List of the most intense tropical cyclones

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A collage of ten of the strongest tropical cyclones

Tropical cyclone intensity is a complex topic. Winds are often used to measure intensity as they commonly cause notable impacts over large areas, and most popular tropical cyclone scales are organized around sustained wind speeds. However variations in the averaging period of winds in different basins make inter-comparison difficult. In addition, other impacts like rainfall, storm surge, area of wind damages, and tornadoes can be significant variations in storms with similar wind speeds. Pressure is often used to compare tropical cyclones because measurements is easier to measure and consistent. Tropical cyclones can attain some of the lowest pressures over large areas on Earth. However, although there is strong connection between lowered pressures and higher wind speeds, storms with the lowest pressures may not have the highest wind speeds, as each storm's relationship between wind and pressure is slightly different.[1]

In the most recent and reliable records, most tropical cyclones which attained a pressure of 900 hPa (mbar) (26.56 inHg) or less occurred in the Western North Pacific Ocean. The strongest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide, as measured by minimum central pressure, was Typhoon Tip, which reached a pressure of 870 hPa (25.69 inHg) on October 12, 1979.[2] The following list is subdivided by basins. Data listed are provided by the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre, unless otherwise noted. On October 23, 2015, Hurricane Patricia attained the strongest 1-minute sustained winds on record at 215 mph (345 km/h).[3]

North Atlantic Ocean[edit]

Hurricane Allen at peak intensity, fastest winds in the Atlantic basin
Hurricane Gilbert at peak intensity
Hurricane Wilma near record strength, lowest pressure in the Atlantic basin

The most intense storm in the North Atlantic by lowest pressure was Hurricane Wilma. The strongest storm by 1-minute sustained winds was Hurricane Allen.

Storms which reached a minimum central pressure of 920 hectopascals (27.17 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information has been compiled back to 1850, though measurements were rarer until aircraft reconnaissance started in the 1940s, and inexact estimates were still predominant until dropsondes were implemented in the 1970s. [4]

Cyclone Season Peak classification Peak 1-min
sustained winds
Pressure
"Cuba" 1924
Category 5 hurricane
270 km/h (165 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
"Cuba" 1932
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
"Labor Day" 1935
Category 5 hurricane
295 km/h (185 mph) 892 hPa (26.34 inHg)
Janet 1955
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph) 914 hPa (26.99 inHg)
Hattie 1961
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Camille 1969
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Allen 1980
Category 5 hurricane
305 km/h (190 mph) 899 hPa (26.55 inHg)
Gloria 1985
Category 4 hurricane
230 km/h (145 mph) 919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Gilbert 1988
Category 5 hurricane
295 km/h (185 mph) 888 hPa (26.22 inHg)
Hugo 1989
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
Opal 1995
Category 4 hurricane
240 km/h (150 mph) 916 hPa (27.05 inHg)
Mitch 1998
Category 5 hurricane
285 km/h (180 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg)
Isabel 2003
Category 5 hurricane
270 km/h (165 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Ivan 2004
Category 5 hurricane
270 km/h (165 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Katrina 2005
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph) 902 hPa (26.64 inHg)
Rita 2005
Category 5 hurricane
285 km/h (180 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Wilma 2005
Category 5 hurricane
295 km/h (185 mph) 882 hPa (26.05 inHg)
Dean 2007
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg)
Irma 2017
Category 5 hurricane
295 km/h (185 mph) 914 hPa (26.99 inHg)
Maria 2017
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph) 908 hPa (26.81 inHg)
Source: Atlantic Hurricane Best Track File 1851–2016 (NHC) [5]

Eastern Pacific Ocean[edit]

Hurricane Patricia shortly after peak intensity, highest global sustained winds and lowest pressure in the Western Hemisphere

The most intense storm in the Eastern Pacific Ocean by both sustained winds and central pressure was Hurricane Patricia. Its sustained winds of 345 km/h (215 mph) are also the highest on record globally.

Storms with a minimum central pressure of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1949, and most storms since are only estimated because landfall (and related reconnaissance) are less common in this basin.[6]

Cyclone Season Peak classification Peak 1-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Ava 1973
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Annette 1976
Category 4 hurricane
220 km/h (140 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg)
Trudy 1990
Category 4 hurricane
250 km/h (155 mph) 924 hPa (27.29 inHg)
Gilma 1994
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Olivia 1994
Category 4 hurricane
240 km/h (150 mph) 923 hPa (27.26 inHg)
Guillermo 1997
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph) 919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Linda 1997
Category 5 hurricane
295 km/h (185 mph) 902 hPa (26.64 inHg)
Juliette 2001
Category 4 hurricane
230 km/h (145 mph) 923 hPa (27.26 inHg)
Elida 2002
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph) 921 hPa (27.20 inHg)
Hernan 2002
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph) 921 hPa (27.20 inHg)
Kenna 2002
Category 5 hurricane
270 km/h (165 mph) 913 hPa (26.96 inHg)
Ioke 2006
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Rick 2009
Category 5 hurricane
285 km/h (180 mph) 906 hPa (26.75 inHg)
Celia 2010
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph) 921 hPa (27.20 inHg)
Marie 2014
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
Odile 2014
Category 4 hurricane
220 km/h (140 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
Patricia 2015
Category 5 hurricane
345 km/h (215 mph) 872 hPa (25.75 inHg)
Source: East Pacific Hurricane Best Track File 1949–2016 (NHC) [7]

Western North Pacific Ocean[edit]

Typhoon Tip at global peak intensity
Typhoon Vanessa after peak intensity
Typhoon Megi at peak intensity
Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity
Typhoon Meranti at peak intensity

The most intense storm by lowest pressure and peak 10-minute sustained winds was Typhoon Tip, which was also the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded.

Storms with a minimum pressure below 900 hPa (26.58 inHg) are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1950.[6]

Cyclone Year Peak classification Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Unnamed 1927
Unknown
Not Specified 887 hPa (26.19 inHg)[8]
Clara 1950
Category 4 typhoon
Not Specified 899 hPa (26.55 inHg)
Marge 1951
Category 3 typhoon
Not Specified 886 hPa (26.16 inHg)
Nina 1953
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Tess 1953
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Ida 1954
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Pamela 1954
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Virginia 1957
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Lola 1957
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Ida 1958
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 877 hPa (25.90 inHg)
Vera 1959
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Joan 1959
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Nancy 1961
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 882 hPa (26.05 inHg)
Violet 1961
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Opal 1962
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Emma 1962
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Karen 1962
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 894 hPa (26.40 inHg)
Sally 1964
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Wilda 1964
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Opal 1964
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Bess 1965
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Kit 1966
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 880 hPa (25.99 inHg)
Carla 1967
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Agnes 1968
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Elsie 1969
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Viola 1969
Category 4 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Hope 1970
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Amy 1971
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Nadine 1971
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Irma 1971
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Patsy 1973
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Nora 1973
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 877 hPa (25.90 inHg)
Nina 1975
Category 4 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Elsie 1975
Category 4 super typhoon
Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
June 1975
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 875 hPa (25.84 inHg)
Louise 1976
Category 5 super typhoon
Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Rita 1978
Category 5 super typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph) 880 hPa (25.99 inHg)
Hope 1979
Category 4 super typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Tip 1979
Category 5 super typhoon
260 km/h (160 mph) 870 hPa (25.69 inHg)
Wynne 1980
Category 5 super typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph) 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Elsie 1981
Category 5 super typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Bess 1982
Category 5 super typhoon
230 km/h (145 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Mac 1982
Category 5 super typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Abby 1983
Category 5 super typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Forrest 1983
Category 5 super typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph) 885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Marge 1983
Category 5 super typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Vanessa 1984
Category 5 super typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph) 880 hPa (25.99 inHg)
Dot 1985
Category 5 super typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Peggy 1986
Category 5 super typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Betty 1987
Category 5 super typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph) 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Holly 1987
Category 5 super typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Flo 1990
Category 5 super typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph) 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Ruth 1991
Category 5 super typhoon
215 km/h (130 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Yuri 1991
Category 5 super typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Gay 1992
Category 5 super typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Zeb 1998
Category 5 super typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Megi 2010
Category 5 super typhoon
230 km/h (145 mph) 885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Sanba 2012
Category 5 super typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Haiyan 2013
Category 5 super typhoon
230 km/h (145 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Vongfong 2014
Category 5 super typhoon
215 km/h (130 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Soudelor 2015
Category 5 super typhoon
215 km/h (130 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Nepartak 2016
Category 5 super typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Meranti 2016
Category 5 super typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph) 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Haima 2016
Category 5 super typhoon
215 km/h (130 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Source: Western North Pacific Typhoon Best Track File 1951–2016 (JMA) [9]

North Indian Ocean[edit]

Satellite image of the cyclone as it made landfall in Odisha

The strongest tropical cyclone recorded in the North Indian Ocean is the 1999 Odisha Cyclone, with 3-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph) and a minimum pressure of 912 hPa (26.93 inHg).

Storms with an intensity of 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1971.[6]

Cyclone Season Peak classification Peak 3-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Two 1963
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
195 km/h (120 mph) 947 hPa (27.96 inHg)
Three 1963
Super cyclonic storm
240 km/h (150 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
1977 Andhra Pradesh 1977
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
205 km/h (125 mph) 919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Gay 1989
Super cyclonic storm
230 km/h (145 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg)
1990 Andhra Pradesh 1990
Super cyclonic storm
230 km/h (145 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
1991 Bangladesh 1991
Super cyclonic storm
240 km/h (150 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
1994 BOB 02 1994
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg)
1999 Pakistan 1999
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
195 km/h (120 mph) 946 hPa (27.94 inHg)
"Paradip" 1999
Super cyclonic storm
260 km/h (160 mph) 912 hPa (26.93 inHg)
2001 India 2001
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph) 932 hPa (27.52 inHg)
Gonu 2007
Super cyclonic storm
240 km/h (150 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Sidr 2007
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph) 944 hPa (27.88 inHg)
Giri 2010
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
195 km/h (120 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Phailin 2013
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg)
Hudhud 2014
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
185 km/h (115 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Nilofar 2014
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
205 km/h (125 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Chapala 2015
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg)
Source: Tropical Cyclone Best Track Information for the North Indian Ocean 1990–2016 (IMD)[10]

South-West Indian Ocean[edit]

Cyclone Gafilo shortly before peak intensity
Cyclone Fantala shortly after peak intensity

The most intense tropical cyclone in the South-West Indian Ocean is Cyclone Gafilo. By 10-minute sustained wind speed, the strongest tropical cyclone in the South-West Indian Ocean is Cyclone Fantala.

Storms with an intensity of 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1985.[6]

Cyclone Season Peak classification Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Chris-Damia 1981–82
Intense tropical cyclone
210 km/h (130 mph) 898 hPa (26.52 inHg) [11]
Geralda 1993–94
Intense tropical cyclone
200 km/h (125 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [12]
Litanne 1993–94
Intense tropical cyclone
190 km/h (120 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg) [12]
Marlene 1994–95
Intense tropical cyclone
180 km/h (110 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) [13]
Bonita 1995–96
Intense tropical cyclone
180 km/h (110 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) [14]
Daniella 1996–97
Intense tropical cyclone
190 km/h (120 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) [15]
Hudah 1999–2000
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [16]
Dina 2001–02
Intense tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg) [17]
Guillaume 2001–02
Intense tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) [17]
Hary 2001–02
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [17]
Kalunde 2002–03
Intense tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg)
Gafilo 2003–04
Very Intense tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg) [18]
Adeline-Juliet 2004–05
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [19]
Bento 2004–05
Very Intense tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) [20]
Carina 2005–06
Intense tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) [21]
Hondo 2007–08
Intense tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph) 906 hPa (26.75 inHg) [22]
Edzani 2009–10
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg) [23]
Bruce 2013–14
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Colin 2013–14
Intense tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Hellen 2013–14
Very Intense tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Bansi 2014–15
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Eunice 2014–15
Very Intense tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Fantala 2015–16
Very Intense tropical cyclone
250 km/h (155 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)

Australian Region[edit]

Cyclone Inigo a day after peak intensity
Cyclone Monica at peak intensity

The most intense tropical cyclones in the Australian Region are Cyclone Gwenda and Cyclone Inigo. By 10-minute sustained wind speed, the strongest are Cyclone Orson and Cyclone Monica.

Storms with an intensity of 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1985.[6]

Cyclone Season Peak classification Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Mahina 1899
Unknown
Not Specified 914 hPa (26.99 inHg)[nb 1][24]
Joan 1975–76
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Amy 1979–80
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Kathy 1983–84
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 916 hPa (27.05 inHg)
Orson 1988–89
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
250 km/h (155 mph) 904 hPa (26.70 inHg)
Graham 1991–92
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Rewa 1993–94
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Theodore 1993–94
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
200 km/h (125 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Chloe 1994–95
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Pancho-Helinda 1996–97
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Thelma 1998–99
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
220 km/h (140 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Vance 1998–99
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Frederic-Evrina 1998–99
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone
195 km/h (120 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Gwenda 1998–99
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
220 km/h (140 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
John 1999–2000
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Paul 1999–2000
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Chris 2001–02
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Inigo 2002–03
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
240 km/h (150 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Fay 2003–04
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Floyd 2005–06
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone
195 km/h (120 mph) 916 hPa (27.05 inHg)
Glenda 2005–06
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Monica 2005–06
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
250 km/h (155 mph) 916 hPa (27.05 inHg)
George 2006–07
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 902 hPa (26.64 inHg)
Source: Database of past tropical cyclone tracks (BOM)[25]

South Pacific Ocean[edit]

Cyclone Winston at peak intensity
Cyclone Pam at peak intensity
Cyclone Zoe at peak intensity

A total of 16 cyclones are listed down below reaching/surpassing that intensity, which most of them occurred during El Niño seasons. Tropical cyclones that have been recorded since the start of the 1969–70 Tropical Cyclone year and have reached their peak intensity to the west of 160E are included in the list. The most intense tropical cyclone in the south Pacific, Cyclone Winston of 2016, is also the most intense storm in the Southern Hemisphere.

