4°N.
North Cyprus  Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus (a state with limited recognition) controls and administers the northern part of the island.
The Republic of Cyprus claims the whole island.
Mainland China, Hainan, Hong Kong, Macau, western half of Heixiazi, and Macclesfield Bank  China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Moldovan-controlled area of Dubăsari district  Moldova
Kokkina/Erenköy exclave  Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus controls and administers Kokkina, an area separated from the rest of the main land on Northern Cyprus via the land controlled by the Republic of Cyprus.
Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island
(eastern half)
 Republic of China[note 2]
Generally held to have been resolved in October 2004 by the Complementary Agreement between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on the Eastern Section of the China-Russia Boundary. However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China, which would claim its easternmost point to be at 135°4′E.[note 2]
Jiangxinpo  Myanmar
 Republic of China[note 2]
Northern parts of Sagaing Region and Kachin State, claimed by the Republic of China as part of Yunnan. Formerly claimed by the People's Republic of China until 1961.
537 km2 of territory on the China–Kazakhstan border  Kazakhstan
 Republic of China[note 1][note 2]
The Kazakh Government ceded 407 km2 to the PRC, and the PRC ceded 537 km2 to Kazakhstan in 1999. However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China.[note 2]
Khan Tengri peak, the Boz-Tik site, the Bedel pass, and the Erkeshtam pass[79]  Kyrgyzstan
 Republic of China[note 1][note 2]
In an agreement signed in 1999, the Khan Tengri peak, the Boz-Tik site, the Bedel pass, and the Erkeshtam pass were ceded to the Kyrgyz government while the Uzongu-Kuush valley was ceded to the PRC. However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China.[note 2]
Kinmen, Matsu, Pratas Island, and the Vereker Banks  Republic of China[80][note 1]
 China[81][note 1]
The government of the People's Republic of China claims the entire island of Taiwan, as well as a number of minor islands, such as Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu, that are controlled by the Republic of China. See also: Anti-Secession Law, Political status of Taiwan.
Kosovo  Kosovo
Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, while Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory. Its independence is recognized by 101 UN member states.
Kula Kangri and mountainous areas to the west of this peak, plus the western Haa District of Bhutan  Bhutan
 China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Kutuzov Island  Russia
 Republic of China[note 2]
Namwan Assigned Tract  Myanmar
 Republic of China[note 2]
Settled by Myanmar and the PRC in the Sino-Burmese Boundary Treaty in 1960 and officially ceded to Myanmar in 1961.[82] However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China.[note 2]
Outer Mongolia  Mongolia
 Republic of China[note 1]
The Republic of China briefly recognized Mongolia's independence between 1945 and 1952, and from 2002 onwards; however, under the Constitution of the Republic of China, the ROC claim on Mongolia cannot be withdrawn without recourse to a referendum. This claim is expressed by the map of China which appears in the flag of the Republic of China Marine Corps since 1986, which comprises Mainland China, Jiangxinpo, Outer Mongolia, Pamir Mountains, Tannu Uriankhai, etc.[83]
Pamir Mountains  Tajikistan
 Republic of China[note 1][note 2]
The Tajik Government ceded 1,158 km2 to the PRC, while PRC relinquished its 73,000 km2 claim over the remaining territory with final ratification of a treaty in January 2011.[84][note 2] However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China, which would claim its westernmost point to be at 71°E along the Panj.[note 2]
Paracel Islands[1]  China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Entirely controlled by the People's Republic of China but claimed by the Republic of China and Vietnam.[85]
Parangcho[86]  South Korea
 Republic of China[note 2]
Rasu, Kimathanka, Nara Pass, Tingribode, and Mount Everest  Nepal
 Republic of China[note 2]
Settled by Nepal and the PRC in 1960.[87] However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China.[note 2]
Scarborough Shoal  China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Controlled by the PRC since the 2012 Scarborough Shoal standoff.
Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary[88]  Bhutan
 China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai or Diaoyu Dao)[1]  Japan
 China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Controlled by Japan but claimed by the PRC and ROC.[89]
Sixty-Four Villages East of the River  Russia
 Republic of China[note 2]
The People's Republic of China renounced the area in the 1991 Sino-Soviet Border Agreement. Yet the Republic of China would claim the area per the 1858 Treaty of Aigun, affirmed as part of the 1860 Sino-Russian Convention of Peking.
South Ossetia  South Ossetia
Spratly Islands  China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
 Philippines (part)
 Malaysia (part)
 Brunei (part)
Each of the claimant countries except Brunei controls one or more of the individual islands.
'Border' checkpoint near Strovilia  United Kingdom
 Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus controls and administers the border checkpoint near Strovilia.
UK's claim in regard to its Sovereign Base Areas.
This also involves  Cyprus; the checkpoint is partially on UN-administered land, and Cyprus claims all of the island. (See: Europe)
Taiwan and Penghu  Republic of China[note 1]
 China[note 1]
In 1945, after the surrender of Japan, the Republic of China unilaterally annexed the islands of Taiwan and Penghu into its Taiwan Province, a move not recognized by the Allies. Shortly before the cessation of hostiles in the Chinese Civil War, the ROC government withdrew to the island of Taiwan, which remained under military occupation. Japan formally relinquished the claims to Taiwan and Penghu in 1952 under the Treaty of San Francisco. The sovereignty of Taiwan has remained in question to this day. See also the Political status of Taiwan.
Trans-Karakoram Tract, including Shaksgam Valley  China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
Pakistan was originally a party to the dispute but relinquished its claim and accepted Chinese sovereignty over the area in 1963.
Transnistria (including Bender)  Transnistria
Tannu Uriankhai  Russia
 Republic of China[note 1]
Originally part of China during the Qing dynasty per the 1727 Treaty of Kyakhta but came under Russian influence in the 20th century. Sovereignty over the area has not been officially relinquished by the ROC, which would claim its northernmost point to be at 53°57'N in the Sayan Mountains. However, the claim is not actively pursued by the ROC government.
Tumen River (disputed sovereignty of certain islands)[1][note 3]  China[note 1]
 North Korea
 Republic of China[note 1][note 2]
 South Korea
The Republic of China would consider the 1909 Gando Convention as the basis of the China–North Korea border.
Tumen River mouth  North Korea
 South Korea
 Republic of China[note 2]
Navigation and control of the mouth of the river Tumen is disputed between the Republic of China and DPRK along with the Republic of Korea.
Varnita and Copanca  Moldova
Eastern part of Wakhan Corridor  Afghanistan
 Republic of China[note 2]
The border was established between Afghanistan and China in an agreement between the British and the Russians in 1895 as part of the Great Game, although the Chinese and Afghans did not finally agree on the border until 1963.[90][91] The Kingdom of Afghanistan and the People's Republic of China demarcated their border in 1963.[90][92][note 2] However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China.[note 2]
Western Sahara  Morocco
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
The United Nations keeps the Western Sahara in its list of non-self-governing territories and considers the sovereignty issue as unresolved pending a final solution. To that end, the UN sent a mission in the territory to oversee a referendum on self-determination in 1991, but it never happened. Administration was relinquished by Spain in 1976.
Yalu River (disputed sovereignty of certain islands)[1][note 3]  China[note 1]
 North Korea
 Republic of China[note 1][note 2]
 South Korea
Generally held to have been resolved in 2005. North Korea is allocated all of the large islands in the lower Yalu River, including Pidan and Sindo at the mouth.[93] The river's maritime rights remain shared between North Korea and the PRC. However, the settlement is not recognized by the Republic of China.[note 2]

Ongoing boundary disputes within a state

Territory Country Internal claimants Notes
Several islands in the Paraná River  Argentina  Entre Ríos
 Santa Fe
Islands: Isla de los Mástiles/La Carlota, Isla Ingeniero Sabino Corsi Norte/Sur and Isla General Juan Pistarini.
As much as a 2,821 square kilometres (1,089 sq mi) area in and around the Ibiapaba mountain range  Brazil  Ceará
This dispute originated in an 1880 imperial decree. In 1920 a solution to the dispute was arbitrated but in practice it was never carried out. In 2008 there were new attempted negotiations, but they broke down in 2011, and as of 2013 it is pending either a supreme court decision, a referendum or a possible mutual agreement.[94]
Fernando de Noronha  Pernambuco
 Rio Grande do Norte
The dispute dates from the colonial period.[95]
Southern edge of Labrador  Canada  Newfoundland and Labrador
This was formerly an international dispute between Canada, which includes Quebec, and the Dominion of Newfoundland, then an independent country. Quebec has never accepted the border.
Songling District and Jiagedaqi District  People's Republic of China  Inner Mongolia
The two districts are owned by Inner Mongolia, but Jiagedaqi District (urban) was established as capital of Daxinganling Prefecture, Heilongjiang Province, resulting it and adjacent Songling District under effective control of Heilongjiang Province. Hulunbuir City (Prefecture), Inner Mongolia actively disputes these two districts, as they formerly belongs to Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir.[citation needed]
Belén de Bajirá  Colombia  Antioquia
Disputed since 2000, both Departments of Antioquia and Chocó have claimed the corregimiento as part of their own respective municipalities. In 2014, amidst a rise of tensions between the claimants, the National Government under the Geographic Institute Agustín Codazzi formally started a process to find a solution for the dispute.[96]
The kebeles of Adaytu, Undufo, and Gedamaytu  Ethiopia  Afar
 Somali Region
The three towns have long been fought over by the Issa clan Somalis, backed by the Somali Region government, against the Afar Region and Afar-allied militants. In 2014, the border between the two regions was redrawn by the federal government, placing the three ethnic Somali towns inside the Afar region. In the same year, the presidents of the two regions signed an agreement recognizing the three kebeles as special kebeles within the Afar Region which was rejected by the local people.[97][98] Later in 2019, the Somali Region withdrew from the agreement, claiming the three areas again.[99] The conflict between the two people has also spilled over into Djibouti.[100]
Parts of the Baitarani River in Jharkhand  India  Jharkhand
Small areas in Balasore district and Mayurbhanj district  Odisha
West Bengal
Belgaum Karnataka
Belgaum district was made a part of the Karnataka state following the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. However, Maharashtra claims the district and surrounding areas as predominantly Marathi-speaking and should be merged with Maharashtra.[102]
Golaghat district, Jorhat district, and Sibsagar district  Assam
Kotia villages in Koraput district  Odisha
 Andhra Pradesh
Langpih, Borduar, Nongwah, Matamur, Deshdemoreah Block I and Block II, and Khanduli  Assam
Lushai Hills  Assam
Villages in Nabarangpur and Jharsuguda districts  Odisha
Phuldungsei  Tripura
Disputed territories of Northern Iraq  Iraq  Iraq proper
 Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraq's autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan claims and controls parts of the governorates of Nineveh, Arbil, Kirkuk and Diyala.
Put Point [es]  Mexico  Campeche
 Quintana Roo
The three states claim three different borders between them.[citation needed]
Fiat Auto Poland factory and nearest areas  Poland  Tychy
The territory has historically been a part of the town of Bieruń. In years 1975–1991 Bieruń was a part of Tychy. The Fiat Auto Poland (formerly FSM factory) remaining in Tychy was a condition of Bieruń's separation. In the 90s, Bieruń has regained the Homera osiedle which was part of the disputed area.[107]
A wide section from the 35th parallel north to 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) south.  United States  Tennessee
Based on an inaccurate measurement in 1818, the Georgia–Tennessee border does not match the 35th parallel, which was defined as the border by Congress in 1796. Georgia's claim would give it access to the Tennessee River and mitigate the impact of a severe drought.[108] See Tennessee–Georgia water dispute.
California–Oregon border  Oregon
Location errors in an 1868–1870 survey to demarcate the California–Oregon border created a dispute between Oregon and California, which upon statehood had established the 42nd parallel north as its de jure border, based on the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty between the U.S. and Spain. The dispute continues to this day, as there are about 31,000 acres (13,000 ha) of disputed territory administered by Oregon, and about 20,000 acres (8,100 ha) administered by California.[109] The border should follow the 42nd parallel straight west from the 120th meridian west to the Pacific. Instead it zigzags, and only one of the many surveyor's markers put down in 1868 actually is on the 42nd parallel.[110][111][112]
New MexicoTexas Panhandle border  Texas
 New Mexico
The border was defined as the 103rd meridian but an 1859 survey marked it too far west, mistakenly putting present-day towns of Farwell, Texline, and a part of Glenrio in Texas. New Mexico's draft constitution used the 103rd meridian as intended. The New Mexico Senate passed a bill to file a lawsuit to recover the strip, but it has not become law.[113] The land and towns are administered by Texas.

Historic disputes, subsequently settled



Territory Former claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Ghana-Cote d'Ivoire maritime border  Ghana

 Cote d'Ivoire

2017 Dispute over maritime border.[114][115]
Agacher Strip  Burkina Faso
c. 1960 1986 Following repeated military clashes between Burkina Faso and Mali over the Agacher Strip, the International Court of Justice resolved the conflict in 1986 by dividing the disputed area approximately equally between the two countries.[116]
Aouzou Strip, Libya–Chad Borderlands  Chad
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya
c. 1973 1994 In 1994 the International Court of Justice decision found in favour of Chad sovereignty over the Aouzou Strip and the Libya–Chad Borderlands, and ended the Libyan claim.
Badme  Ethiopia
1993 2018 Basis of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War which began in 1998. The territory was handed over to Eritrea following a joint statement at the Eritrea–Ethiopia summit in 2018.
Bakassi  Cameroon
1913 2006 This area was handed over by Nigeria to Cameroon following an International Court of Justice ruling and the Greentree Agreement.
Bure  Ethiopia
2002 2008 Eritrea has accepted the decision and no longer disputes this location.[118]
Burkina Faso–Niger border dispute  Burkina Faso
c. 1960 2013 The International Court of Justice redefined the border between Burkina Faso and Niger in 2013. In 2015 the ruling was implemented by exchanging 18 towns between the two countries.[119]
Kagera Salient  Tanzania
1978 1979 In October 1978 Uganda invaded the Kagera Salient in northern Tanzania, initiating the Uganda–Tanzania War. The Ugandans met light resistance and in November President Idi Amin of Uganda announced the annexation of all Tanzanian land north of the Kagera River. The Tanzanians organised a counter-offensive later in November and successfully ejected the Ugandan forces from their country.
Part of the Kahemba region  Angola
 Democratic Republic of Congo
2007 Following a March 2007 report on the disputed area on the joint border in the Kahemba region, the Congolese interior minister admitted the territory was in fact part of Angola and agreed to send a technical team to demarcate the border along colonial era lines.[120] The countries agreed to end the dispute in July 2007.[121]
Migingo Island vicinity, and, farther north, the vicinity of the islands of Lolwe, Oyasi, Remba, Ringiti and Sigulu [sw], all a maritime rights dispute in Lake Victoria.  Kenya Uganda 2008 2009 In 2009, Migingo Island became a disputed territory when Uganda raised its national flag. The dispute is related to fishing rights in Lake Victoria. Before 2004 the island was uninhabited, but it is now home to Kenyan and Ugandan fishermen.[122] A joint re-demarcation line of the border was launched on 2 June 2009 to recover and to place survey markers on land, making delineation of the boundary on the lake more precise, with results released in late July 2009 confirming that the island falls 510 metres (1,670 ft) on the Kenyan side of the line.[123]
Lété Island and nearby islands in the Niger River  Niger
c. 1960 2005 In 2005 the International Court of Justice awarded Lété and 15 of the other disputed islands to Niger, and the remaining nine islands to Benin.[124]
Sedudu  Botswana
1890 1999 In 1999 the International Court of Justice awarded Sedudu to Botswana, ending the Namibian claim.[125]
Tindouf Province  Algeria Morocco 1956 1970 Morocco ( influenced by the Greater Morocco ideology ) claimed that both Tindouf and Béchar historically belong to Morocco after they were annexed by France for the French colony of Algeria. Algeria wasn't supporting the claims since one of the FLN's primary objectives was to prevent France from splitting the strategic Sahara regions from a future Algerian state. It was therefore disinclined to support Morocco's historical claims to Tindouf and Bechar or the concept of a Greater Morocco. King Hassan II of Morocco visited Algiers in March 1963 to discuss the undefined borders, but Algeria's President Ahmed Ben Bella believed the matter should be resolved at a later date. Ben Bella's fledgling administration was still attempting to rebuild the country after the enormous damage caused by the Algerian War. Algerian authorities suspected that Morocco was inciting the revolt, while Hassan was anxious about his own opposition's reverence for Algeria, escalating tensions between the nations. These factors prompted Hassan to begin moving troops towards Tindouf leading to the Sand war which ended with no territorial changes.[126][127][128]
Tsorona-Zalambessa  Ethiopia
2002 2008 Eritrea has accepted the decision and no longer disputes this location.[118]
Yenga (border hamlet), and left bank of Moa river  Sierra Leone
c. 1995 2013 The two heads of state settled this dispute in 2013.[129]


Territory Former claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Alaska boundary dispute  United States
1821 1903 Disputed between the United States and Canada (then a British Dominion with its foreign affairs controlled from London). The dispute had been going on between the Russian and British Empires since 1821, and was inherited by the United States as a consequence of the Alaska Purchase in 1867. It was resolved by arbitration in 1903 with a delegation that included 3 Americans, 2 Canadians, and 1 British delegate that became the swing vote. By a 4 to 2 vote, the final resolution favored the American position. Canada did not get an outlet from the Yukon gold fields to the sea. The disappointment and anger in Canada was directed less at the United States, and more at the British government for betraying Canadian interests in pursuit of a friendly relationship between Britain and the United States.
Aroostook War  United States
United Kingdom British North America
1838 1842 Disputed border between the state of Maine and the provinces of New Brunswick and Lower Canada.
Aves Island  Venezuela
1584 2007 Dominica abandoned the claim to the island in 2007, but continues to claim the adjacent seas, as do some neighboring states.
Atacama border dispute  Bolivia
1879 1904
Guaíra Falls  Brazil
1872 1982 The disputed islands were submerged by the reservoir of Itaipú.
Chamizal dispute  United States
1898 1963 Disputed border within the El Paso/Ciudad Juárez region.
Cresap's War  Maryland
1730 1767 Dispute over the northern border of the Province of Maryland and southern border of Province of Pennsylvania, particularly west of the Susquehanna River. Settled by the drawing of the Mason–Dixon line.
New Hampshire Grants/Vermont New Hampshire
New York
1749 1791 In 1664 King Charles II decided the west bank of the Connecticut River was the eastern boundary of New York, so that that province included all of what later became the state of Vermont. During 1749–64, Governor Benning Wentworth of New Hampshire issued well over a hundred "grants", offering lands for sale west of the river in what would become Vermont. In 1764, King George III attempted to end the dispute by ruling that the region belonged to New York. But New York would not recognize the property claims of numerous settlers whose claims were based on Wentworth's grants, so local governments and militias resisted New York's rule. In 1777, the politicians of the disputed territory declared it independent of New York, Britain, and New Hampshire, calling it the State of Vermont. Vermont existed for 14 years as an unrecognized de facto independent country, considered by New York to be a district in rebellion. Negotiations between New York and Vermont in 1790 removed impediments to Vermont's admission to the Union in 1791.
Delaware Wedge  Delaware
1750s 1921 A gore created when the borders of the colonies Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania were defined. Dispute over the borders between the three colonies dates to the foundation of each during the middle 17th century. A series of defined lines and arcs were laid out by statute to settle the disputes, the most famous of which was the Mason–Dixon line. The Wedge was left out of all three colonies (and later U.S. states), and remained a matter of dispute until it was formally resolved to assign the Wedge to Delaware in 1921.
