List of textile fibres

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Textile fibres can be created from many natural sources (animal hair or fur, insect cocoons as with silk worm cocoons), as well as semisynthetic methods that use naturally-occurring polymers, and synthetic methods that use polymer-based materials, and even minerals such as metals to make foils and wires. The textile industry requires that fibre content be provided on content labels. These labels are used to test textiles under different conditions to meet safety standards (for example, for flame-resistance), and to determine whether or not a textile is machine washable or must be dry-cleaned. Common textile fibres used in global fashion today include:[1][2][3]

Animal-based fibres[edit]

Fibre Source Attribute
Byssus Pinna nobilis Warmth, lightweight
Chiengora Dog Fluffy, lightweight
Qiviut Muskoxen Softness, warmth
Yak Yak Heavy, warmth
Rabbit Rabbits Softness
Wool Sheep Warmth
Lambswool Lambs Softness, elasticity, warmth
Cashmere wool Indian cashmere goat Softness
Mohair wool North African angora goat Dyes well, lightweight
Camel hair Arabian ña / Guanaco / [South America camelid varieties Softness, warmth
Angora wool Angora rabbit Softness, blends well with other fibres
Silk Silk worm Smooth fabric finish with high shine
Alpaca Alpaca Soft, warmth, lightweight
Llama Llama Lightweight, insulating
Vicuna Vicuna Expensive, luxurious, soft
Aralac Milk Soft, silky, hygroscopic

Plant-based fibres (cellulosic fibres)[edit]

Fibre Source Attribute
Abacá Abaca plant Thin, lightweight
Coir Coconut Strength, durability
Cotton Shrub Lightweight, absorbent
Flax Herbaceous plant Lightweight, absorbent, used to make linen
Jute Vegetable plant in linden family Strength, durability
Kapok pentandra tree Fluffy
Kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus Rough
Raffia Raffia palm Carpet/rough
Bamboo Grass pulp Lightweight, pliable fibre
Hemp Cannabis Strength, durability
Modal Beech tree Softness, lightweight
Piña Pineapple leaf Soft, lightweight
Ramie Flowering plant in nettle family Heavy, tough
Sisal Agave sisalana Strength, durability
Soy protein Tofu-manufacturing waste Wooly, lightweight
Rayon Wood Pulp Soft, lightweight, absorbent
Lyocell Eucalyptus Tree Soft, lightweight, absorbent
Acetate Wood Pulp Lustrous, thermoplastic

Mineral-based fibres[edit]

Fibre Source Attribute
Asbestos Cloth asbestos Fire-resistance, light weight, carcinogenic
Glass, Fibreglass Mixed silicates Fire-resistance, futuristic appearance in some Foil, fibres, wire

Synthetic fibres[edit]

Fibre Source Attribute
Nylon Petroleum Products Durable, strong, lightweight, dries quickly
Polyester Petroleum Products Durable, strong, lightweight, dries quickly
Spandex Petroleum Products Elastic, strong, lightweight
Acrylic Petroleum Products Lightweight, warm, dries quickly
Modacrylic Petroleum Products Lightweight, warm, dries quickly
Kevlar Aramids Very strong
Nomex Aramids Chemical, electrical, and flame resistant

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Calderin, Jay (2009). Form, Fit, Fashion. Rockport. pp. 116–7. ISBN 978-1-59253-541-5. 
  2. ^ "BBC GCSE Bitesize: Types of Fibre". BBC. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  3. ^ "FiberSource: The Manufactured Fiber Industry". FiberSource. Retrieved November 10, 2011.