Storms with an intensity of 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1985.[6]

Cyclone Season Peak classification Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Oscar 1982–83
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Hina 1984–85
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Fran 1991–92
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Ron 1997–98
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Susan 1997–98
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Beni 2002–03
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Dovi 2002–03
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Erica 2002–03
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Zoe 2002–03
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
240 km/h (150 mph) 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Heta 2003–04
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Meena 2004–05
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Olaf 2004–05
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Percy 2004–05
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Ului 2009–10
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Pam 2014–15
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
250 km/h (155 mph) 896 hPa (26.46 inHg)
Winston 2015–16
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
280 km/h (175 mph) 884 hPa (26.10 inHg)
Sources:[26]

South Atlantic Ocean[edit]

Hurricane Catarina near peak intensity

Until recently, it was not known that tropical cyclones could exist in the southern Atlantic. However, Hurricane Catarina in 2004, to date the only hurricane in the south Atlantic, brought additional review. A subsequent study found that there was an average of 1-2 subtropical or tropical cyclones per year in the Southern Atlantic in recent decades.[27] No official database of South Atlantic cyclones exists, but a partial list of tropical and subtropical systems with intensity below 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) is listed.

Cyclone Season Peak classification Peak 1-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Catarina 2004
Category 2 hurricane
155 km/h (100 mph) 972 hPa (28.70 inHg)
Anita 2010
Tropical storm
85 km/h (50 mph) 995 hPa (29.38 inHg)
Arani 2011
Subtropical storm
85 km/h (50 mph) 989 hPa (29.21 inHg)
Bapo 2015
Subtropical storm
65 km/h (40 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg)
Cari 2015
Subtropical storm
65 km/h (40 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg)
Deni 2016
Subtropical storm
75 km/h (45 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg)
Eçaí 2016
Subtropical storm
100 km/h (65 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg)
Guará 2017
Subtropical storm
75 km/h (45 mph) 996 hPa (29.40 inHg)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ May have been as low as 880 mbar.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kossin, James (February 2015). "Hurricane Wind–Pressure Relationship and Eyewall Replacement Cycles". Weather and Forecasting: 177–181. 
  2. ^ Dunnavan, George M; Diercks, John W (November 1, 1980). "An Analysis of Super Typhoon Tip (October 1979)". Monthly Weather Review. 108 (11): 1915–1923. Bibcode:1980MWRv..108.1915D. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<1915:AAOSTT>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  3. ^ Patricia, the strongest hurricane ever recorded, makes landfall in Mexico. http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/23/americas/hurricane-patricia/
  4. ^ http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Landsea/rpibook-final04.pdf
  5. ^ "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". Hurricane Research Division (Database). Miami, FL: National Hurricane Center. April 11, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "ATCR report plan". www.usno.navy.mil. Retrieved 2017-10-21. 
  7. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949–2016". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service.  A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  8. ^ C. L. Jordan (September 1959). "A Reported Sea Level Pressure of 877 MB" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. 87: 365–366. Bibcode:1959MWRv...87..365J. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1959)087<0365:wnarsl>2.0.co;2. Retrieved May 9, 2017. 
  9. ^ "Western North Pacific Typhoon best track file 1951–2016". Japan Meteorological Agency. 2010-01-13. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  10. ^ Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) - Tropical Cyclones, New Delhi. "IMD Best track data 1990-2016". India Meteorological Department.  A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  11. ^ "Cyclone Damia Best track". Météo-France. 2001-05-16. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  12. ^ a b La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 1993–1994 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. pp. 42, 65. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  13. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 1994–1995 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. p. 67. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  14. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 1995–1996 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. pp. 25,. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  15. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 1996–1997 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. p. 33. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  16. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 1999–2000 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. p. 72. ISBN 2-9511665-3-2. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 2001–2002 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. p. 4. ISBN 2-9511665-6-7. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  18. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 2003–2004 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. p. 67. ISBN 2-9511665-8-3. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  19. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (November 27, 2009). "Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Adeline-Juliet". Météo France. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  20. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (November 27, 2009). "Intense Tropical Cyclone Bento". Météo France. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  21. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. South-West Indian Ocean Cyclone Season 2005–2006 (in English and French). Météo France. p. 6. ISBN 2-9511665-9-1. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  22. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (November 27, 2009). "Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Hondo". Météo France. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  23. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (August 31, 2010). "Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Edzani". Météo France. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  24. ^ Masters, Jeffrey. "World Storm Surge Records". Weather Underground. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  25. ^ http://www.bom.gov.au/clim_data/IDCKMSTM0S.csv
  26. ^ MetService (May 22, 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. 
  27. ^ Evans, Jenny L; Braun, Aviva J (2012). "A Climatology of Subtropical Cyclones in the South Atlantic". Journal of Climate. American Meteorological Society (25): 7328–7340. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00212.1. 

External links[edit]

Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers
Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers