First Lord of the Admiralty

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Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
Department of the Admiralty
Member ofBoard of Admiralty
Reports toPrime Minister
NominatorPrime Minister
AppointerPrime Minister
Subject to formal approval by the King-in-Council
Term lengthNot fixed (typically 3–7 years)
Inaugural holderRichard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland
Formation1628–1964
Final holderGeorge Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe

The First Lord of the Admiralty,[1] or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty,[2] was the political head of the English and later British Royal Navy. He was the government's senior adviser on all naval affairs, responsible for the direction and control of the Admiralty, and also of general administration of the Naval Service of the Kingdom of England, Great Britain in the 18th century, and then the United Kingdom, including the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines, and other services. It was one of the earliest known permanent government posts. Apart from being the political head of the Naval Service the post holder was simultaneously the pre-eminent member of the Board of Admiralty. The office of First Lord of the Admiralty existed from 1628 until it was abolished when the Admiralty, Air Ministry, Ministry of Defence and War Office were all merged to form the new Ministry of Defence in 1964. Its modern-day equivalent is the Secretary of State for Defence.

History[edit]

In 1628, during the reign of Charles I, the Duke of Buckingham, Lord High Admiral of England, was assassinated and the office was placed in commission, under the control of a Board of Commissioners.

The first such First Lord of the Admiralty was Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland, who was appointed in 1628. The First Lord was not always a permanent member of the board until the Admiralty Department was established as an official government department in 1709[3] with the First Lord as its head; it replaced the earlier Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs.[4] During most of the 17th century and the early 18th century, it was not invariable for the Admiralty to be in commission, so there are gaps in the list of First Lords, and a small number of First Lords were for a time Lord High Admiral.

After the Revolution, in 1690, a declaratory Act was passed, during the reign of William and Mary. Parliament passed the Admiralty Act, vesting in the Commissioners the powers formerly held by the Lord High Admiral of England.[5] and at this point became a permanent Cabinet position.

The Admiralty Commission was dissolved in 1701, but was reconstituted in 1709 on the death of Prince George of Denmark,[3] who had been appointed Lord High Admiral. The office has been held in commission from that time onwards, however, except for a short period (1827–28) when the Duke of Clarence was Lord High Admiral. The Board of the Admiralty comprised a number of "Lords Commissioners" headed by a First Lord.[5]

From the early 1800s the post was always held by a civilian[6] (previously flag officers of the Royal Navy also held the post). In 1832 First Lord Sir James Graham instituted reforms and amalgamated the Board of Admiralty and the Navy Board. By the provisions of the Admiralty Act of 1832, two Lords in committee could legalise any action of the Board.[7]

In 1868 Prime Minister, William Gladstone appointed Hugh Childers First Lord, who would introduce a new system at the Admiralty. However these changes restricted communication between the board members who were affected by these new regulations, and the sittings of the Board were discontinued altogether. This situation described was further exacerbated by the disaster of HMS Captain in 1870, a poorly-designed new vessel for the navy.

The responsibility and powers of the First Lord of the Admiralty were laid down by an Order in Council dated 14 January 1869,[8] and a later Order (19 March 1872) made the First Lord responsible to the Sovereign and to Parliament for all the business of the Admiralty. However, by describing the Lords of the Admiralty as the "assistants" of the First Lord,[9] and by specifically defining their duties, this had, in fact, partially disabled the collective power of the Board.

In 1931, for the first time since 1709, the First Lord was not a member of the cabinet.[10]

In 1946, the three posts of Secretary of State for War, First Lord of the Admiralty, and Secretary of State for Air became formally subordinated to that of Minister of Defence, which had itself been created in 1940 for the co-ordination of defence and security issues.

In 1964, the office of First Lord of the Admiralty was abolished, the last holder being the second Earl Jellicoe, whose father, Admiral of the Fleet the first Earl Jellicoe, had served as First Sea Lord nearly 50 years earlier. The functions of the Lords Commissioners were then transferred to an Admiralty Board, which forms part of the tri-service Defence Council of the United Kingdom.

