List of the oldest mosques

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Mosque of Uqba, founded in 670 in Tunisia

The designation of the oldest mosque in the world requires careful use of definitions, and must be divided into two parts, the oldest in the sense of oldest surviving building, and the oldest in the sense of oldest mosque congregation. Even here, there is the distinction between old mosque buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques, and those that have been converted to other purposes; and between buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques and those that were shuttered for many decades. In terms of congregations, they are distinguished between early established congregations that have been in continuous existence, and early congregations that ceased to exist.

To be listed here a site must:

  • be the oldest mosque in a country, large city (top 50), or oldest of its type (denomination, architectural, etc.);
  • be the oldest congregation of its type (denomination).

Oldest mosques[edit]

Building Image Location Modern country First built Denomination Notes
Masjid al-Haram
Kaaba mirror edit jj.jpg
Mecca Saudi Arabia unknown Abrahamic religion Site of the Hajj pilgrimage and direction (Qibla) of Muslim formal prayers; rebuilt many times, notably 1571 by the Ottomans and late 20th century by Saudis, further radical enlargement under way since 2010. First Mosque in Islamic thought.[1][2][3][4]
Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-aqsa-mosque01 cropped.JPG
Old City of Jerusalem Israel/Palestine unknown[5] Sunni Al-Aqsa and Bayt al-Muqaddas, is the third holiest site in Islam and is located in the Old City of Jerusalem. The site on which the silver domed mosque sits, near the Dome of the Rock. The mosque's presence in antiquity, including before the days of Muhammad, is spoken of in the Quran.[6][7]
Quba Mosque
Masjid al-Quba.jpg
Medina Saudi Arabia 622 Oldest mosque site (after the original Great Mosques of Mecca[1][2][3][4] and Jerusalem[6][7] in Islamic thought) but the building was largely rebuilt in the late 20th century.
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
Mescidi nebevi.JPG
Medina Saudi Arabia 622 Site of pilgrimage. Contains Muhammad's tomb. Largely rebuilt and greatly enlarged in the late 20th century, whilst retaining at its heart the earlier construction of the Ottomans, and landmark green dome.
Masjid al-Qiblatain
Al-Qiblatin Mosque.jpg
Medina Saudi Arabia 623 Mosque of the two Qiblas
Negash Mosque
Negash 8.jpg
Negash Ethiopia 627 Built in the 7th century in Negash, the mosque in Negash, by tradition burial site of several followers of Mohammed who, during his lifetime, fled to the Aksumite Kingdom to escape persecution in Mecca.
Masjid al-Qiblatayn
Zeila, Somalia.jpg
Zeila Somalia 620/30[8] built in the 7th century in Zeila, shortly after the hijra; known to be among the oldest mosques.
Huaisheng Mosque
Huaisheng Mosque Dec 2007.jpg
Guangzhou China 627 The Huaisheng Mosque is the main mosque of Guangzhou. It has been rebuilt many times over its history. According to tradition it was originally built over 1,300 years ago in 627AD by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas who was an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and was named in memory of Muhammad.
Al-Asha'ir Mosque
30 Zabid (8).jpg
Zabid Yemen 629 A part of UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Town of Zabid.[9]
Cheraman Juma Masjid
Cheraman Juma Masjid.jpg
Kodungallur India 629 Built by Malik Deenar and named for Cheraman Perumal. It is confirmed to be the first mosque ever built in India, and the state of Kerala
Jawatha Mosque
Jawatha Mosque in Al-Ahsa (2007).jpg
Al-Kilabiyah Saudi Arabia 629 Has recently been renovated and prayers are still held in this mosque.
Xianxian Mosque
The Mosque in Guangzhou 19.JPG
Guangzhou City China 629
Palaiya Jumma Palli
Palaiya Jumma Palli.jpg
Kilakarai India 630 Sunni First ever mosque to be built in Tamil Nadu and is the second mosque to ever be built in India , Constructed by Yemeni merchants and trade settlers in the Pandiya Kingdom and ordered by Bazan ibn Sasan, Governor of Yemen at the time of Muhammad[10]
Al-Qibli Chapel Jerusalem Israel/Palestine 637
Al-Shuaibiyah Mosque Aleppo Syria 637
Ibrahimi Mosque
Hebron Cave of the Patriarchs.jpg
Hebron Israel/Palestine 637[11]
Great Mosque of Kufa
Kufa Mosque, 1915.jpg
Kufa Iraq 639 Shia The mosque, built in the 7th century, contains the remains of Muslim Ibn‘ Aqīl – first cousin of Husayn ibn ‘Alī, his companion Hānī ibn ‘Urwa, and the revolutionary Mukhtār al-Thaqafī.
Mosque of Amr ibn al-As
Mosque Amr ibn Al-As Entrance.jpg
Cairo Egypt 641 Named after 'Amr ibn al-'As, commander of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, by order of Caliph Umar. Rebuilt in 673, in 1179 and in 1875.
Mosque of Uqba
Kairouan's Great Mosque courtyard.jpg
Kairouan Tunisia 670 Sunni rebuilt in the 9th century
Imam Hussain Mosque
Kerbela Hussein Moschee.jpg
Karbala Iraq 680 Shia reconstructed several times, including in 1016
Sidi Okba Mosque
Sidi Uqba.JPG
Sidi Okba Algeria 686[12]
Al-Zaytuna Mosque
MinaretMosqueeZitounaTunis.JPG
Tunis Tunisia 709 Sunni
Great Mosque of Aleppo
Great Aleppo mosque 176.jpg
Aleppo Syria 715
Umayyad Mosque
Umayyad Mosque.jpg
Damascus Syria 715 Sunni National Mosque
White Mosque
רמלה המסגד הלבן.JPG
Ramla Israel 720
Al-Omari Mosque
Mosque of umar, bosra, syria, easter 2004.jpg
Bosra Syria 721
Great Mosque of Xi'an
Chinese-style minaret of the Great Mosque.jpg
Xi'an, Shaanxi China 742[13] Although remains date mostly from the 18th century,[14] the Mosque was founded in 742[15]
Juma Mosque
Qoşa minarəli məscid. Şamaxı şəhəri.JPG
Shamakhi Azerbaijan 744
Jameh Mosque of Isfahan
Jamé Mosque Esfahan courtyard.jpg
Isfahan Iran 771
Great Mosque of Raqqa Raqqa Syria 772
Great Mosque of Córdoba
Mezquita de Córdoba desde el aire (Córdoba, España).jpg
Córdoba, Andalusia Spain 785 It was built on the main (Visigothic) church of the city. The great mosque was built by Abd al-Rahman I, the first Muslim ruler of Spain in 785,[16] it underwent successive extensions in the 9th and 10th centuries and was concluded in 10th century under the command of Almanzor. After the Christian reconquest of Cordoba in 1236, Ferdinand III of Castile converted the mosque into a cathedral, suffering some alterations that will end up configuring the current Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba. With 23,400 square meters, it was the second largest mosque in the world on the surface, behind the Mecca Mosque, only later reached by the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Istanbul, 1588).
Great Mosque of Samarra
The spiral minaret in Samarra.jpg
Samarra Iraq 848
Great Mosque of Sfax
Grande Mosquée de Sfax 01.jpg
Sfax Tunisia 850[17]
Great Mosque of Sousse
Great Mosque of Sousse.jpg
Sousse Tunisia 851[18]
Mosque of Ibn Tulun
Kairo Ibn Tulun Moschee BW 4.jpg
Cairo Egypt 879
Al-Hadi Mosque
Mosque in Sa'dah.jpg
Sa'dah Yemen 897
Al-Hakim Mosque
Mosquee al-akim le caire 1.jpg
Cairo Egypt 928
Al-Askari Shrine
Al Askari Mosque.jpg
Samarra Iraq 944 Shia (Twelver) Shrine of the 10th and 11th Twelver Shī‘ah Imāms: Ali al-Hadi and Hasan al-‘Askarī
Al-Azhar Mosque
Cairo - Islamic district - Al Azhar Mosque and University.JPG
Cairo Egypt 972 Sunni
Imam Ali Mosque
Meshed ali usnavy (PD).jpg
Najaf Iraq 977 Shia, Sunni Shrine of first Shia Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, and fourth Sunni Rashidun Caliph.
Great Mosque of Diyarbakır
Great Mosque, Diyarbakir.jpg
Diyarbakır Turkey 1092 Sunni Oldest mosque in modern Turkey
Atiq Mosque, Awjila
Awjila (Libia) - The Mosque of Atiq.jpg
Awjila Libya 1101 Sunni
Arba'a Rukun Mosque
Mogadishu city centre - 1960s.jpg
Mogadishu Somalia 1268/9 Sunni
Fakr ad-Din Mosque
Fakr-ad-din-mosque.jpg
Mogadishu Somalia 1269 Sunni Mosque built by Sultan Fakr ad-Din of the Sultanate of Mogadishu (10th Century – 16th Century).
Kazimar Big Mosque
Kazimarbigmosque.JPG
Madurai India 1284 Sunni, Hanafi Shadhili Second Mosque in Tamil Nadu.

First mosques by country[edit]

This is a list of the first known mosque established in each country. For the purposes of this list, the mosques given are the "first" to occur within the boundaries of the modern nations listed, though they may not have been part of those nations at the time of the founding of the listed mosque.

Country Year of establishment Name and location Notes
 Saudi Arabia 622 Quba Mosque, Medina Quba Mosque, built by Prophet Muhammad upon his arrival in Madinah during the Hijrah. The first mosque of Islam.
 India 629 Cheraman Juma Masjid, Kodungallur, Kerala Built by Malik Deenar and named after king Cheraman Perumal[19]
628-630 Jumma Masjid of Kilakarai, Tamil Nadu Constructed by Yemeni merchants and traders, ordered by Yemeni governor Bazan ibn Sasan. Rebuild in the 11th century.[citation needed]
 China 629 Xianxian Mosque, Guangzhou The mosque was originally built in 629 during the Tang Dynasty.
 Yemen 629 Al-Asha'ir Mosque, Zabid Established by Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, a sahabi.
 Eritrea 620-630 (approximate)[20] Massawa Believed to be the first mosque on the African continent.[20]
 Syria 634 Umayyad Mosque, Damascus The Umayyad Mosque, was originally built after the Muslim conquest of the city in 634. The current structure dates to 715.
 Israel  Palestine 637 Al-Qibli Chapel, Jerusalem A Muslim prayer house with a silver lead dome located in the southern part of Al-Aqsa Mosque, built by the Rashidun caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab.
 Iraq 639 Great Mosque of Kufa, Kufa The Great Mosque of Kufa, was built soon after the establishment of Kufa as a military town during the Rashidun conquest of Iraq.
 Egypt 642 Mosque of Amr ibn al-As, Cairo Built after the Muslim conquest of Egypt by the Sahabi Amr ibn al-As
 Tunisia 670 Mosque of Uqba, Kairouan Oldest mosque in the Western Islamic world, first in the Maghreb
 Algeria 686[21] Sidi Okba Mosque, Sidi Okba
 Oman 600s[22] Masjid Mazin, Sumail Founded by Mazin Ben Ghadooba, the first Omani to adopt Islam, and adopted it during Mohammed's lifetime[22]
 Somalia 600s Masjid al-Qiblatayn, Zeila
 Uzbekistan 713 Po-i-Kalyan Since 713 here, several edifices of main cathedral mosque were built then razed, restored after fires and wars, and moved from place to place.
 Turkey 717-720 Masjid al-Hisn The building fell into ruin during the reign of al-Mu'tasim, approximately 120 years later.
 Pakistan 727 Jamia Masjid Banbhore
 Azerbaijan 743-744 Juma Mosque, Shamakhi
 Spain (then the Emirate of Córdoba) 785[23] Great Mosque of Córdoba, Córdoba It was built on the main (Visigothic) church of the city. The great mosque was built by Abd al-Rahman I, the first Muslim ruler of Spain in 785,[24] it underwent successive extensions in the 9th and 10th centuries and was concluded in 10th century under the command of Almanzor. After the Christian reconquest of Cordoba in 1236, Ferdinand III of Castile converted the mosque into a cathedral, suffering some alterations that will end up configuring the current Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba. With 23,400 square meters, it was the second largest mosque in the world on the surface, behind the Mecca Mosque, only later reached by the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Istanbul, 1588).
 Iran 700s[25] Jameh Mosque of Fahraj, Fahraj
 Kenya 830 (approximate)[26] Shanga, Pate Island Foundation discovered, with coins attesting dates, during the 1980s excavations. The earliest concrete evidence of Muslims in East Africa.[27]
