|The location of the names on the tower|
On the Eiffel Tower, 72 names of French scientists, engineers, and mathematicians are engraved in recognition of their contributions. Gustave Eiffel chose this "invocation of science" because of his concern over the protests against the tower, and chose names of those who has distinguished themselves since 1789. The engravings are found on the sides of the tower under the first balcony, in letters about 60 cm (24 in) tall, and were originally painted in gold. The engraving was painted over at the beginning of the 20th century and restored in 1986–87 by Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, the company that the city of Paris contracts to operate the Tower. The repainting of 2010–11 restored the letters to their original gold colour. There are also names of the engineers who helped build the Tower and design its architecture on a plaque on the top of the Tower, where a laboratory was built as well.
The list is split in four parts (for each side of the tower). The sides have been named after the parts of Paris that each side faces:
- The North-East side (also known as La Bourdonnais side)
- The South-East side (also known as the Military School side)
- The South-West side (also known as the Grenelle side)
- The North West side (also known as the Trocadéro side)
In the table below are all the names on the four sides.
|Name appearing||Full name||Occupation||Location||Portrait|
|TRESCA||Henri Tresca||engineer and mechanic||
|BRESSE||Jacques Antoine Charles Bresse||civil engineer and hydraulic engineer||
|BELANGER||Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Joseph Bélanger||mathematician and hydraulic engineer||
|LAPLACE||Pierre-Simon Laplace||mathematician and astronomer||
|DULONG||Pierre Louis Dulong||physicist and chemist||
|AMPERE||André-Marie Ampère||mathematician and physicist||
|CHEVREUL||Michel Eugène Chevreul||chemist||
|FLACHAT||Eugène Flachat||civil engineer||
|NAVIER||Claude-Louis Marie Henri Navier||mathematician||
|CHAPTAL||Jean-Antoine Chaptal||agronomist and chemist||
|GAY-LUSSAC||Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac||chemist||
|LE CHATELIER||Louis Le Chatelier||engineer||
|BARRAL||Jean-Augustin Barral||agronomist, chemist, physicist||
|DE DION||Henri de Dion[a]||engineer||
|GOUIN||Ernest Goüin||engineer and industrialist||
|JOUSSELIN||Louis Didier Jousselin||engineer||
|BROCA||Paul Broca||physician and anthropologist||
|BECQUEREL||Antoine César Becquerel||physicist||
|CORIOLIS||Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis||engineer and scientist||
|PERRIER||François Perrier||geographer and mathematician||
|STURM||Jacques Charles François Sturm||mathematician||
|REGNAULT||Henri Victor Regnault||chemist and physicist||
|FRESNEL||Augustin-Jean Fresnel||civil engineer and physicist||
|DE PRONY||Gaspard de Prony||engineer||
|COULOMB||Charles-Augustin de Coulomb||physicist||
|MORIN||Arthur Morin||mathematician and physicist||
|HAUY||René Just Haüy||mineralogist||
|COMBES||Charles Combes||engineer and metallurgist||
|THENARD||Louis Jacques Thénard||chemist||
|ARAGO||François Arago||astronomer and physicist||
|POISSON||Siméon Denis Poisson||mathematician and physicist||
|DAGUERRE||Louis Daguerre||artist and chemist||
|LE VERRIER||Urbain Le Verrier||astronomer||
|PERDONNET||Albert Auguste Perdonnet||engineer||
|DELAMBRE||Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre||astronomer||
|BREGUET||Louis Breguet||physicist and inventor||
|CLAPEYRON||Émile Clapeyron||engineer and physicist||
|BORDA||Jean-Charles de Borda||mathematician||
|BICHAT||Marie François Xavier Bichat||anatomist and physiologist||
|SAUVAGE||François Clément Sauvage||engineer and geologist||
The list contains no women. The list has been criticized for excluding the name of Sophie Germain, a noted French mathematician whose work on the theory of elasticity was used in the construction of the tower itself. In 1913, John Augustine Zahm suggested that Germain was excluded because she was a woman.
Hydraulic engineers and scholars
Fourteen hydraulic engineers and scholars are listed on the Eiffel Tower. Eiffel acknowledged most of the leading scientists in the field. Henri Philibert Gaspard Darcy is missing; some of his work did not come into wide use until the 20th century. Also missing are Antoine Chézy, who was less famous; Joseph Valentin Boussinesq, who was early in his career at the time; and mathematician Évariste Galois. Other famous French mathematicians are missing from the list: Joseph Liouville and Charles Hermite.
- "The 72 Scientists". La Tour Eiffel. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
- Harriss, Joseph (1975). The Tallest Tower: Eiffel And The Belle Epoque. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 100–101. ISBN 0395204402.
- Gray, Mary (1978). "Sophie Germain (1776–1831)". In Grinstein, Louise S.; Campbell, Paul (eds.). Women of Mathematics: A Bibliographic Sourcebook. Greenwood. pp. 47–55. ISBN 978-0-313-24849-8.
- Mozen, H. J. (pseud.) (1913). Women in Science: With an Introductory Chapter on Women's Long Struggle for Things of the Mind. D. Appleton. pp. 154–157.
- Chanson, Hubert (13 April 2009). "Hydraulic Engineering Legends Listed on the Eiffel Tower". In Rogers, Jerry R. (ed.). Great Rivers History: Proceedings and Invited Papers for the EWRI Congress and Great Rivers History Symposium. American Society of Civil Engineers. pp. 1–7. doi:10.1061/41032(344)1. ISBN 978-0-7844-1032-5.
- Barral, Georges (1892). Le Panthéon scientifique de la tour Eiffel: histoire des origines de la construction de la Tour (in French). Savine. Reprinted as Barral, Georges (2013). Le Panthéon scientifique de la tour Eiffel: histoire des origines de la construction de la Tour (in French). Hachette Livre. ISBN 978-2-01-285936-4.