List of the most intense tropical cyclones

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A collage of nine of the strongest tropical cyclones

In the available records, a total of 76 tropical cyclones attained a pressure of 900 hPa (mbar) (26.56 inHg) or less, most of which occurred in the Western North Pacific Ocean. The strongest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide, as measured by minimum central pressure, was Typhoon Tip, which reached a pressure of 870 hPa (25.69 inHg) on October 12, 1979.[1] The following list is subdivided by basins. Data listed are provided by the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre, unless otherwise noted.

North Atlantic Ocean[edit]

Eye of Hurricane Wilma while at peak intensity
Wilma at nearing record strength

Storms with an intensity of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) or less are listed.

Cyclone Season Peak 1-min
sustained winds
Pressure
"Cuba" 1924 270 km/h (165 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
"Cuba" 1932 280 km/h (175 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
"Labor Day" 1935 295 km/h (185 mph) 892 hPa (26.34 inHg)
Janet 1955 280 km/h (175 mph) 914 hPa (26.99 inHg)
Hattie 1961 260 km/h (160 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Camille 1969 280 km/h (175 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Allen 1980 305 km/h (190 mph) 899 hPa (26.55 inHg)
Gloria 1985 230 km/h (145 mph) 919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Gilbert 1988 295 km/h (185 mph) 888 hPa (26.22 inHg)
Hugo 1989 260 km/h (160 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
Andrew 1992 280 km/h (175 mph) 922 hPa (27.23 inHg)
Opal 1995 240 km/h (150 mph) 916 hPa (27.05 inHg)
Mitch 1998 285 km/h (180 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg)
Isabel 2003 270 km/h (165 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Ivan 2004 270 km/h (165 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Katrina 2005 280 km/h (175 mph) 902 hPa (26.64 inHg)
Rita 2005 285 km/h (180 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Wilma 2005 295 km/h (185 mph) 882 hPa (26.05 inHg)
Dean 2007 280 km/h (175 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg)
Igor 2010 250 km/h (155 mph) 924 hPa (27.29 inHg)
Source: Atlantic Hurricane Best Track File 1851–2014 [2]

Eastern Pacific Ocean[edit]

Hurricane Linda near peak intensity

Storms with an intensity of 922 hPa (27.23 inHg) or less are listed.

Cyclone Season Peak 1-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Ava 1973 260 km/h (160 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Gilma 1994 260 km/h (160 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Guillermo 1997 260 km/h (160 mph) 919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Linda 1997 295 km/h (185 mph) 902 hPa (26.64 inHg)
Elida 2002 260 km/h (160 mph) 921 hPa (27.20 inHg)
Hernan 2002 260 km/h (160 mph) 921 hPa (27.20 inHg)
Kenna 2002 270 km/h (165 mph) 913 hPa (26.96 inHg)
Ioke 2006 260 km/h (160 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Rick 2009 285 km/h (180 mph) 906 hPa (26.75 inHg)
Celia 2010 260 km/h (160 mph) 921 hPa (27.20 inHg)
Marie 2014 260 km/h (160 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
Odile 2014 220 km/h (140 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
Source: East Pacific Hurricane Best Track File 1851–2014 [3]

Western North Pacific Ocean[edit]

Typhoon Tip at peak intensity
Typhoon Megi at peak intensity
Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity

Storms with a minimum pressure below 900 hPa (26.58 inHg) are listed.

Cyclone Year Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Clara 1950 Not Specified 899 hPa (26.55 inHg)
Marge 1951 Not Specified 886 hPa (26.16 inHg)
Nina 1953 Not Specified 885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Tess 1953 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Ida 1954 Not Specified 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Pamela 1954 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Virginia 1957 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Lola 1957 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Ida 1958 Not Specified 877 hPa (25.90 inHg)
Vera 1959 Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Joan 1959 Not Specified 885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Nancy 1961 Not Specified 882 hPa (26.05 inHg)
Violet 1961 Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Opal 1962 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Emma 1962 Not Specified 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Karen 1962 Not Specified 894 hPa (26.40 inHg)
Sally 1964 Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Wilda 1964 Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Opal 1964 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Bess 1965 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Kit 1966 Not Specified 880 hPa (25.99 inHg)
Carla 1967 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Agnes 1968 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Elsie 1969 Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Viola 1969 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Hope 1970 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Amy 1971 Not Specified 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Nadine 1971 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Irma 1971 Not Specified 885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Patsy 1973 Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Nora 1973 Not Specified 875 hPa (25.84 inHg)
Nina 1975 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Elsie 1975 Not Specified 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
June 1975 Not Specified 875 hPa (25.84 inHg)
Louise 1976 Not Specified 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Rita 1978 220 km/h (140 mph) 880 hPa (25.99 inHg)
Hope 1979 205 km/h (127 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Tip 1979 260 km/h (160 mph) 870 hPa (25.69 inHg)
Wynne 1980 220 km/h (140 mph) 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Elsie 1981 220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Bess 1982 230 km/h (143 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Mac 1982 220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Abby 1983 220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Forrest 1983 205 km/h (125 mph) 885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Marge 1983 205 km/h (125 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Vanessa 1984 220 km/h (140 mph) 880 hPa (25.99 inHg)
Dot 1985 220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Peggy 1986 205 km/h (127 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Betty 1987 205 km/h (125 mph) 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Holly 1987 205 km/h (127 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Flo 1990 220 km/h (140 mph) 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Ruth 1991 215 km/h (130 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Yuri 1991 220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Gay 1992 205 km/h (127 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Zeb 1998 205 km/h (127 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Megi 2010 230 km/h (145 mph) 885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Sanba 2012 205 km/h (125 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Haiyan 2013 230 km/h (145 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Vongfong 2014 215 km/h (130 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Soudelor 2015 215 km/h (130 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Source:Typhoon information for the
Western Pacific ocean.[4]

North Indian Ocean[edit]

1999 Odisha cyclone near peak intensity

Storms with an intensity of 950 hPa (28.1 inHg) or less are listed. Data for storms prior to 1990 is incomplete.[5]

Cyclone Season Peak 3-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Two 1963 195 km/h (120 mph) 947 hPa (27.96 inHg)
Three 1963 240 km/h (150 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
1977 Andhra Pradesh 1977 250 km/h (155 mph) 919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Gay 1989 230 km/h (145 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg)
1990 Andhra Pradesh 1990 230 km/h (145 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
1991 Bangladesh 1991 240 km/h (150 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
1994 BOB 01 1994 215 km/h (135 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg)
1999 Pakistan 1999 195 km/h (120 mph) 946 hPa (27.94 inHg)
"Paradip" 1999 260 km/h (160 mph) 912 hPa (26.93 inHg)
2001 India 2001 215 km/h (135 mph) 932 hPa (27.52 inHg)
Gonu 2007 235 km/h (145 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Sidr 2007 215 km/h (135 mph) 944 hPa (27.88 inHg)
Giri 2010 195 km/h (120 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Phailin 2013 215 km/h (130 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg)
Hudhud 2014 185 km/h (115 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Nilofar 2014 205 km/h (125 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Source: Tropical Cyclone Best Track Information for the North Indian Ocean 1851–2014[6]

South-West Indian Ocean[edit]

The most intense tropical cyclone in the South-West Indian Ocean is Cyclone Gafilo. By 10-minute sustained wind speed, the strongest tropical cyclone in the South-West Indian Ocean is Cyclone Eunice.

Cyclone Gafilo at peak intensity
Cyclone Eunice at peak intensity

Storms with an intensity of 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) or less are listed.

Cyclone Season Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Chris-Damia 1981–82 210 km/h (130 mph) 898 hPa (26.52 inHg) [7]
Geralda 1993–94 200 km/h (125 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [8]
Litanne 1993–94 190 km/h (120 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg) [8]
Marlene 1994–95 180 km/h (110 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) [9]
Bonita 1995–96 180 km/h (110 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) [10]
Daniella 1996–97 190 km/h (120 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) [11]
Hudah 1999-00 220 km/h (135 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [12]
Dina 2001–02 215 km/h (135 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg) [13]
Guillaume 2001–02 205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) [13]
Hary 2001–02 220 km/h (135 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [13]
Kalunde 2002–03 215 km/h (135 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg)
Gafilo 2003–04 230 km/h (145 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg) [14]
Adeline-Juliet 2004–05 220 km/h (135 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [15]
Bento 2004–05 215 km/h (135 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) [16]
Carina 2005–06 205 km/h (125 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) [17]
Hondo 2007–08 215 km/h (135 mph) 906 hPa (26.75 inHg) [18]
Edzani 2009–10 220 km/h (135 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg) [19]
Bruce 2013–14 230 km/h (145 mph) 912 hPa (26.93 inHg)
Hellen 2013–14 230 km/h (145 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Eunice 2014–15 240 km/h (150 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)

Australian Region[edit]

The most intense tropical cyclone in the Australian Region, is Cyclone Gwenda and Cyclone Inigo. By 10-minute sustained wind speed, the strongest tropical cyclone in the Australian region is Cyclone Orson and Cyclone Monica. Storms with an intensity of 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) or less are listed.

Cyclone Inigo near peak intensity
Cyclone Monica near peak intensity

Storms with an intensity of 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) or less are listed.

Cyclone Season Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Mahina 1899 205 km/h (125 mph) 914 hPa (26.99 inHg)
Joan 1975–76 230 km/h (145 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Amy 1979–80 230 km/h (145 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Vance 1988–89 215 km/h (135 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Orson 1988–89 250 km/h (155 mph) 904 hPa (26.70 inHg)
Theodore 1993–94 200 km/h (125 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Gwenda 1998–99 235 km/h (145 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Inigo 2002–03 240 km/h (150 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Fay 2003–04 215 km/h (130 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Floyd 2005–06 195 km/h (120 mph) 916 hPa (27.05 inHg)
Glenda 2005–06 205 km/h (125 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Monica 2005–06 250 km/h (155 mph) 916 hPa (27.05 inHg)
George 2006–07 205 km/h (125 mph) 902 hPa (26.64 inHg)

South Pacific Ocean[edit]

Cyclone Zoe at peak intensity
Cyclone Pam near peak intensity

Storms with an intensity of 925 hPa (27.3 inHg) or less are listed. Tropical cyclones that have been recorded since the start of the 1969–70 Tropical Cyclone year and have reached their peak intensity to the west of 160E are included in the list. The most intense tropical cyclone in the south Pacific, is Cyclone Zoe which formed in 2002, is also the most intense storm in the Southern Hemisphere. By 10-minute sustained wind speed, the strongest tropical cyclone in the south Pacific is Cyclone Pam.

Cyclone Season Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Oscar 1982–83 205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Hina 1984–85 220 km/h (135 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Fran 1991–92 205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Ron 1997–98 230 km/h (145 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Susan 1997–98 230 km/h (145 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Beni 2002–03 205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Dovi 2002–03 205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Erica 2002–03 215 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Zoe 2002–03 240 km/h (150 mph) 890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Heta 2003–04 215 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Meena 2004–05 215 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Olaf 2004–05 230 km/h (145 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Percy 2004–05 230 km/h (145 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Ului 2009–10 215 km/h (130 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Pam 2014–15 250 km/h (155 mph) 896 hPa (26.46 inHg)
Sources:[20]

South Atlantic Ocean[edit]

Cyclone Catarina near peak intensity

Due to the fact that tropical cyclones in the South Atlantic are rare, there is no official tropical cyclone season for this region. Despite this, there have been several significant tropical cyclones in the South Atlantic region, notably Cyclone Catarina in March 2004. Tropical and subtropical cyclones with an intensity of below 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) are listed.

Cyclone Season Peak 1-min
sustained winds
Pressure
1974 South Atlantic 1974 45 km/h (30 mph) 988 hPa (29.18 inHg)
Catarina 2004 155 km/h (100 mph) 972 hPa (28.70 inHg)
Anita 2010 85 km/h (50 mph) 995 hPa (29.38 inHg)
Arani 2011 85 km/h (50 mph) 989 hPa (29.21 inHg)
Bapo 2015 65 km/h (40 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg)
Cari 2015 65 km/h (40 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg)
Sources:[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dunnavan, George M; Diercks, John W (November 1, 1980). "An Analysis of Super Typhoon Tip (October 1979)". Monthly Weather Review 108 (11): 1915–1923. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<1915:AAOSTT>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  2. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division (May 7, 2015). "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 25, 2015. 
  3. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center (July 7, 2014). "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949–2013". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved July 10, 2014.  A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  4. ^ "Western North Pacific Typhoon best track file 1951–2015". Japan Meteorological Agency. 2010-01-13. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  5. ^ "Best track data of tropical cyclonic disturbances over the north Indian Ocean" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. 2009-07-14. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  6. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Best Track Information for the North Indian Ocean 1990–2012". India Meteorological Department. 2012. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Cyclone Damia Best track". Météo-France. 2001-05-16. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  8. ^ a b La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 1993–1994 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. pp. 42, 65. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  9. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 1994–1995 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. p. 67. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  10. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 1995–1996 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. pp. 25,. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  11. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 1996–1997 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. p. 33. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  12. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 1999–2000 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. p. 72. ISBN 2-9511665-3-2. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 2001–2002 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. p. 4. ISBN 2-9511665-6-7. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  14. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 2003–2004 in the South-West Indian Ocean (in English and French). Météo France. p. 67. ISBN 2-9511665-8-3. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  15. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (November 27, 2009). "Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Adeline-Juliet". Météo France. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  16. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (November 27, 2009). "Intense Tropical Cyclone Bento". Météo France. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  17. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. South-West Indian Ocean Cyclone Season 2005–2006 (in English and French). Météo France. p. 6. ISBN 2-9511665-9-1. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  18. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (November 27, 2009). "Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Hondo". Météo France. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  19. ^ La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (August 31, 2010). "Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Edzani". Météo France. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  20. ^ RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre, TCWC Brisbane, TCWC Wellington (May 22, 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". Fiji Meteorological Service, Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited, Australian Bureau of Meteorology. International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. 
  21. ^ "Second only south Atlantic tropical storm: 90Q, moving away from Brazil". Retrieved 2011-06-23. 

External links[edit]

Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers
Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers