The following is a list of non-state terrorist incidents that have not been carried out by a state or its forces (see state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism). Assassinations are listed at List of assassinated people.
Definitions of terrorism vary, so incidents listed here are restricted to those that:
- are not approved by the legitimate authority of a recognized state
- are illegally perpetrated against people or property
- are done to further political, religious, or ideological objectives
- United States In 1865–1877: 3,000 Freedmen and their Republican Party allies are killed by the Ku Klux Klan and well-organized campaigns of violence by other local whites in a campaign of terrorist violence that weakens the reconstructionist governments in the American South and helped re-establish legitimized segregation.
- United States 4 May 1886: Haymarket Affair. A peaceful rally in Haymarket, Chicago, Illinois, is disrupted when a bomb was detonated as police were dispersing the public demonstration.
- United States 1892, 23 July: Alexander Berkman, a Russian expatriate, attempts to assassinate Henry Clay Frick, an American industrialist, financier, and art patron, in Pittsburgh. Berkman is arrested and Frick survives. Berkman claims inspiration from the Haymarket Affair.
- Morocco 1904, 18 May: Ion Perdicaris and Cromwell Varley are kidnapped and held for ransom by bandit Mulai Ahmed er Raisuli in Morocco.
- United States 1920, 16 September: Wall Street bombing kills 38 people and wounds 300 others.
- Italy 1920, 14 October: In Trieste, nationalists throw six bombs at the editorial office of a Socialist newspaper, resulting in one death and ten injuries.
- Italy 1920, 15 October: In Milan, anarchists are responsible for throwing two bombs at a hotel holding a British delegation attending the Milan International Conference; there are two injuries.
- United States 1921, 31 May: The Tulsa race riot kills 39 people and injures over 800.
- Romania 1921, 13 December: 100 soldiers and police officers are killed by a bomb thrown by Bessarabian separatists at the Bolgrad palace.
- Mandatory Palestine 1929, August: 1929 Massacres over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem, caused by ″the Arab feeling of animosity and hostility towards the Jews″.
- Mandatory Palestine 1929, August: 1929 Hebron massacre, the mass-killing of Jews by Palestine Arabs
Kingdom of Hungary, 1931: A Hungarian terrorist, Matuska Szilveszter detonated a personnel train at Biatorbágy. 22 passengers died in the attack, 17 others were severely injured.
- Mandatory Palestine 1930-1935: Black Hand, anti-Zionist and anti-British terror organisation founded by Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam performed raids on Jewish civilian habitations and sabotages of British-constructed rail lines. Today, its legacy lives on in the military wing of the Palestinian Islamist political organisation Hamas, called Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, founded 1991; as well as in the Qassam rocket (since 2001).
- Mandatory Palestine 1936–39: 1936–39 Arab revolt , Palestine Arab "gang and terrorist activities" against British colonial rule, and Jewish immigrants.
- Mandatory Palestine 1937–1948: The Irgun are responsible for numerous attacks in British-mandated Palestine.
- United States 1940–1956: George Metesky, the "Mad Bomber", places over 30 bombs in New York City in public places such as Grand Central Terminal and The Paramount Theater, injuring ten during this period, in protest against the local electric utility. He also sends many threatening letters.
- United States 1940, 4 July: Time bomb is recovered from the British Pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair, two policemen are killed.
- Mandatory Palestine 1946, July 22: The King David Hotel bombing by Zionist paramilitary group Irgun kills 91 and injures 46 non-fatally.
- Romania 1947, 25 July: Three Romanian terrorists kill an aircrew member aboard a Romanian airliner. This is regarded as the first aircraft hijack resulting in a fatality.
- Philippines 1949, 7 May: thirteen people are killed as a Philippine airliner explodes in flight travelling from Daet to Manila. A time bomb detonates 30 minutes after departure near Alabat Island.
- Israel 1954, 17 March: an Israeli civilian passenger bus is attacked by unknown assailants at the Scorpions Pass in the Negev, resulting in the deaths of eleven passengers.