Eastern shore of the Narragansett Bay Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
Plymouth Colony (to 1691)
Province of Massachusetts Bay (from 1691)
1636 1898 Claimed by both Rhode Island and Plymouth Colony. Plymouth's claim was inherited by the newly created Province of Massachusetts Bay when the latter was created in 1691 from the merger of earlier Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth Colonies. A royal decree in 1746 assigned the land to Rhode Island, but Massachusetts continued to press its claim until 1898.
New York – New Jersey Line War  New York
 New Jersey
1701 1756 Dispute over the southern border of Province of New York and the northern border of the Province of New Jersey. Raiding parties kidnapped and burned crops.
Isla Martín García  Argentina
1879 1973 After the Conquest of the Desert was launched in 1879, many indigenous leaders captured were confined there. The island was transferred to Argentine Navy jurisdiction in 1886. The island's distance from the Uruguayan territory is less than 3 km, and its jurisdictional status was formally established by the Treaty of Río de la Plata between Uruguay and Argentina on November 19, 1973.
Cordillera del Cóndor-Cenepa River  Peru
1828 1998
Caquetá-Putumayo  Peru
1821 1934
Acre-Pando  Peru
1825 1909
Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case  Argentina
1881 1902 After the signature of the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina differing interpretations on whether the highest Andean peaks (favouring Argentina) or the continental divide (favouring Chile) was to be considered the boundary.
Puna de Atacama dispute  Argentina
1889 1898
Clipperton Island  Mexico
1897 1931 Disputed between France and Mexico. On January 28, 1931, King Victor Emanuel, selected as a neutral arbitrator, finally declared Clipperton to be a French possession, and it has remained relatively undisputed ever since.
Beagle conflict  Argentina
1898 1982
Río Encuentro-Alto Palena dispute [es]  Argentina
1913 1966
Pirara dispute [pt]  British Guiana
1842 1904 In 1842, a Brazilian ambassador went to London to suggest that the dispute be submitted to neutral arbitration. The United Kingdom and Brazil signed a treaty on November 6, 1901, agreeing to arbitration to establish the boundary between northern Brazil and British Guiana. A decision was taken by King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy to resolve the Pirara Question, in which 19,630 square kilometres (7,580 sq mi) would be handed over to British Guiana, and 13,570 square kilometres (5,240 sq mi) would be returned to Brazil, thus defining the limits of the border.[130]
Laguna del Desierto  Argentina
1949 1994
Missouri  United States
 Confederate States
1861 1865 After the Missouri secession, the State of Missouri was claimed by both the United States and Confederate States until the defeat of the Confederacy in the American Civil War
Border of New Hampshire and Canada  United States
 United Kingdom
1783 1842 Ill-defined terms of the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Revolutionary War left the boundary of the state of New Hampshire and Canada in doubt. The lack of a precise definition of the "northwesternmost head of the Connecticut River" as defined by the Treaty of Paris left the land that is now the town of Pittsburg, New Hampshire within the conflicting jurisdiction of both the United States and Great Britain. In 1832 residents of the area established the short-lived Republic of Indian Stream in the area; the minuscule population of the putative nation never exceeded about 300. The boundary was finally settled definitively by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842.
Sverdrup Islands  Norway
 United Kingdom
1928 1930 In 1928 Norway asserted its claim of sovereignty over the Sverdrup Islands. The islands are named after Norwegian explorer Otto Sverdrup, who explored and mapped them from 1898 to 1902 with the vessel Fram, although some were previously inhabited by Inuit. Sverdrup claimed the islands for Norway, but the Norwegian government did not pursue the claim until 1928. At that point, the Norwegian government raised the claim, primarily to use the islands as bargaining chips in negotiations with the United Kingdom over the status of the Arctic island Jan Mayen and the Antarctic Bouvet Island. On November 11, 1930, Norway ceded the Sverdrup Islands to Canada, in exchange for British recognition of Norway's sovereignty over Jan Mayen.[131]
San Andrés and Providencia, Bajo Nuevo Bank, and Serranilla Bank  Colombia
1886 2012[132] Jamaica implicitly withdrew its claim by accepting the nautical chart affixed to a 1993 treaty that established a Joint Regime Area with Colombia, excluding Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank.[133] Honduras and the United States continue to dispute sovereignty over both banks.
Tacna–Arica compromise  Chile
1883 1929
Pacific Ocean Sea border  Chile
1985 2014[134] Part of the broader territorial dispute.
Erik the Red's Land  Denmark
1931 1933[136]
Isla Portillos [es]  Costa Rica
2010 2018 On 2 Feb 2018, the ICJ rendered a decision in a border dispute between Nicaragua and Costa Rica regarding Isla Portillos [es]. Nicaragua was left with just the Laguna Los Portillos and its short strip of beach. The court also decided that the sea just outside of the lagoon would be Costa Rican waters. The ICJ concluded that the whole beach is Costa Rican except for the part directly between the lagoon and the Caribbean Sea – now a tiny enclave of Nicaraguan territory separated from the rest of the country.[137]
Hans Island  Canada
Denmark Denmark ( Greenland)
1972 2022 Claimed by both Canada and the Kingdom of Denmark (on behalf of Greenland). Resolved by treaty splitting the island between Canada and Greenland.[138]
Oyster Pond  Netherlands
2016 2023 Claimed by both The Kingdom of the Netherlands (on behalf of Sint Maarten) and France (on behalf of Saint Martin).[139][140][141][142] Resolved by agreement splitting the bay in the middle.[143]


Territory Former Claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Bouvet Island  Norway
 United Kingdom
1927 1929 The United Kingdom claimed this Antarctic island as Lindsay/Liverpool Island based on sightings going back to 1808, but Norway landed there in 1927. In November 1929, Britain renounced its claim to the island.[144]


Territory Former claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Israeli–Lebanese maritime border  Israel
2010 2022
Katchatheevu  Sri Lanka
1921 1974 The dispute on the status of the island of Kachatheevu was settled in 1974 by an agreement between both countries.[145] But still some cases are ongoing in High Court of Madras which are filed earlier regarding this dispute stating as illegally issued to Sri Lanka.[146] Several actions were still taken by the union government of India to retrieve that island back to Indian territory once again.[147]
Great Rann of Kutch  India
1965 1968 In January 1965, Pakistan claimed the area of the Great Rann of Kutch on the basis of the Sindh province,[148] eventually launching an operation in the area in April 1965. Later the same year, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Wilson persuaded the combatants to end hostilities and establish a tribunal to resolve the dispute. A verdict was reached in 1968 which saw Pakistan getting 10% of its claim of 9,100 square kilometres (3,500 sq mi). 90% was awarded to India, although India claimed 100% of the region.
Tiran and Sanafir Islands  Saudi Arabia
1906 2017 These islands were transferred to Saudi Arabia in 2017.
Arabi Island and Farsi Island  Iran
 Saudi Arabia
1968 1968 These islands were disputed between Iran and Saudi Arabia. In 1968 Iran and Saudi Arabia had an agreement that Farsi island be given to Iran and Arabi island be given to Saudi Arabia.
Bay of Bengal Maritime Boundary between Bangladesh and India  India
1974 2014 India and Bangladesh had engaged in eight rounds of bilateral negotiations starting 1974 but it remained inconclusive until 2009. In October 2009, Bangladesh served India with notice of arbitration proceedings under the UNCLOS.
The Arbitration Tribunal delivered the ruling on 7 July 2014 and settled the dispute.[149]
Indo-Bangladesh enclaves, adverse possessions and undemarcated land boundaries  India
1947 2015 Following Partition of Bengal (1947), the issues of adverse possessions, enclaves and unmarked boundary arose. Inside the main part of Bangladesh, there were 111 Indian enclaves (69.45 km2), while inside the main part of India, there were 51 Bangladeshi enclaves (28.77 km2). In 1974 Bangladesh approved a proposed treaty, Land Boundary Agreement, to exchange all enclaves within each other's territories, but India did not ratify it. Another agreement was agreed upon in 2011 to exchange enclaves and adverse possessions. With respect to adverse possessions, India received 7,110.2 acres of land and transferred 17,160.63 acres to Bangladesh. India ratified the agreement by constitutional amendment in May 2015.[150]
Muhurichar river island  India
1974 2011 Historically controlled by India but claimed by Bangladesh, disputed from approximately 1974.[151] An agreement was reached on the demarcation of the border in the area in 2011,[152] and in 2019 the Indian government confirmed that it no longer had any outstanding boundary dispute with Bangladesh.[153]
South Talpatti/New Moore/Purbasha Island  India
1975 2010 This former dispute over a small island never more than two meters above sea level was contested from the island's appearance in the 1970s to its disappearance, likely due to climate change,[154] in the first decade of the 2000s. Though land disputes no longer exist, the maritime boundary was not settled until 2014.[155][156][157]
Sakhalin Island  Russian Empire
 Empire of Japan
1845 1875 Japan unilaterally proclaimed sovereignty over the whole island in 1845, but its claims were ignored by the Russian Empire. The 1855 Treaty of Shimoda acknowledged that both Russia and Japan had joint rights of occupation to Sakhalin, without setting a definite territorial demarcation. As the island became settled in the 1860s and 1870s, this ambiguity led to increasing friction between settlers. Attempts by the Tokugawa shogunate to purchase the entire island from the Russian Empire failed, and the new Meiji government was unable to negotiate a partition of the island into separate territories.
In 1875 by the Treaty of Saint Petersburg, Japan agreed to give up its claims on Sakhalin in exchange for undisputed ownership of the Kuril Islands. In 1905 under the Treaty of Portsmouth Japan gained Sakhalin to the 50th parallel, but lost it again in 1945.
Palmas Island (modern-day Miangas Island)  Philippines
 Dutch East Indies
1906 1928 Dispute between the United States and the Netherlands over the Palmas island located south of the Philippines, which was then American territory. The Netherlands believed that the islands were part of the Dutch East Indies. The territorial dispute was solved through the Island of Palmas case which decided that the Palmas Island belongs to the Netherlands. Palmas Island, now Miangas Island, is a part of modern Indonesia.
Trans-Karakoram Tract, including Shaksgam Valley  Pakistan
(still claimed by:
 People's Republic of China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1])
1947 1963 Pakistan relinquished its claim to the People's Republic of China; India did not.
Sinai Peninsula  Israel
1967 1982 During the Six-Day War Israel claimed Sinai. It was returned in 1982 under the terms of the 1979 Egypt–Israel peace treaty.
Taba  Israel
1979 1989 When Egypt and Israel were negotiating the exact position of the border in preparation for the 1979 peace treaty, Israel claimed that Taba had been on the Ottoman side of a border agreed between the Ottomans and British Egypt in 1906 and had, therefore, been in error in its two previous agreements. Although most of Sinai was returned to Egypt in 1982, Taba was the last portion to be returned. The issue was submitted to an international commission. In 1988, the commission ruled in Egypt's favour, and Israel returned Taba to Egypt in 1989.
Phú Quốc island and Thổ Chu Islands area  Vietnam
1939 1982 In 1939, Governor General of Indochina, Jules Brévié, sent a letter to the Governor of Cochinchina about “the issue of the islands in the Gulf of Siam whose is a matter of controversy between Cambodia and Cochin-China”. In this letter,“for administrative purposes”, he drew a line which defined the border between the waters of Cambodia and Cochin-China: all the islands north of the line are under Cambodian sovereignty, all the islands south of the line are ruled by Cochin-China. As a result, Phú Quốc was under Cochinchina administration. In 1949, Cochin-China became part of Vietnam, an Associated State in the French Union within the Indochinese Federation. After the Geneva Accords, in 1954, its sovereignty was handed over to the State of Vietnam. In 1964, then Head of State Prince Norodom Sihanouk proposed to the Vietnamese a map aimed at settling the issue. Cambodia offered to accept the colonial “Brévié Line” as the maritime boundary, thus abandoning its claim. That position of Cambodia was confirmed by maps given to the mission sent by the UN Security Council after the Chantrea incidents. On June 8, 1967, the Vietnamese issued a declaration that accepted the “Brévié Line” as the maritime border. On May 1, 1975, a squad of Khmer Rouge soldiers raided and took Phú Quốc, but Vietnam soon recaptured it. This was to be the first of a series of incursions and counter-incursions that would escalate to the Cambodian–Vietnamese War in 1979. Cambodia dropped its claims to Phú Quốc in 1976.[158] But the bone of contention involving the island between the governments of the two countries continued, as both have a historical claim to it and the surrounding waters. A July 1982 agreement between Vietnam and the People's Republic of Kampuchea ostensibly settled the dispute; however, it is still the object of irredentist sentiments.
Turtle Islands Philippines Philippine Islands
 North Borneo
1930 1930 Dispute between the United States and the United Kingdom over the Turtle Islands located south of the Philippines, which was then American territory. In a 1930 treaty the United Kingdom acknowledged American sovereignty over the islands and was agreed upon that the British would remain administering the island until the United States express interest to take over control over the islands after a one-year notice. When the Philippines gained full independence from the United States in 1946, the Philippines invoked the treaty and the British turned over the islands to the Philippines in 1947.
West Bank, including East Jerusalem  Israel
1967 1988 During the Six-Day War, Israel conquered these territories from Jordan. Jordan later renounced the claim on the territory, supporting instead its inclusion in a future Palestine.
Ligitan and Sipadan  Malaysia
1969 2002 The 2002 International Court of Justice ruling awarded both islands to Malaysia, but left unsettled the maritime boundary immediately southwest and west of the islands between Malaysia and Indonesia.
Hawar Islands  Qatar
1971 2001 Formerly disputed between Qatar and Bahrain, it was settled by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague. In the June 2001 decision, Bahrain kept the Hawar Islands and Qit'at Jaradah but dropped claims to Janan Island and Zubarah on mainland Qatar, while Qatar retained significant maritime areas and their resources. The agreement has furthered the goal of definitively establishing the border with Saudi Arabia and Saudi-led mediation efforts continue.
Batek Island  Indonesia
 East Timor
2002 2004 Ceded by Timor-Leste to Indonesia in August 2004.
11,000 square miles (28,000 km2) of territory in Xinjiang[77]  Pakistan
(still claimed by:
 People's Republic of China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1])
1947 1963 Pakistan relinquished its claim to the People's Republic of China.
Aksai Chin[20]  Pakistan
(still claimed by:
 People's Republic of China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1])
1947 1963 Pakistan relinquished its claim to the People's Republic of China; India did not.
Demchok sector  Pakistan
(still claimed by:
 People's Republic of China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1])
1947 1963 Claimed as part of the princely state of Kashmir.
Chumar[77]  Pakistan
(still claimed by:
 People's Republic of China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1])
1947 1963 Claimed as part of the princely state of Kashmir. Pakistan relinquished its claim to the People's Republic of China; India did not.
3,700 square miles (9,600 km2) of territory in Gilgit-Baltistan, and the Siachen Glacier[77]  Pakistan
 People's Republic of China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1])
1960 1963 The People's Republic of China relinquished its claim to Pakistan. India and the Republic of China did not.
Saudi Arabia–Yemen border demarcation dispute  Saudi Arabia
1934 2000 Settled by the Treaty of Jeddah (2000).
Limbang District  Malaysia
1967 2010 Limbang District was part of Brunei until it was forced to cede it to the Raj of Sarawak in 1890. Since then Brunei is divided territorially into two. It was claimed by Brunei in 1967 in order to reconnect the country. It forms the main part of the Brunei–Malaysia border#Disputes. Malaysia claimed to settle the issue in 2009, however this was disputed by Brunei. Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei dropping claims to Limbang.[20]
Hanish Islands  Yemen
1995 1999 In December 1995, Eritrea entered into a dispute with Yemen over claims to the Hanish Islands and fishing rights in the Red Sea. This dispute was resolved in 1999 when the islands were awarded to Yemen through international arbitration, and the Eritreans complied with the verdict.
Shatt al-Arab  Iran
1936 1988 Settled by the 1975 Algiers Agreement. Reneged on by Iraq in 1980, but re-agreed to in 1988.
Makati–Taguig boundary dispute Taguig
1983 2023 Taguig claimed more than 7.29 square kilometres (2.81 sq mi) of land in Fort Bonifacio, an area formerly administered by Makati. On August 5, 2013, the Court of Appeals Sixth Division ruled that Makati had legal jurisdiction over the area, thus invalidating Taguig's claim.[159] Taguig did not abandon its claims and petitioned the Court of Appeals to have the decision revoked.[160] Pateros also claimed the area and filed a petition before the Taguig Regional Court Branch 271 in 2012 concerning its claim. Pateros reiterated its claims in 2013 following the decision of the Court of Appeals awarding Makati jurisdiction over the area.[161][162] The Supreme Court finally ruled in favor of Taguig in 2023,[163] and the ruling began to be implemented in that year's elections.
Certain islands in the Naf River, St. Martin's Island  Bangladesh
1971 2019 The dispute dates back to the independence of Bangladesh. The two countries agreed on Bangladeshi sovereignty over St. Martin's Island in 1974, but a maritime dispute continued. Marked by sporadic border violence, including the Tatmadaw shooting Bangladeshi fishermen, the maritime dispute was solved in 2012 by an ITLOS ruling. Then, in 2018, a diplomatic incident occurred when the Burmese government released an official map depicting St. Martin's Island as Burmese territory.[164] Myanmar subsequently acknowledged Bangladeshi sovereignty over St. Martin's Island and finally removed it from its official map by 2019.[165]
Assam-Arunachal Pradesh border Assam
Arunachal Pradesh
1951 2023 The dispute between the two Indian states spanned 1,200 points[166] and contained 123 villages, dating as far back as a 1951 single-member commission land transfer recommendation when Arunachal Pradesh was the North-East Frontier Agency. In April 2023, both states signed a memorandum of understanding to jointly demarcate their border. By September 2023, 115 villages went to Arunachal Pradesh and 8 villages went to Assam.[167]
Kuwait-Saudi Arabia border, Qaruh, and Umm al Maradim  Kuwait
 Saudi Arabia
 United Kingdom
1913 2019 The dispute dates as far back as when the United Kingdom and Ottoman Empire signed the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, defining the border in two phases: a formal boundary as well as a British "sphere of influence". This agreement was never ratified due to major complications: the Ottoman Empire had no de facto control over any of the area, because the Sheikhdom of Kuwait was effectively a British protectorate, Najd Sanjak was occupied by the Emirate of Nejd and Hasa, and the signatories proceeded to fight against each other in World War I, which ended in the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. From 1919-1920, the Saudis attempted to annex Kuwait in the Kuwait-Najd War, which ended in the Uqair Protocol of 1922. The Protocol defined a "neutral zone" between the Sheikhdom of Kuwait and Sultanate of Nejd. The State of Kuwait inherited the United Kingdom's territorial claim when it gained independence in 1961. In 1965, a separation line was drawn halfway through the neutral zone; Qaruh and Umm al Maradim are north of the line. Kuwait interpreted as the de jure border but Saudi Arabia recognized it only as de facto, leaving the sovereignty of the northern half of the "neutral zone" in question. In 1990, Ba'athist Iraq invaded Kuwait; the Republic of Kuwait was declared and annexed into Iraq, causing the Gulf War. Kuwaiti and Coalition forces recaptured Qaruh and Umm al-Maradim in one of the first battles of the war, which ended in total Iraqi defeat and withdrawal of Iraq's territorial claim. Finally, in 2019, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia signed a memorandum of understanding in which Saudi Arabia recognized the separation line as a permanent international border.[168]
Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding territories, parts of Goranboy, Khojavend, and Tartar districts  Azerbaijan
1988 2024 Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan[169] but controlled by the Republic of Artsakh, which was de facto supported by Armenia until its dissolution in 2024. Artsakh claimed a part of Goranboy district, which it lost during Operation Goranboy in 1993 during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War, as part of Shahumyan Province. Artsakh also claimed but did not control parts of Khojavend and Tartar districts as parts of Martuni and Martakert provinces, respectively. Azerbaijan captured the surrounding territories and the city of Shusha during the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War in 2020, then finally all of Nagorno-Karabakh proper during a 2023 offensive.


Territory Former claimants Dispute started Dispute settled Notes
Village of Aibga and surrounding area[170][171]  Republic of Abkhazia
2011 2011 During the existence of the Soviet Union, the village of Aibga was divided into two; the southern part belonged to Georgia and the northern part to Russia. In March 2011 Russia laid claim to the southern area of Aibga. After the Abkhaz side proved that the southern part of Aibga belonged to the Georgian SSR, the claim on the village was dropped by Russia.[172]
Åland  Finland
1917 1921 Sweden and Finland argued over the control of the Åland Islands (located between Sweden and Finland). The Åland movement (Ålandsrörelsen) wanted Åland to reunite with its old mother country Sweden (Finland and Åland belonged to Sweden before 1809). The movement gathered signatures from over 7000 inhabitants of legal age at the Åland Islands in 1917 (that was about 96% of the population) - they all supported a union with Sweden. When Finland became independent (December 6, 1917) Sweden wanted a plebiscite about the future of the Åland Islands to solve the problem. Finland refused and argued that the Åland Islands had always been a natural part of Finland - even when Finland was under Swedish rule. Sweden appealed to the League of Nations referring to the right of the population to determine which country they should belong to. After studying the matter closely the League of Nations decided Finland should retain sovereignty over the province but that the Åland Islands should be made an autonomous territory. The Swedish Prime Minister said he didn't accept the verdict but he also said that Sweden was not going to use military force to get their claims.[173]
Baltic Sea  Poland
1978 2018 Poland has decided to cede to Denmark 80 percent of the disputed territory[174]
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina  Soviet Union
 Socialist Republic of Romania
1940 1989 On 13 November 1989, Nicolae Ceauşescu demanded the annulment of the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact, pursuant to which Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina were occupied by the Soviet Union, and the return of these territories to Romania. This demand was officially adopted as party policy by 14th Congress of the Communist Party of Romania, held later the same month. Ceauşescu was overthrown in the Romanian Revolution in December 1989 before the claim could be seriously pursued, and the post-revolutionary National Salvation Front abandoned it.
Bulgaria-Turkey riverine border  Bulgaria
1990 1990 The border at the Rezovo's mouth was the subject of a minor territorial dispute between Bulgaria and Turkey, which was settled in the 1990s. As a result of an agreement between the two countries of 6 May 1992 (ratified by Bulgaria in 1998), Bulgaria received a small land area of several square kilometres in the Rezovo Bay in return for water area in the continental shelf.
Graham Island  Two Sicilies
Malta Malta
1831 1831 A dispute between the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the British Crown Colony of Malta, the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of Spain occurred after the volcanic island appeared in 1831. The British were the first to claim the island as part of Malta, and they were followed by the Two Sicilies and France, while Spain expressed their ambitions to control the island. The island disappeared by December 1831 and the dispute stopped. A Sicilian flag was lowered over the now submerged island in 2000 to show Italian claims to the area. It is no longer disputed by Britain, France, Spain or Malta.
Lampedusa  Kingdom of Sicily
Malta Malta
1800 1814 The island was controlled by British troops as a de facto part of the Malta Protectorate from 1800 onwards. After a British royal commission was sent there in 1812, the new Governor of Malta Sir Thomas Maitland withdrew British troops and the island was returned to Sicily.
Tenedos/Bozcaada  Turkey
1920 1923 On 11 August 1920, following World War I, the Treaty of Sèvres with the defeated Ottoman Empire granted the island to Greece, who joined the war in Allies' side in May 1917. The new Turkish Government of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, based in Ankara, which was not party to the treaty, overthrew the Ottoman government, which signed but did not ratify the treaty. After the Turkish War of Independence ended in Greek defeat in Anatolia, and the fall of David Lloyd George and his Middle Eastern policies after the Carlton Club meeting, the western powers agreed to the Treaty of Lausanne with the new Turkish Republic, in 1923. This treaty made Tenedos/Bozcaada and Imbros part of Turkey, and it guaranteed a special autonomous administrative status there to accommodate the Greeks.
Island of Ireland  United Kingdom
 Revolutionary Irish Republic
1919 1922 On 21 January 1919, the 69 Sinn Féin MPs elected in the 1918 United Kingdom general election in Ireland to the British House of Commons refused to take their seats in the British Parliament and instead assembled in a separate parliament in Ireland, which proclaimed Irish independence under a revolutionary Irish Republic, leading to the Irish War of Independence. In 1920, following the collapse of the British administration, the revolutionary republic established control over 21 of Ireland's 32 counties,[175] with only urban areas and what would later become Northern Ireland remaining under British control; however, by the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921, which ended the war of independence, the revolutionary republic was replaced by the Irish Free State—a semi-independent Dominion of the British Empire albeit separate from the United Kingdom itself—on 6 December 1922. A day later, Northern Ireland opted out of inclusion in the Irish Free State and returned to the UK, thus de facto effecting the partition of Ireland into two regions, established de jure by the British Parliament's Government of Ireland Act 1920 on 23 December 1920. On 1 July 1937, the Irish Free State adopted a new constitution, by which it declared itself a fully independent state simply called "Ireland"; this Constitution also declared a claim to Northern Ireland until 1998.
Northern Ireland  United Kingdom
1937 1998 Formerly disputed between Ireland and the United Kingdom since the Adoption of the Constitution of Ireland on 29 December 1937, it was settled by the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, when Ireland amended its constitution to withdraw its constitutional claim. Both countries acknowledged that the territory can join the rest of Ireland if separate referendums in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland approve of the former's cession.
Pytalovo (Abrene in Latvia)  Russia
1991 2007 Pytalovo was a village in the parish of Vyshgorogok, the westernmost part of the Ostrov uyezd, Governorate of Pskov that was ceded from RSFSR to Latvia under the Treaty of Riga (1920) along with parishes of Kachanovo and Tonkovo. In 1940 Latvian Republic was annexed by the Soviet Union and Latvian SSR was established, encompassing the above named territories until 1944 when they were transferred to the district of Ostrov, Pskov Oblast, RSFSR.[176] Since 1991 reestablished Republic of Latvia disputed Russian jurisdiction over the region until the border treaty with Russia was signed in 2007.[177]
Ivangorod/Jaanilinn and Pechorsky District/Petserimaa  Russia
1991 2014 In 1917, the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia was formed by merging the governorates of Estonia and (parts of) Livonia. In the same year, a referendum was held in the midst of the Russian Revolution, joining Narva (and Ivangorod) to the governorate, which were previously part of Saint Petersburg Governorate.[178] The south-eastern border was based on old provincial borders, which lay west of the present border.[179] Under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu, the border of the newly established Republic of Estonia was set eastwards after border talks, incorporating the later-formed Petseri County. Estonia was occupied and annexed by the USSR in 1940. In 1944, decrees of the USSR Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, set the northeastern border along Narva river, re-ceding Ivangorod to Leningrad Oblast and select volosts/parishes of Petserimaa to Pskov Oblast. The Estonian constitution still references the 1920 treaty as the border. Repeated attempts to resolve the border dispute have de jure failed, as no border treaty has been ratified.[180] The unratified agreement does, however, renounce Estonian claims to these lands, in addition to acknowledgements of the de facto situation by heads of state and government at various points.[181][182]
Black Sea and Snake Island  Ukraine
2004 2009 In 2004 Romania filed a case to International Court of Justice claiming that Ukraine's Snake Island was an uninhabitable rock under UNCLOS standards and thus not eligible to carry influence over determination of the maritime boundary between the two states. During the Soviet times the island was a small naval station with a lighthouse. In 2007 the Ukrainian parliament approved an establishment of a small settlement there, Bile, as part of the Odesa Oblast. The maritime boundary issue was settled by the International Court of Justice in 2009, awarding Romania 80% of the disputed area.
Vilnius Region  Lithuania
1920 1945 During the Polish–Soviet War Polish armies entered the Vilnius Region which was at the time part of the Soviet Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1920, Polish General Lucjan Żeligowski led a coup and established the Republic of Central Lithuania which was annexed to the Second Polish Republic after the war as part of the historic Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and due to ethnic Poles in the region. Lithuania moved its capital to Kaunas while never giving up its claim to Vilnius. The Lithuanians found support in the Soviet Union for their cause signing the Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty in 1939. Following the Soviet invasion of Poland, the region came under Soviet control and became part of the Lithuanian SSR after World War II which was followed by a large number of ethnic Poles being deported two times. Following the fall of the Soviet Union and Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania the Vilnius region became part of Lithuania again.
Passetto di Borgo in the vicinity of the Vatican City  Italy
 Holy See
1870 1991 Pope John Paul II recognized the sovereignty of Italy over the Passetto on May 18, 1991.[183][184]
Jan Mayen  Norway
1979 1980 Norway and Iceland argued over sovereignty of Jan Mayen from the period of 1979 to 1980. The island had been annexed by Norway in 1926, and was home of a Norwegian meteorological station. During a delegation to Iceland in April 1980, Icelandic foreign minister Ólafur Jóhannesson cited statements from the late 1920s to point out how Iceland never officially recognised Norway’s annexation of the island. He also indicated that, historically, the island had much closer ties to Iceland than it did to Norway. The Icelandic government never intended to seriously dispute the sovereignty of the island, but used these points in order to gain a bargaining position over the waters surrounding the island. On the 28th of May 1980, Iceland and Norway signed a treaty which gave Iceland most of what it wanted, including a recognition of the 200 nautical mile Exclusive economic zone around Iceland.[185]

Disputes over territorial waters

Territory Claimants Notes
Part of the EEZ generated by the Natuna Islands  People's Republic of China[note 1]
 Republic of China[note 1]
The People's Republic of China claims the water off the Natuna Islands that fall under the nine-dash line claim are traditional Chinese fishing grounds. The Republic of China on Taiwan also claims the area.[186]
Beaufort Sea  Canada
Northwest Territories
Dixon Entrance
Northwest Passage and some other Arctic waters U.S. claims navigation rights
Strait of Juan de Fuca
Gulf of Venezuela and Los Monjes Archipelago surrounding waters  Colombia
Dispute regarding the undefined sea border between both countries.[187]
Aegean dispute  Greece
Broad number of delimitation disputes about a.o. national airspace, territorial waters and exclusive economic zones.
Carlingford Lough and Lough Foyle boundary dispute  Ireland
 United Kingdom
Lough Foyle divides County Donegal, Republic of Ireland, and County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Carlingford Lough divides County Louth, Republic of Ireland, and County Down, Northern Ireland.[188][189]
Dollart Bay  Germany
The exact course of the border through this bay is disputed,[190] yet the countries have agreed to disagree by signing a treaty in 1960.[191]
Lake Constance  Germany
Switzerland holds the view that the border runs through the middle of the lake.
Austria is of the opinion that the contentious area belongs to all the states on its banks.
Germany holds an ambiguous opinion.
Gulf of Piran  Slovenia
An agreement was signed (and ratified by Croatia's parliament on 20 November 2009) to pursue binding arbitration to both the land and maritime portions of this continuing dispute.
In 2015 collusion between the Slovenian judge on the arbitration panel and a representative from the Slovenian government was uncovered. The Croatian Sabor voted to withdraw from the arbitration, citing allegations of significant breaches of arbitration rules by Slovenia as the reason.
Despite this the arbitration tribunal continued its work, issuing a ruling in 2017.[192]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Since the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the de facto territories of the Republic of China (ROC) are limited to the Taiwan Area.[71][72] Meanwhile, the People's Republic of China (PRC) controls mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau.[71] Officially, both the ROC and the PRC claim de jure sovereignty over all of China (including Taiwan), and regard the other government as being in rebellion.[71][73][74] In Taiwan, the ROC's constitutional claim is supported by the Pan-Blue Coalition led by the Kuomintang, while the Pan-Green Coalition led by the Democratic Progressive Party favors Taiwanese independence and does not actively pursue the claim.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Relinquished by the People's Republic of China (PRC) but is still officially claimed by the Republic of China (ROC). Officially, both the PRC and the ROC claim de jure sovereignty over all of China (including Taiwan), and regard the other government as being in rebellion.[71][73][74] Therefore, the ROC does not recognize any territorial dispute settlement entered into by the PRC.[78]
  3. ^ a b The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) do not recognize each other.

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