 Russia (Dagestan then part of the Arabian Caliphate) 700-900 (approximate)[28] Dzhuma Mosque, Derbent, Dagestan
 Tanzania 1000-1100 Great Mosque of Kilwa, Kilwa Kisiwani
 Bahrain 1000–1200 (approximate)[28] Suq al-Khamis mosque Though most of the structure is dated to the 11th or 12th century, popularly believed to have been founded by the Caliph Omar in the 600s.[29]
 Kosovo 1268[30] Al-Agha Mosque, Dragaš Built by Muslims who migrated from Aleppo, Syria to Kosovo.
 Bulgaria 1363-1364 Dzhumaya Mosque, Plovdiv During the reign of Sultan Murad II the old building was demolished and replaced by the modern-day mosque.
 Philippines 1380[31] Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque, Tubig Indangan, Simunul island, Tawi-Tawi province Founded by Makhdum Karim, who introduced Islam to the Philippines
 Brunei 1430 (approximate)[32] Built under the direction of Sharif Ali ("Sultan Berkat"), who reigned 1425-1432.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1448-1449[33] Ustikolina Built by Turhan Emin-beg. Known that was destroyed two times (1941, 1992) and rebuilt two times (1956, 2007).
 Albania 1466[34] Elbasan Castle Built by the orders of Sultan Mehmed II.
 Montenegro 1471[35] Plav Built during the Ottoman rule in the city.
 United Arab Emirates 1400s[36] Al Badiyah Mosque, Fujairah Some much earlier estimates have been proposed.
 Niger 1515 Agadez Mosque, Agadez Niger's oldest mosque.
 Poland 1558 (earliest attestation in writing)[37] Tatar mosques in Poland were noted in a 1558 treatise Risale-i Tatar-i Lech.[38]
 Romania 1575 Mangalia Mosque, Mangalia
 Lithuania (then the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) 1500-1600[39] various Records indicate Lithuanian Tatars built mosques in the Duchy during the 16th century[39]
 South Africa (then Cape Colony) 1798[40] Awwal Mosque, Cape Colony
 Togo 1820[41] Sokodé
 Singapore 1820[42] Masjid Omar Kampong Melaka Originally a wooden structure built by Arab merchant Syed Omar Ali Aljunied
 Australia 1882[43] Marree Mosque, Marree, South Australia Small structure in the South Australian desert built by Australia's "Afghan" camel-drivers, has been restored
 Hong Kong (then British Hong Kong) 1890 Jamia Mosque, Mid-Levels
 United Kingdom 1891[44] Liverpool Muslim Institute Several sources state that a mosque was founded in 1860 at 2 Glynrhondda Street, Cardiff, Wales. This has been rejected by an academic paper as a transcription error.[45]
 Lesotho 1900 (approximate)[26] Butha Buthe Founded by Soofie Saheb at the turn of the century; the community is described as African Muslim yet speaking an Indian language.[26]
 France 1905, 1926[46] Saint-Denis, Réunion (1905), Paris (1926, first in Metropolitan France) The 1926 Paris mosque was the first mosque built in France since the 8th century; it was built in the Moroccan style, and honored Muslim French veterans of World War I.[47]
 Suriname (then a colony of the Netherlands) 1906[48] Built by immigrant Javanese rice farmers.[48]
 Rwanda (then German East Africa) 1913[49] Al-Fatah Mosque, Kigali Founded by coastal Swahili-speaking Tanzanian Muslims who came to Rwanda to work in the German administration.[49]
 Slovenia 1916[50] Log pod Mangartom Mosque Built by Bosniak members of the Austro-Hungarian army.
 Fiji 1922 (approximate)[51] Vitogo, Nausori, and Tavua[51] A number of wooden mosques were built by local Islamic assemblies around 1922.[51]
 Germany 1922-1924[46] Berlin Sources differ as to the original mosque: an Ahmadiyya mosque (Berlin Mosque) was built in 1924; the Deutsch-Moslemische Gesellschaft was built in 1922, and a wooden mosque for prisoners of war was built near Berlin during World War I. The first Islamic cemetery was founded in 1798.[46]
 United States 1929 Ross, North Dakota The Mother Mosque of America, built in Iowa in 1934, became the oldest standing mosque in America when the Ross mosque was torn down in the 1970s. The Ross mosque was later rebuilt in 2005.
 Brazil 1929[52] São Paulo
 Panama 1930[53] Built by the Ahmadiyya Muslims.[53]
 Japan 1935[54] Kobe Mosque, Kobe Designed in the Turkish style by a Czech architect; confiscated by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1943 and later returned
 Canada 1938 Al-Rashid Mosque, Edmonton, Alberta
 Finland 1942 Järvenpää mosque Finland's first Muslim cemetery was established in the 1830s for Russian troops.[55]
 Taiwan 1947 Taipei Grand Mosque, Taipei Oldest and most famous mosque in Taiwan.
 Taiwan 1947 Taipei Grand Mosque, Taipei Original building was firstly used in 1947, then it was relocated to a new site where it was reconstructed in 1960
 Jamaica 1950s[56] Westmoreland and Spanish Town Constructed by the Islamic Society of Jamaica, which was founded in 1950.
 Botswana 1960s[57] Lobatse Founded by Indian Muslims brought over during the British colonial period
  Switzerland 1961 Islamic Center in Geneva, Geneva Founded by Said Ramadan
 Denmark 1967[55] Hvidovre, outside Copenhagen Founded by the Ahmadiyya; first purpose-built mosque in a Nordic country
 Venezuela 1968[58] El Paraíso, Caracas
 Croatia 1969 Gunja One of the few mosques in Croatia, located near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.
 Norway 1974 Islamic Cultural Centre, Oslo Founded by Pakistani-Norwegians aided by Danish Muslims; of the Sunni Deobandi school. The first Shi'a mosque, Anjuman-e Hussain, opened in 1975; the first Sunni Barelvi mosque opened in 1976.
 Ireland 1976[59] 7 Harrington Street, Dublin The first purpose-built mosque was built in Ballyhaunis in 1987.[citation needed]
 South Korea 1976[60] Seoul Central Mosque, Seoul
 New Zealand 1979 (begun)[61] Auckland Cornerstone laid in 1979; the first Islamic centre in the country was installed in an Auckland house bought in 1959
 Austria 1979[62] Vienna Islamic Centre, Vienna
 Macau (then Portuguese Macau) 1980 Macau Mosque, Our Lady of Fatima Parish
 Swaziland 1981[63] Heavily financed by the World Assembly of Muslim Youth[63]
 Argentina 1983[64] At-Tauhid Mosque, Buenos Aires Opened in October 1983 by the shia community of Buenos Aires and with the support of the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran to Argentina.
 Haiti 1985[65]
 Mexico 1989 Suraya Mosque, Torreón Built by the immigrants from the middle east living in Torreón.
 Chile 1995[43] Mezquita as-Salam, Santiago Commissioned 1989, inaugurated 1995
 Costa Rica 1995[66] Founded by the Islamic Cultural Association of Costa Rica
 Czech Republic 1998[59] Brno Construction began 1996, inaugurated 1998
 Papua New Guinea 2000[67] Port Moresby[43] Islam was introduced to the island in the 1970s,[67] and the first Islamic centre established in 1988.[43]
 Sweden 2000[68] Stockholm Converted from Katarinastation, a former power station
 Iceland 2002[69] Reykjavík Mosque, Reykjavik Not a purpose-built mosque, but serves as an interim gathering site
 Belize 2008 (approximate)[70] Belize City[71] Founded by Belizeans who converted to Islam while in the United States.[70]

