List of things named after J. R. R. Tolkien and his works
The British author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892–1973) and the names of fictional characters and places he invented for his legendarium have become the namesake of various things around the world. The list of things named after J. R. R. Tolkien and his works includes street names, mountains, companies, species of animals and plants as well as other notable objects.
- The asteroids 2991 Bilbo and 2675 Tolkien were both discovered and named in 1982.
- The Kuiper Belt object 385446 Manwë and its moon Thorondor were discovered in 2003.
- The trans-Neptunian object 174567 Varda and its moon Ilmarë were discovered in 2006 and 2011 (respectively) and named in 2014.
- The mars-crossing asteroid 378214 Sauron was discovered in 2007.
- Mordor is the unofficial name of a large dark area near the north pole of Charon, Pluto's largest moon. It is named after the shadow lands in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, which it strongly resembles in shape. The discovery team has been using the name informally and may submit it to the International Astronomical Union.
- Several astronomical objects such as stars, nebulas and an entire galaxy have been nicknamed after the Eye of Sauron.
Geography of Titan
By convention, certain classes of features on Saturn's moon Titan are named after elements from Middle-earth. Colles (small hills or knobs) are named for characters, while montes (mountains) are named for mountains of Middle-earth.
|Collis||Coordinates||Diameter (km)||Named after|
|Arwen Colles||64||Arwen, character from The Lord of the Rings|
|Bilbo Colles||164||Bilbo Baggins, titular character of The Hobbit|
|Faramir Colles||82||Faramir, character from The Lord of the Rings|
|Gandalf Colles||102||Gandalf, character from The Lord of the Rings|
|Handir Colles||100||Handir, character from The Silmarillion|
|Nimloth Colles||90||Nimloth, name of a character and a tree from Middle-earth|
Companies and other entities
- Iron Crown Enterprises produces role playing, board, miniature, and collectible card games since 1980. Many of ICE’s better-known products were related to Tolkien’s world of Middle-earth. It was named after the crown worn by Morgoth.
- Middle-earth Enterprises, formerly known as Tolkien Enterprises, is a trading name for a division of The Saul Zaentz Company, located in Berkeley, California. The company owns the worldwide exclusive rights to certain elements of J. R. R. Tolkien's two most famous literary works: The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit. These elements include the titles of the works, the names of characters contained within as well as the names of places, objects and events within them, and certain short phrases and sayings from the works.
- Palantir Technologies is a private American software and services company, specializing in data analysis. Named after the crystal balls from Tolkien's legendarium, Palantir's original clients were federal agencies of the United States Intelligence Community like CIA and NSA.
- The Tolkien Estate is the legal body which manages the property of J. R. R. Tolkien, including the copyright in his works. The individual copyrights have for the most part been assigned by the Estate to subsidiary entities such as the J. R. R. Tolkien Discretionary Settlement and The Tolkien Trust.
- Anduril Industries
- Mithril, a decentralized social media platform
- Three mountains in the Cadwallader Range of British Columbia, Canada, have been named after Tolkien's characters. These are Mount Shadowfax, Mount Gandalf and Mount Aragorn.
- On 1 December 2012, it was announced in the New Zealand press that a bid was launched for the New Zealand Geographic Board to name a mountain peak near Milford Sound after Tolkien for historical and literary reasons and to mark Tolkien's 121st birthday.
Street names and places
The "Tolkien Road" in Eastbourne, East Sussex, was named after Tolkien whereas the "Tolkien Way" in Stoke-on-Trent is named after Tolkien's eldest son, Fr. John Francis Tolkien, who was the priest in charge at the nearby Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of the Angels and St. Peter in Chains. In the Hall Green and Moseley areas of Birmingham there are a number of parks and walkways dedicated to J. R. R. Tolkien—most notably, the Millstream Way and Moseley Bog. Collectively the parks are known as the Shire Country Parks. In the Dutch town of Geldrop, near Eindhoven, the streets of an entire new neighbourhood are named after Tolkien himself ("Laan van Tolkien") and some of the best-known characters from his books. Also in Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, England there are a collection of roads in the 'Weston Village' named after locales of Middle Earth, namely Hobbiton Road, Bree Close, Arnor Close, Rivendell, Westmarch Way and Buckland Green.
In the Silicon Valley towns of Saratoga and San Jose in California, there are two housing developments with street names drawn from Tolkien's works. About a dozen Tolkien-derived street names also appear scattered throughout the town of Lake Forest, California. The Columbia, Maryland, neighbourhood of Hobbit's Glen and its street names (including Rivendell Lane, Tooks Way, and Oakenshield Circle) come from Tolkien's works.
It has been noted that "Tolkien has been accorded formal taxonomic commemoration like no other author." In the field of taxonomy, over 80 taxa (genera and species) have been given scientific names honouring, or deriving from, characters or other fictional elements from The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, and other works set in Middle-earth. Several taxa have been named after the character Gollum (also known as Sméagol), as well as for various hobbits, the small humanlike creatures such as Bilbo and Frodo Baggins. Various elves, dwarves, and other creatures that appear in his writings as well as Tolkien himself have been honoured in the names of several species, including the amphipod Leucothoe tolkieni, and the wasp Shireplitis tolkieni. In 2004, the extinct hominid Homo floresiensis was described, and quickly earned the nickname "hobbit" due to its small size. In 1978, paleontologist Leigh Van Valen named over 20 taxa of extinct mammals after Tolkien lore in a single paper. In 1999, entomologist Lauri Kaila described 48 new species of Elachista moths and named 37 of them after Tolkien mythology. The entomologist Karl-Johan Hedqvist, also a fan of Tolkien, named several wasp genera after Tolkien's characters.
- Bomburia is also a genus of wasps, but was named for the dwarf of Norse mythology
- "(2991) Bilbo = 1982 HV = 1982 KB2 = 1975 JC = 1979 SY3". IAU Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 2675 Tolkien (1982 GB)". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Nemiroff, Robert; Bonnell, Jerry (17 July 2015). "APOD: 2015 July 17 – Charon". Astronomy Picture of the Day. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- Lendino, Jamie (15 July 2015). "NASA unveils historic, high-resolution Pluto, Charon, and Hydra photos from New Horizons mission". Extremetech.com. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- Stockton, Nick (2015). "Charon Comes into Focus in New Horizons' Latest Photos". Wired. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "Categories for Naming Features on Planets and Satellites". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN). Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature: Titan Colles". Planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature: Titan Mons, Montes". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN). Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- Appelcline, Shannon (2011). Designers & Dragons. Mongoose Publishing. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-907702-58-7.
- "About". Middle-earth Enterprises. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14.
- Larsen 2007
- "The Tolkien Trust - Extract from the Central Register of Charities maintained by the Charity Commission for England and Wales". Charity Commission.
- "WWF-UK Annual Review 2007-Supporters". WWF-UK. Retrieved 2008-02-12.[permanent dead link]
- "Home". Anduril Industries. Retrieved 2018-08-27.
- "MITHRIL - A Social Network that rewards all content creators". mith.io. Retrieved 2018-08-27.
- "Mount Gandalf". BC Geographical Names. The Province of British Columbia. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "Mount Shadowfax". BC Geographical Names. The Province of British Columbia. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "Unnamed peak could be named Mt Tolkien". Stuff.co.nz. Fairfax New Zealand Limited. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "People of Stoke-on-Trent". Retrieved 13 March 2005.
- "Nature reserve remembers Baggins". BBC News. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Phillips, Bethan (13 March 2012). "The Hobbit in battle with Hollywood". Southern Daily Echo. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Beck, Julie (3 May 2015). "Science's Love Affair with The Lord of the Rings". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Aiello, Leslie C. (2010). "Five years of Homo floresiensis". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 142 (2): 167–179. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21255. PMID 20229502. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011.
- Gee 2004, p. 55
- Van Valen, L. M. (1978). "The beginning of the Age of Mammals". Evolutionary Theory. 4: 45–80. Taxonomic summary
- Kaila, Lauri (1999). "A revision of the Nearctic species of the genus Elachista s.l. III. The bifasciella, praelineata, saccharella and freyerella groups (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae)". Acta Zoologica Fennica. 211: 1–235.
- Hansson, Christer (2010). "Till minne av Karl-Johan Hedqvist" [In memory of Karl-Johan Hedqvist] (PDF). Entomologisk Tidskrift (in Swedish). 131: 137–144.
- Will, Kipling (16 November 2011). "Taxonomic review of the Pterostichini and Loxandrini fauna of New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Carabidae)". ZooKeys. 147: 337–397. doi:10.3897/zookeys.147.1943. PMC . PMID 22371668.
- Pekár, S.; Cardoso, P. (2005). "Ant-eating spiders (Araneae: Zodariidae) of Portugal: additions to the current knowledge". Zootaxa (1009): 51–60.
- Conway Morris, S (1977). "Fossil priapulid worms" (PDF). Special papers in Palaeontology. 20: 55.
- Davis, H. R.; Grismer, L. L.; Klabacka, R. L.; Muin, M. A.; Quah, E. S. H.; Anuar, S.; Wood, P. J.; Sites, J. W. (2016). "The phylogenetic relationships of a new Stream Toad of the genus Ansonia Stoliczka, 1870 (Anura: Bufonidae) from a montane region in Peninsular Malaysia". Zootaxa. 4103 (2): 137. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4103.2.4.
- Hastings, Alexander K.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Jaramillo, Carlos A. (2014). "A new blunt-snouted dyrosaurid, Anthracosuchus balrogus gen. et sp. nov. (Crocodylomorpha, Mesoeucrocodylia), from the Palaeocene of Colombia". Historical Biology: 1–23. doi:10.1080/08912963.2014.918968.
- Hedqvist, Karl-Johan (1978). "Four new genera and species of the subfamily Euderinae from Brazil (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)" (PDF). Entomologia Scandinavica. 9 (1): 63–67. doi:10.1163/187631278x00223.
- Hedqvist, Karl-Johan (1977). "Two new genera and species of Pteromalidae from Brazil (Hymenoptera)". Entomologica Scandinavica. 8 (1): 78–80. doi:10.1163/187631277X00134.
- Cooper, Kenneth W. (1964). "The first fossil tardigrade: Beorn leggi Cooper, from Cretaceous amber". Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 71 (2): 41–48. doi:10.1155/1964/48418.
- Hedqvist, Karl-Johan (1975). "Notes on Chalcidoidea. VIII. The Swedish Chrysolampini with description of a new genus and species (Hym., Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae)" (PDF). Ent. Tids. 96 (3-4): 133–136.
- Hedqvist, Karl-Johan (1978). "A new subfamily and two new genera and species from the New World (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae)" (PDF). Entomologia Scandinavica. 9: 135–139. doi:10.1163/187631278x00070.
- Williamson, Thomas E.; Carr, Thomas D. (2012). "Bomburodon, a new name for the Paleocene mammal Bomburia Van Valen, 1978". Journal of Paleontology. 86 (3): 567–567. doi:10.1666/12-013.1.
- Webb, S. David (1969). "The Pliocene Canidae of Florida". Bulletin of the Florida State Museum. 14 (4): 273–308.
- Minter, Leslie R. (June 2003). "Two new cryptic species of Breviceps (Anura: Microhylidae) from Southern Africa". African Journal of Herpetology. 52 (1): 9–21. doi:10.1080/21564574.2003.9635473.
- Larsen 2007, citing: Foster, Robert (2001). The Complete Guide to Middle-earth. New York: Ballantine. p. 23.
- "A new genus and species from Romania [sic!], representing a new family (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)" (PDF). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne. 44 (2): 253–254. 1974.
- "Taxon details". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- Wagner, P. J. (1999). "The utility of fossil data in phylogenetic analyses: a likelihood example using Ordovician-Silurian species of the Lophospiridae (Gastropoda: Murchisoniina)". American Malacological Bulletin. 15 (1): 1–31.
- Schillhammer, H. (1997). "Taxonomic revision of the oriental species of Gabrius Stephens (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)". Monographs on Coleoptera: 1–139.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). "Galaxias gollumoides" in FishBase. March 2006 version.
- "Contribution to the knowledge of the family Braconidae from Canary Islands. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea). I. A new genus and species of subfamily Doryctinae" (PDF). Vieraea. 3 (1–2): 29–32. 1973.
- Bulanov, V. V.; Sennikov, A. G. (2015). "Glaurung schneideri gen. et sp. nov., a new weigeltisaurid (Reptilia) from the Kupfershiefer (Upper Permian) of Germany". Paleontological Journal. 49 (12): 1353–1364. doi:10.1134/S0031030115120035.
- Compagno, L. J. V. "Ctenacis and Gollum, two new genera of sharks (Selachii; Carcharhinidae)". Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 39 (14): 257–272.
- Hedqvist, Karl-Johan (1978). "Some Chalcidoidea collected in the Philippine, Bismarck and Solomon Islands, 2. Eucharitidae, with keys and check-lists to Indo-Australian genera (Insecta, Hymenoptera)". Steenstrupia. 4: 227–248.
- A. Sendra; V. Ortuno; A. Moreno; S. Montagud; S. Teruel (2006). "Gollumjapyx smeagol gen. n., an enigmatic hypogean japygid (Diplura: Japygidae) from the eastern Iberian Peninsula" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1372: 35–52.
- Gee 2004, p. 54
- Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Fonseca-Ferreira, Rafael; Bichuette, Maria (2015). "A new highly specialized cave harvestman from Brazil and the first blind species of the genus: Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae)". ZooKeys. 537: 79–95. doi:10.3897/zookeys.537.6073. PMC . PMID 26798238.
- Grismer, L. Lee (2007). "A new species of Ingerophrynus (Anura: Bufonidae) from a lowland rain forest in southern peninsular Malaysia". Journal of Herpetology. 41 (2): 225–230. doi:10.1670/0022-1511(2007)41[225:ANSOIA]2.0.CO;2.
- Gates, M. W. (2008). "Description of Khamul, gen. n.(Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae), with a hypothesis of its phylogenetic placement" (PDF). Zootaxa (1898): 1–33.
- Machado, A. (2008). "New taxa of Laparocerus Schönherr, 1834 from Madeira and Porto Santo, with a key to the species of the Madeiran archipelago (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae)". Graellsia. 64 (2): 307–328. doi:10.3989/graellsia.2008.v64.i2.40.
- Hedqvist, Karl-Johan (1974). "Legolasia dinotiscoides gen. n., sp. n. and Trychnosoma ernobii sp. n., Two New Pteromalids from Sweden (Pteromalidae)". Entomologisk Tidskrift. 95: 117–121.
- Vinogradov, G.M. (1990). "Amphipoda (Crustacea) in the pelagic zone of the southeastern Pacific Ocean (in Russian)". Trudy Instituta Okeanologii Akademii Nauk SSSR. 124: 27–104.
- Thomas, James Darwin (22 July 2009). "Leucothoidae species (version 7.09) [includes Anamixidae (sensu lato)]" (PDF). Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- Richards, Steven J.; Oliver, P. M. (2006). "Two new species of large green canopy-dwelling frogs (Anura: Hylidae: Litoria) from Papua New Guinea". Zootaxa (1295): 41–60.
- Carnevale, Giorgio; Godfrey, Stephen J. (2014). "Tilefish (Teleostei, Malacanthidae) remains from the Miocene Calvert Formation, Maryland and Virginia: taxonomical and paleoecological remarks". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34 (5): 1018–1032. doi:10.1080/02724634.2014.845202.
- Mattioli, Emanuela (1996). "New calcareous nannofossil species from the Early Jurassic of Tethys". Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia. 102 (3): 397–412.
- Melzak, Adam; Westrop, Stephen R. (June 1994). "Mid-Cambrian (Marjuman) trilobites from the Pika Formation, southern Canadian Rocky Mountains, Alberta". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 31 (6): 969–985. doi:10.1139/e94-086.
- Kennedy, George L. (1974). "West American Cenozoic Pholadidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)". Memoirs of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 8 (59): 59–60.
- Hedqvist, Karl-Johan. "Two New Genera and Species of the Family Pteromalidae from Sweden" (PDF). Entomologia Scandinavica. 4 (3): 237–240.
- Decae, A.; Cardoso, P.; Selden, P. (2007). "Taxonomic review of the Portuguese Nemesiidae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae)" (PDF). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología. 14: 1–18.