Principal political leaders of the English/British Armed Forces:
Royal Navy British Army Royal Air Force Co-ordination
1628 First Lord of the Admiralty
(1628–1964)
1794 Secretary of State for War
(1794–1801)
1801 Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
(1801–1854)
1854 Secretary of State for War
(1854–1964)
1919 Secretary of State for Air
(1919–1964)
1936 Minister for Co-ordination of Defence
(1936–1940)
1940 Minister of Defence (1940–1964)
1964 Secretary of State for Defence (1964–present)

List of First Lords of the Admiralty[edit]

First Lords of the Admiralty of England (1628–1701)[edit]

First Lord of the Admiralty Term of office
RichardWeston.jpg Richard Weston
1st Earl of Portland
[Note 1][11]
1628 1635
Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey, by circle of Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt.jpg Robert Bertie
1st Earl of Lindsey
[12]
1635 1636
William Juxon from NPG.jpg William Juxon
Bishop of London
(1582–1663)
[13]
1636 1638
Algernon Percy.jpeg Algernon Percy
10th Earl of Northumberland
[Note 2][13]
1642 1643
Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington from NPG.jpg Francis Cottington
1st Baron Cottington
[13]
1643 1646
Peter Lely - Prince Rupert of the Rhine - Google Art Project.jpg Prince Rupert of the Rhine[14] 1673 1679
Peter Lely portrait of Henry Capel 1659.jpg Sir Henry Capell
MP for Tewkesbury[15]
1679 1681
Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham and 7th Earl of Winchilsea by Jonathan Richardson.jpg Daniel Finch
2nd Earl of Nottingham
[16]
1681 1684
Admiral Arthur Herbert, 1st Earl of Torrington by John Closterman.jpg Arthur Herbert
1st Earl of Torrington
[Note 3][17]
1689 1690
Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke by John Greenhill.jpg Thomas Herbert
8th Earl of Pembroke
[18]
1690 1692
No image.svg Charles Cornwallis
3rd Baron Cornwallis
[19]
1692 1693
No image.svg Anthony Cary
5th Viscount Falkland
[20]
1693 1694
Gibson, Edward Russell.jpg Edward Russell
1st Earl of Orford
[21]
1694 1699
Portrait of John Egerton 3rd Earl of Bridgewater.jpg John Egerton
3rd Earl of Bridgewater
[22]
1699 1701
Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke by John Greenhill.jpg Thomas Herbert
8th Earl of Pembroke
[23]
1701 1702

Senior Members of the Lord High Admiral's Council (1702–1709)[edit]

Senior Member Term of office
George Rooke.jpg Sir George Rooke[24] 1702 1705
British (English) School - Sir David Mitchell (c.1650–1710) - BHC4145 - Royal Museums Greenwich.jpg Sir David Mitchell[25] 1705 1708
No image.svg David Wemyss
4th Earl of Wemyss
[26]
1708 1709

First Lords of the Admiralty of Great Britain (1709–1801)[edit]

First Lord of the Admiralty Term of office Ministry Monarch
Gibson, Edward Russell.jpg Edward Russell
1st Earl of Orford
[27]
1709 1710 Godolphin–Marlborough
(ToryWhig)
Anne
Coat of Arms of England (1702-1707).svg
John Leake by Godfrey Kneller.jpg Admiral of the Fleet
John Leake

MP for Rochester[28]
1710 1712 Oxford–Bolingbroke
Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (1672-1739) Diplomat.jpg Thomas Wentworth
1st Earl of Strafford
[29]
1712 1714
George I
Coat of arms of Great Britain (1714–1801).svg
Gibson, Edward Russell.jpg Edward Russell
1st Earl of Orford
[30]
1714 1716 Townshend
3rdEarlOfBerkeley2.jpg James Berkeley
3rd Earl of Berkeley
[31]
1717 1727 Stanhope–Sunderland I
Stanhope–Sunderland II
Walpole–Townshend
George II
Coat of arms of Great Britain (1714–1801).svg
George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington by Jeremiah Davison.jpg George Byng
1st Viscount Torrington
[32]
1727 1733
Walpole
Portrait of Admiral Sir Charles Wager (by Thomas Gibson).jpg Charles Wager
MP for Westminster[Note 4][33]
1733 1741
Daniel Finch (1689-1769), 8th Earl of Winchilsea, 3rd Earl of Nottingham, by Thomas Worlidge.jpg Daniel Finch
8th Earl of Winchilsea
[34]
1741 1744
Carteret
4thDukeOfBedford.jpg John Russell
4th Duke of Bedford
[35]
1744 1748 Broad Bottom
(I & II)
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich.jpg John Montagu
4th Earl of Sandwich
[36]
1748 1751
1stLordAnson.jpg George Anson
1st Baron Anson
[37]
1751 1756
Newcastle I
Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple by William Hoare.jpg Richard Grenville-Temple
2nd Earl Temple
[38]
1756 1757 Pitt–Devonshire
Daniel Finch (1689-1769), 8th Earl of Winchilsea, 3rd Earl of Nottingham, by Thomas Worlidge.jpg Daniel Finch
8th Earl of Winchilsea
[34]
1757 1757 1757 Caretaker
1stLordAnson.jpg George Anson
1st Baron Anson
[39]
1757 1762 Pitt–Newcastle
George III
Coat of arms of Great Britain (1714–1801).svg
2ndEarlofHalifaxByJoshuaReynoldsNSArtGallery.jpg George Montague-Dunk
2nd Earl of Halifax
[40]
1762 1762 Bute
(ToryWhig)
George Grenville (1712–1770) by William Hoare (1707-1792).jpg George Grenville
MP for Buckingham[41]
1762 1763
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich.jpg John Montagu
4th Earl of Sandwich
[41]
1763 1763 Grenville
John Perceval, 2nd Earl of Egmont by Thomas Hudson.jpg John Perceval
2nd Earl of Egmont
[41]
1763 1766
Rockingham I
Chatham
(WhigTory)
Sir Charles Saunders2.jpg Charles Saunders
MP for Hedon[42]
1766 1766
Edward Hawke 1.jpg Edward Hawke
MP for Portsmouth[43]
1766 1771
Grafton
North
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich.jpg John Montagu
4th Earl of Sandwich
[44]
1771 1782
Augustus Keppel, Viscount Keppel by Sir Joshua Reynolds.jpg Augustus Keppel
1st Viscount Keppel
[45]
1782 1783 Rockingham II
Shelburne
(WhigTory)
Admiral of the Fleet Howe 1726-99 1st Earl Howe by John Singleton Copley.jpg Richard Howe
5th Viscount Howe
[46]
1783 1783
Augustus Keppel, Viscount Keppel by Sir Joshua Reynolds.jpg Augustus Keppel
1st Viscount Keppel
[47]
1783 1783 Fox–North
Admiral of the Fleet Howe 1726-99 1st Earl Howe by John Singleton Copley.jpg Richard Howe
5th Viscount Howe
[48]
1783 1788 Pitt I
Chatham2.JPG John Pitt
2nd Earl of Chatham
[49]
1788 1794
George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer.jpg George Spencer
2nd Earl Spencer
[50]
1794 1801

First Lords of the Admiralty of the United Kingdom (1801–1964)[edit]

First Lord of the Admiralty Term of office Party Ministry Monarch
(Reign)
John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent by Francis Cotes.jpg John Jervis
1st Earl of St Vincent
1801 1804 Whig Pitt I George III
Coat of arms of Great Britain (1714–1801).svg
Addington
Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville by Sir Thomas Lawrence.jpg Henry Dundas
1st Viscount Melville
1804 1805 Tory Pitt II
Admiral Charles Middleton, later Lord Barham (1726-1813), by Isaac Pocock.jpg Charles Middleton
1st Baron Barham
1805 1806 Tory
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey after Sir Thomas Lawrence copy.jpg Charles Grey
Viscount Howick

MP for Northumberland
1806 1806 Whig All the Talents
(WhigTory)
Thomas Grenville (1755-1846).jpg Thomas Grenville
MP for Buckingham
1806 1807 Whig
Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave by Sir William Beechey.jpg Henry Phipps
3rd Baron Mulgrave
1807 1810 Tory Portland II
Perceval
George Romney (1734-1802) - The Right Honourable Charles Philip Yorke (1764–1834) - 207768 - National Trust.jpg Charles Philip Yorke
MP for St Germans
1810 1812 Tory
Robert Saunders Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville.jpg Robert Dundas
2nd Viscount Melville
1812 1827 Tory Liverpool
George IV
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
WilliamIVbyLonsdale.jpg Prince William Henry
Duke of Clarence

Lord High Admiral[Note 5]
1827 1828 Canning
(CanningiteWhig)
Goderich
Robert Saunders Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville.jpg Robert Dundas
2nd Viscount Melville
1828 1830 Tory Wellington–Peel
William IV
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
Jamesgrantham.png James Graham
MP for East Cumberland[Note 6]
1830 1834 Whig Grey
George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland.png George Eden
2nd Baron Auckland
1834 1834 Whig
Melbourne I
Wellington Caretaker
ThomasEarlGrey.jpg Thomas Robinson
2nd Earl de Grey
1834 1835 Conservative Peel I
George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland.png George Eden
2nd Baron Auckland
1835 1835 Whig Melbourne II
2ndEarlOfMinto.jpg Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound
2nd Earl of Minto
1835 1841 Whig
Victoria
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
Thomas Hamilton.jpg Thomas Hamilton
9th Earl of Haddington
1841 1846 Conservative Peel II
1stEarlOfEllenborough.jpg Edward Law
1st Earl of Ellenborough
1846 1846 Conservative
George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland.png George Eden
1st Earl of Auckland
1846 1849 Whig Russell I
Francis Baring, 1st Baron Northbrook by Sir George Hayter.jpg Francis Baring
MP for Portsmouth
1849 1852 Whig
Algernon Percy (1792–1865), 4th Duke of Northumberland by Francis Grant.jpg Algernon Percy
4th Duke of Northumberland
1852 1852 Conservative Who? Who?
Jamesgrantham.png James Graham
MP for Carlisle
1852 1855 Peelite Aberdeen
(PeeliteWhig)
Palmerston I
1stViscountHalifax.jpg Charles Wood
Bt GCB

MP for Halifax
1855 1858 Whig
John Pakington 1st Baron Hampton (cropped).jpg John Pakington
MP for Droitwich
1858 1859 Conservative Derby–Disraeli II
12th Duke of Somerset.png His Grace
Edward Seymour
12th Duke of Somerset
1859 1866 Liberal Palmerston II
Russell II
John Pakington 1st Baron Hampton (cropped).jpg John Pakington
MP for Droitwich
1866 1867 Conservative Derby–Disraeli III
Henry Lowry-Corry.jpg Henry Lowry-Corry
MP for Tyrone
1867 1868 Conservative
Hugh Childers, Lock & Whitfield woodburytype, 1876-83 crop.jpg Hugh Childers
MP for Pontefract
1868 1871 Liberal Gladstone I
George Goschen by Bassano.jpg George Goschen
MP for City of London
1871 1874 Liberal
George Ward Hunt (30 July 1825 – 29 July 1877) .jpg George Ward Hunt
MP for Northamptonshire North
1874 1877 Conservative Disraeli II
William Henry Smith (1825–1891).jpg William Henry Smith
MP for Westminster
1877 1880 Conservative
Thomas Baring Earl of Northbrook.jpg Thomas Baring
1st Earl of Northbrook
1880 1885 Liberal Gladstone II
Lord George Hamilton.JPG Lord George Hamilton
MP for Ealing
1885 1886 Conservative Salisbury I
George Robinson 1st Marquess of Ripon.jpg George Robinson
1st Marquess of Ripon
1886 1886 Liberal Gladstone III
Lord George Hamilton.JPG Lord George Hamilton
MP for Ealing
1886 1892 Conservative Salisbury II
5th earl spencer.jpg John Spencer
5th Earl Spencer
1892 1895 Liberal Gladstone IV
Rosebery
George Goschen by Bassano.jpg George Goschen
MP for St George Hanover Square
1895 1900 Conservative Salisbury
(III & IV)

(Con.Lib.U.)
William Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne.png William Palmer
2nd Earl of Selborne
1900 1905 Liberal Unionist
Edward VII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
Balfour
Lord cawdor.jpg Frederick Campbell
3rd Earl Cawdor
1905 1905 Conservative
Portrait of Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth.jpg Edward Marjoribanks
2nd Lord Tweedmouth
1905 1908 Liberal Campbell-Bannerman
Reginald McKenna photo.jpg Reginald McKenna
MP for North Monmouthshire
1908 1911 Liberal Asquith
(I–III)
George V
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
Churchill 1904 Q 42037.jpg Winston Churchill
MP for Dundee
1911 1915 Liberal
Gws balfour 02.jpg Arthur Balfour
MP for City of London
1915 1916 Conservative Asquith Coalition
(Lib.Con.–et al.)
Sir Edward Carson, bw photo portrait seated.jpg Edward Carson
MP for Dublin University
1916 1917 Conservative Lloyd George
(I & II)
Sir Eric Campbell-Geddes in 1917.jpg Eric Geddes
MP for Cambridge
1917 1919 Conservative
Lord Long .jpg Walter Long
MP for Westminster St George's
1919 1921 Conservative
Viscount Lee of Fareham.JPG Arthur Lee
1st Baron Lee of Fareham
1921 1922 Conservative
Leopold Amery MP.png Leo Amery
MP for Birmingham Sparkbrook
1922 1924 Conservative Law
Baldwin I
1stViscountChelmsford.jpg Frederic Thesiger
1st Viscount Chelmsford
1924 1924 Independent MacDonald I
William Bridgeman, 1st Viscount Bridgeman.png William Clive Bridgeman[Note 7] 1924 1929 Conservative Baldwin II
Albert-Victor-Alexander-Earl-Alexander-of-Hillsborough.jpg A. V. Alexander
MP for Sheffield Hillsborough
1929 1931 Labour
(Co-op)
MacDonald II
Laszlo - The Rt. Hon. Sir Austen Chamberlain.jpg Austen Chamberlain
MP for Birmingham West
1931 1931 Conservative National I
(N.Lab.Con.–et al.)
Viscount Monsell.jpg Bolton Eyres-Monsell
1st Viscount Monsell
[Note 8]
1931 1936 Conservative National II
National III
(Con.N.Lab.–et al.)
Edward VIII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
Sir Samuel Hoare GGBain.jpg Samuel Hoare
MP for Chelsea
1936 1937 Conservative
George VI
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
Duff Cooper 1941.jpg Duff Cooper
MP for Westminster St George's
1937 1938 Conservative National IV
Stanhope7.JPG James Stanhope
7th Earl Stanhope
1938 1939 Conservative
Sir Winston Churchill - 19086236948.jpg Winston Churchill
MP for Epping
1939 1940 Conservative Chamberlain War
Albert-Victor-Alexander-Earl-Alexander-of-Hillsborough.jpg A. V. Alexander
MP for Sheffield Hillsborough
1940 1945 Labour
(Co-op)
Churchill War
(All parties)
Brendan Bracken 1947.jpg Brendan Bracken
MP for Paddington North
1945 1945 Conservative Churchill Caretaker
(Con.N.Lib.)
Albert-Victor-Alexander-Earl-Alexander-of-Hillsborough.jpg A. V. Alexander
MP for Sheffield Hillsborough
1945 1946 Labour
(Co-op)
Attlee
(I & II)
George Henry Hall 1945.jpg George Hall
1st Viscount Hall
1946 1951 Labour
Lord Longford 4 Allan Warren.jpg Frank Pakenham
1st Baron Pakenham
1951 1951 Labour
No image.svg James Thomas
1st Viscount Cilcennin
[Note 9]
1951 1956 Conservative Churchill III
Elizabeth II
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
Eden
Quintin Hogg, Baron Hailsham Allan Warren.jpg Quintin Hogg
2nd Viscount Hailsham
1956 1957 Conservative
10thEarl of Selkirk.jpg George Douglas-Hamilton
10th Earl of Selkirk
1957 1959 Conservative Macmillan
(I & II)
Peter Carington 1984.jpg Peter Carington
6th Baron Carrington
1959 1963 Conservative
George Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe.jpg George Jellicoe
2nd Earl Jellicoe
1963 1964 Conservative Douglas-Home

From 1 April 1964 Elizabeth II assumed the title of Lord High Admiral. Ministerial responsibility for the Royal Navy was transferred to the newly created Secretary of State for Defence.[51]

Notes:

  1. ^ Baron Weston from 1628, created Earl of Portland in 1633.
  2. ^ Lord High Admiral 1638–1642.
  3. ^ Lord High Admiral 1689.
  4. ^ MP for Portsmouth until 1734; MP for Westminster from 1734.
  5. ^ As Lord High Admiral .
  6. ^ MP for Cumberland until 1832; MP for East Cumberland from 1832
  7. ^ MP for Oswestry
  8. ^ MP for Evesham until 1935; thereafter created Viscount Monsell.
  9. ^ MP for Hereford until 1955; thereafter created Viscount Cilcennin.

Boards, departments and offices under the First Lord[edit]

Fictional First Lords[edit]

W. H. Smith portrayed in a Punch cartoon from 13 October 1877 when First Lord, saying: "I think I'll now go below." In Pinafore, Sir Joseph Porter similarly sings: "When the breezes blow / I generally go below".

The "Radical" First Lord, and a major character, in Gilbert and Sullivan's comic opera H.M.S. Pinafore (1878), is Sir Joseph Henry Porter, KCB. W. S. Gilbert wrote to Arthur Sullivan he did not intend to portray the real-life then First Lord, the bookseller and newsagent W. H. Smith, a Conservative,[52] although some of the public, including Prime Minister Disraeli (who later referred to Smith as "Pinafore Smith"), identified Porter with him.[53] The counterparts shared a known lack of naval background. It has been suggested the character was drawn on Smith's actual "Radical" predecessor of 1868–71, Hugh Childers.[54]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eberle, Sir James (2007). Wider horizons: naval policy & international affairs. Roundtuit Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 9781904499176.
  2. ^ Pryde, E. B. (23 February 1996). Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge University Press. p. 135. ISBN 9780521563505.
  3. ^ a b Blake, Nicholas; Lawrence, Richard (2005). The Illustrated Companion to Nelson's Navy. Stackpole Books. p. 8. ISBN 9780811732758.
  4. ^ Knighton, C. S.; Loades, David; Loades, Professor of History David (29 April 2016). Elizabethan Naval Administration. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 9781317145035.
  5. ^ a b Hamilton, Admiral Sir. Richard. Vesey, G.C.B. (1896). Naval Administration: The Constitution, Character, and Functions of the Board of Admiralty, and of the Civil Departments it Directs. George Bell and Sons, London.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ Constable, Archibald (1861). The Edinburgh Review, Or Critical Journal: ... To Be Continued Quarterly. Austrian National Library, 4 November 2013. p. 291.
  7. ^ (eISB), electronic Irish Statute Book. "electronic Irish Statute Book (eISB), Admiralty Act, 1832". irishstatutebook.ie. Government of Ireland, 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  8. ^ Hamilton, C. I. (2011). The making of the modern admiralty : British naval policy-making 1805–1927. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780521765183.
  9. ^ Marder, Arthur (19 June 2014). From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow: Volume II: To The Eve of Jutland 1914–1916. Seaforth Publishing. p. 268. ISBN 9781848321632.
  10. ^ Cannon, John; Crowcroft, Robert (2015). The Oxford Companion to British History. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780199677832.
  11. ^ Lee, Sidney, ed. (1899). "Weston, Richard (1577-1635)" . Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 60. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 364.
  12. ^ "Bertie, Robert" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  13. ^ a b c Thomas Mason, Serving God and Mammon: William Juxon, 1582–1663 (ISBN 0-87413-251-7)
  14. ^ Rodger, N. A. M. (2004). The Command of the Ocean. London: Allen Lane. p. 629. ISBN 0-713-99411-8.
  15. ^ N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York; Baetjer, Katharine (2009). British Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1575–1875. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 19. ISBN 9781588393487.
  16. ^ Phillips, G. (29 November 2012). Rutland. Cambridge University Press. p. 132. ISBN 9781107696419.
  17. ^ Stewart, William (28 September 2009). Admirals of the World: A Biographical Dictionary, 1500 to the Present. McFarland. p. 163. ISBN 9780786482887.
  18. ^ Cannon, John; Crowcroft, Robert (2015). The Oxford Companion to British History. Oxford University Press. p. 714. ISBN 9780199677832.
  19. ^ Murray, J. (1859). Correspondence of Charles, First Marquis Cornwallis. J. Murray. p. 2.
  20. ^ Fieldgate, Barrie (2007). The Captain's Steward: Falklands, 1982. Melrose Press. p. 305. ISBN 9781905226467.
  21. ^ Aldridge, David Denis (2009). Admiral Sir John Norris and the British Naval Expeditions to the Baltic Sea 1715–1727. Nordic Academic Press. p. 286. ISBN 9789185509317.
  22. ^ Macaulay, Thomas Babington, Baron Macaulay (1915). The History of England: From the Accession of James the Second, Volume 6. Macmillan. p. 3018.
  23. ^ Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 4, Admiralty Officials 1660–1870
  24. ^ Rodger, N. A. M. (2004). The Command of the Ocean. London: Allen Lane. p. 630. ISBN 0-713-99411-8.
  25. ^ Rodger, N. A. M. (2004). The Command of the Ocean. London: Allen Lane. p. 630. ISBN 0-713-99411-8.
  26. ^ Rodger, N. A. M. (2004). The Command of the Ocean. London: Allen Lane. p. 630. ISBN 0-713-99411-8.
  27. ^ Childs, John (1991). The Nine Years' War and the British Army, 1688–1697: The Operations in the Low Countries. Manchester University Press. p. 353. ISBN 9780719034619.
  28. ^ Winfield, Rif (10 March 2010). British Warships in the Age of Sail 1603–1714: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 9781783469246.
  29. ^ Holmes, Geoffrey (1987). British Politics in the Age of Anne. A&C Black. p. 541. ISBN 9780907628736.
  30. ^ Aldridge, David Denis (2009). Admiral Sir John Norris and the British Naval Expeditions to the Baltic Sea 1715–1727. Nordic Academic Press. p. 286. ISBN 9789185509317.
  31. ^ Stewart, William (28 September 2009). Admirals of the World: A Biographical Dictionary, 1500 to the Present. McFarland. p. 28. ISBN 9780786438099.
  32. ^ Howard, Joseph J.; Crisp, Frederick A. (1 September 1997). Visitation of England and Wales Notes: Volume 6 1906. Heritage Books. p. 172. ISBN 9780788407031.
  33. ^ Cunningham, George Godfrey (1853). A History of England in the Lives of Englishmen. A. Fullarton. p. 169. Sir Charles Wager First Lord of the Admiralty.
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Attribution[edit]

  • This article contains some text from: Vesey, Richard Sir, Admiral, (1896), Naval Administration: The Constitution, Character, and Functions of the Board of Admiralty, and of the Civil Departments it Directs, George Bell and Sons, London.

Sources[edit]

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