Old mosques by country[edit]

Afghanistan[edit]

  • Haji Piyada, built in the second half of the 9th century, oldest Islamic building in Afghanistan [72]

Albania[edit]

Iljaz Mirahori Mosque, is a historic mosque in Korçë, Albania. It was built in 1494 by Iljaz Hoxha, also known as Iljaz Bey Mirahor.[73] It is a Cultural Monument of Albania.[74]

King Mosque, Elbasan or Sulltan Bayazit mosque in Elbasan was builted around 1482.

Argentina[edit]

Armenia[edit]

Australia[edit]

Azerbaijan[edit]

  • Juma Mosque, Shamakhi, was built in 743–744, set on fire by Armenian units of "Dashnaktsutiun" in 1918, reconstructed in 2009.

Bangladesh[edit]

  • Sixty Dome Mosque, built in 1450 AD by Khan Jahan Ali (1398–1459), is the second-oldest mosque in Bangladesh, and is located in Bagerhat, Khulna division. The fortified structure contains eighty-one domes, sixty stone pillars and eleven mihrabs.

Brazil[edit]

Canada[edit]

China[edit]

  • Great Mosque of Xi'an, built in 742, but oldest mosque in China is the Beacon Tower mosque of Guangzhou being built in 627.[78]

Cyprus[edit]

Finland[edit]

A mosque of the Finnish Tatar community, built in 1942. It is the oldest mosque in Nordic countries.

Egypt[edit]

  • Mosque of Amr ibn al-As, also called the Mosque of Amr, originally built in 641–642 AD as the centre of Fustat, the newly founded capital of Egypt. The original structure was the first mosque built in Africa.

France[edit]

  • Tsingoni Mosque, Mayotte, Indian Ocean. Built in 1538, oldest mosque in France[81]
  • Paris Mosque, built in 1926, oldest mosque in metropolitan France

Germany[edit]

  • Berlin Mosque, built in 1924, oldest mosque building in Germany

Ghana[edit]

India[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

Iran[edit]

Iraq[edit]

Kosovo[edit]

Macedonia[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Montenegro[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Niger[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

Oman[edit]

  • Masjid Mazin bin Ghadouba, foundations date to the 7th century, oldest mosque in Oman

Pakistan[edit]

Philippines[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Singapore[edit]

Somalia[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Spain[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

  • Masjid al-Abrar, built in the first century of Hijra in Beruwala, Sri Lanka. The date has been carved in its stone pillars. It is situated in western province of Sri Lanka.

Sweden[edit]

Syria[edit]

Taiwan[edit]

Tanzania[edit]

Thailand[edit]

  • 300 Years Mosque, built in the 17th century, possibly oldest mosque in Thailand

Tunisia[edit]

  • Mosque of Uqba, built in the 7th century, possibly oldest mosque in Tunisia

Turkey[edit]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

United States[edit]

Yemen[edit]

See also[edit]

External links and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b Quran 2:127 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  2. ^ a b Quran 3:96 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  3. ^ a b Quran 22:25–37
  4. ^ a b Mecca: From Before Genesis Until Now, M. Lings, pg. 39, Archetype
  5. ^ Elad, Amikam. (1995). Medieval Jerusalem and Islamic Worship Holy Places, Ceremonies, Pilgrimage BRILL, pp.29–43. ISBN 90-04-10010-5.
  6. ^ a b Quran 17:1–7
  7. ^ a b Quran 21:51–82
  8. ^ "Liste des premières mosquées au monde prophètique, rashidun et omeyyade selon les écris historique et les traces archéologiques". Histoire Islamique (in French). 2014-06-15. Retrieved 2017-09-24. 
  9. ^ 611. UNESCO
  10. ^ Gibb & Beckingham 1994, pp. 814–815 Vol. 4.
  11. ^ Mann, Sylvia (January 1, 1983). "This is Israel: pictorial guide & souvenir". Palphot Ltd. – via Google Books. 
  12. ^ Sidi 'Uqba (mosque, minaret and tomb) Museum With No Frontiers. Retrieved 8-1-2017
  13. ^ China By Shelley Jiang,pg. 274
  14. ^ Fodor's China edited by Margaret Kelly, pg 618
  15. ^ Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places By Britannica Educational Publishing, pg. 181–182, Kenneth Pletcher
  16. ^ L. M. (February 27, 2014), La basílica de San Vicente Mártir, la primacía de lo cristiano, ABC (newspaper) 
  17. ^ Great Mosque of Sfax. Museum with No Frontiers. Retrieved 8-2-2017.
  18. ^ Great Mosque of Sousse. Museum with No Frontiers. Retrieved 8-1-2017.
  19. ^ "1400-year-old mosque to be restored to its original form". The Hindu. Retrieved September 7, 2015. 
  20. ^ a b A History of Modern Africa. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  21. ^ Sidi 'Uqba (mosque, minaret and tomb) Museum With No Frontiers. Retrieved 8-1-2017
  22. ^ a b Oman. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  23. ^ Kathryn Petras; Ross Petras (11 June 1996). World Access: The Handbook for Citizens of the Earth. Simon and Schuster. pp. 288–. ISBN 978-0-684-81016-4. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  24. ^ L. M. (February 27, 2014), La basílica de San Vicente Mártir, la primacía de lo cristiano, ABC (newspaper) 
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  33. ^ "Najstarija dzamija u BiH - ..::USTIKOLINA::." Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  34. ^ "Xhamia e parë në Shqipëri (1466)". Orientalizmi Shqiptar. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  35. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-01-12. Retrieved 2014-01-12. 
  36. ^ Eugene Harnan. "Oldest UAE mosque holds onto its secrets". 
  37. ^ Polish Art Studies. Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. 1991-01-01. p. 40. 
  38. ^ Polish Art Studies. Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. 1991-01-01. 
  39. ^ a b Muslims in Poland and Eastern Europe. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  40. ^ Abdulkader Tayob (24 April 1999). Islam in South Africa: Mosques, Imams, and Sermons. University Press of Florida. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-0-8130-2485-1. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  41. ^ Melton, John Gordon; Baumann, Martin (2002-01-01). Religions of the world: a comprehensive encyclopedia of beliefs and practices. S - Z. ABC-CLIO. p. 1285. ISBN 9781576072233. 
  42. ^ The Islamic Voluntary Sector in Southeast Asia. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  43. ^ a b c d Florian Pohl (1 September 2010). Modern Muslim Societies. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 374–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7927-7. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  44. ^ "Liverpool Mosque and Muslim Institute". Open University. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  45. ^ Gilliat-Ray, Sophie (July 2010). "The first registered mosque in the UK, Cardiff, 1860': the evolution of a myth". Contemporary Islam. Springer Netherlands. 4 (2): 179–193. doi:10.1007/s11562-010-0116-9. ISSN 1872-0218. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  46. ^ a b c Ala Al-Hamarneh; Jörn Thielmann (2008). Islam and Muslims in Germany. BRILL. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-90-04-15866-5. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
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