- Cyprus 1956, 16 June: The United States vice consul is killed and six other consulate staff are injured when a terrorist throws 2 bombs in a restaurant in Nicosia.
- Lebanon 1958, 15 August: Three people are killed in a bomb blast in Beirut. The bombing also injures ten more at a grocery store near the Lebanese Parliament.
- Cuba 1960, 5 March: The French freighter La Coubre explodes, killing between 75 and 100 people with 200 injured. The government suspects sabotage.
- Greece 1967, 12 November: A bomb explodes on board Cyprus Airways Flight 284 near Rhodes killing all 66 people on the aircraft.
- Israel 1968, 4 September: Three bombs are detonated in Tel Aviv, killing one person and injuring 51 people.
- Italy 1969, 12 December: Piazza Fontana bombing in Milan kills at least thirteen people and injures at least 85. Three additional blasts occur in Rome, injuring 16 people.
- ^ Jonathan M. Bryant: Ku Klux Klan in the Reconstruction Era, The New Georgia Encyclopedia, 3 October 2002
- ^ Fettman, Eric (20 January 2008). "The Bloody Shirt Terror After Appomattox by Stephen Budiansky Viking Press". New York Post. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
- ^ "PERDICARIS AND VARLEY ARE IN GRAVE DANGER; An American Resident of Tangier Tells of the Situation". The New York Times. 22 May 1904. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- ^ "History News Service". H-net.org. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
- ^ a b "BOMB WARFARE RAGING IN ITALY". The New York Times. 15 October 1920. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- ^ Austin Sarat (1 January 2009). When Law Fails: Making Sense of Miscarriages of Justice. NYU Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8147-6225-7. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- ^ "PALACE BOMBED, 100 KILLED; Bessarabian Conspirators Accused of Outrage at Bolgard". The New York Times. 14 December 1921. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
- ^ THE “WAILING WALL” RIOTS (1929) AS A WATERSHED IN THE PALESTINE CONFLICT, Avraham Sela, 3 Apr 2007
- ^ http://mult-kor.hu/cikk.php?id=14764
- ^ Hughes, M. (2009) The banality of brutality: British armed forces and the repression of the Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936–39, English Historical Review Vol. CXXIV No. 507, 314–354.
- ^ "Mad Bomber,' Now 70, Goes Free Today; Mad Bomber,' Now 70, Goes Free Today 37 Blasts Set Initials 'F.P.' Explained Institute Assailed". The New York Times. 13 December 1973. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- ^ "POLICE DIE IN BLAST; Timed Device Explodes After it is Taken out of Pavilion". The New York Times. 5 July 1940. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- ^ Clarke, Thurston. By Blood and Fire, G. P. Puttnam's Sons, New York, 1981
- ^ Pistole, John S. (3 March 2011). "Administrator Pistole’s remarks before the American Bar Association’s 6th Annual Homeland Security Law Institute". TSA. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
- ^ "Pair Admits Planting Bomb That Killed 13". The Telegraph-Herald. 3 June 1949. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- ^ Israel's Border Wars, 1949–1956, p. 309, Benny Morris, Oxford University Press, 1997
- ^ Gilroy, Harry (22 March 1954). "Exploiting of Negev's Resources May Be Slowed by Bus Slayings; Security Moves May Act as a Brake on Developing Area Vital to Israel". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- ^ Bigart, Homer (17 June 1956). "U.S. Vice Consul Is Killed By Cyprus Terrorist Bomb". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- ^ Brewers, Sam Pope (16 August 1958). "TERRORIST'S BOMB KILLS 3 IN BEIRUT". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- ^ Phillips, R. Hart (5 March 1960). "75 DIE IN HAVANA AS MUNITIONS SHIP EXPLODES AT DOCK". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- ^ "Crash Off Turkey Kills All 66 on Jet". The New York Times. 12 October 1967. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
- ^ Feron, James (5 September 1968). "Fatal Bombing in Tel Aviv Stirs Mob Attack on Arabs". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- ^ "Blast in Milan Kills 13, Hurts 85; 3 More Bombs Injure 16 in Rome". The New York Times. 13 December 1969. Retrieved 2015-03-05.