- Brescovit, Antonio D.; Cizauskas, Igor; Mota, Leandro P. (2018). "Seven new species of the spider genus Ochyrocera from caves in Floresta Nacional de Carajás, PA, Brazil (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae)". ZooKeys. 726: 87–130. doi:10.3897/zookeys.726.19778.
- Dyke, Gareth J.; Gulas, Bonnie E. (2002). "The fossil galliform bird Paraortygoides from the Lower Eocene of the United Kingdom" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3360: 1–14. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2002)360<0001:TFGBPF>2.0.CO;2.
- Erwin, T. L. (1974). "Studies of the subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Garabidae: Bembidiini), part II: a revision of the New World-Australian genus Pericompsus LeConte". Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 162: 1–96.
- Faúndez, Eduardo (19 June 2015). "Patagonian Shield Bug Named After Middle's Earth's Smaug the Dragon". Entomology Today. Entomological Society of America. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- Carvajal, Mariom A.; Faúndez, Eduardo I.; Rider, David A. (2015). "Contribución al conocimiento de los Acanthosomatidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) de la Región de Magallanes, con descripción de una nueva especie". Anales Instituto Patagonia (Chile). 43 (1): 145–151. doi:10.4067/s0718-686x2015000100013. Archived from the original on 2015-06-22.
- Kolibac, J. (1997). "Classification of the subfamilies of Cleridae (Coleoptera: Cleroidea)". Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Naturales. 81: 307–361.
- Yerman, Michelle N.; Krapp-Schickel, Traudl (2008). "A new genus and two new species of Saurodocus (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Melitidae) from Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia". Zootaxa (1820): 60–66.
- Eskov, K. Y.; Marusik, Y. M. (1995). "On the spiders from Saur Mt. range, eastern Kazakhstan (Arachnida: Araneae)". Beiträge zur Araneologie. 4: 55–94.
- Cau, Andrea; Dalla Vecchia, Fabio M.; Fabbri, Matteo (2013). "A thick-skulled theropod (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco with implications for carcharodontosaurid cranial evolution". Cretaceous Research. 40: 251–260. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2012.09.002.
- Fernandez-Triana, J; Ward, DF; Cardinal, S; Van Achterberg, C (2013). "A review of Paroplitis (Braconidae, Microgastrinae), and description of a new genus from New Zealand, Shireplitis, with convergent morphological traits". Zootaxa. 3722: 549–568. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3722.4.6. PMID 26171541.
- Stanley, Edward L.; Bauer, Aaron M.; Jackman, Todd R.; Branch, William R.; Mouton, P. Le Fras N. (2011). "Between a rock and a hard polytomy: Rapid radiation in the rupicolous girdled lizards (Squamata: Cordylidae)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 58 (1): 53–70. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.08.024. PMID 20816817.
- Climo, F. M. (1980). "Smeagolida, a new order of gymnomorph mollusc from New Zealand based on a new genus and species". New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 7: 513–522. doi:10.1080/03014223.1980.11760683.
- Helgen, K.; Bonaccorso, F. (2008). "Syconycteris hobbit". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T21183A9246881. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- Faúndez, Eduardo (23 December 2015). "New giant Stink Bug Named after J. R. R. Tolkien's Ancalagon the Black". Entomological Society of America. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L. (19 December 2012). "The ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Malagasy region—taxonomic revision of the T. kelleri and T. tortuosum species groups" (PDF). Zootaxa (3592): 1–85. ISBN 978-1-77557-073-8. ISSN 1175-5334.
- Vera, Ezequiel Ignacio (2013). "New cyathealean tree fern, Yavanna chimaerica gen. et sp. nov., from the Early Cretaceous of Livingston Island, Antarctica". Cretaceous Research. 44: 214–222. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2013.04.011.
- Works cited
- Gee, Henry (2004). The Science of Middle-earth (1st ed.). Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Cold Spring Press. ISBN 1593600232.
- Larsen, Kristine (2007). "SAURON, Mount Doom, and Elvish Moths: The Influence of Tolkien on Modern Science". Tolkien Studies. 4 (1): 223–234. doi:10.1353/tks.2007.0024.
- "Species named after Tolkien's works". Tolkien Gateway.