List of titles and honours of Queen Elizabeth II

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The Royal Cypher of Queen Elizabeth II, surmounted by St Edward's Crown.

Queen Elizabeth II (born 21 April 1926) has held numerous titles and honours, both during and before her time as monarch of each of her Commonwealth realms. Each is listed below; where two dates are shown, the first indicates the date of receiving the title or award (the title as Princess Elizabeth of York being given as from her birth), and the second indicates the date of its loss or renunciation.

Royal titles and styles[edit]

Styles of
Queen Elizabeth II
Royal Cypher of Elizabeth II as Head of the Commonwealth.svg
Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Ma'am
  • 21 April 1926 – 11 December 1936: Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York
  • 11 December 1936 – 20 November 1947: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth
  • 20 November 1947 – 6 February 1952: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh
  • 6 February 1952 – present: Her Majesty The Queen

Upon Elizabeth's accession to the throne, she was asked by her Private Secretary what her regnal name would be, to which she responded, "My own, of course—what else?"[1] Until 1953, her official style was by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Queen, Defender of the Faith.[2] She was proclaimed as queen using that title in Canada and South Africa,[3][4] whereas, in Australia,[5] New Zealand, and the United Kingdom,[6] she was proclaimed as Queen Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of this Realm and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.

A decision was reached by Elizabeth's prime ministers at the Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference of 1952, whereby the Queen would accord herself different styles and titles in each of her realms, reflecting that in each state she acted as monarch of that particular country,[7] regardless of her other roles. Canada's preferred format was: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Canada and of Her other realms and territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.[8] However, as Australia wished to have the United Kingdom mentioned in all the Queen's titles,[9] the resolution reached was a designation that included the United Kingdom as well as, for the first time, separate reference to the other Commonwealth realms. Thereafter, separate but parallel royal styles and titles acts were passed in each of the Commonwealth realms, granting Elizabeth a distinct but similarly constituted title in each state,[7] meaning that when Elizabeth was crowned in the same year, she held seven separate titles.

With further evolution of the Commonwealth since that time, Elizabeth now holds 16 different regnal titles, one for each of the current Commonwealth realms. In all realms other than Canada and Grenada, the reference to the United Kingdom has been removed; Australia doing so in 1973,[10] in contrast to the Australian government's position 20 years earlier. Traditionally, the Queen's titles are listed in the order in which the realms other than the United Kingdom (the original realm) first became Dominions—namely, Canada (1867), Australia (1901), and New Zealand (1907)—followed by the rest in the order in which the former colony became an independent realm: Jamaica (1962), Barbados (1966), the Bahamas (1973), Grenada (1974), Papua New Guinea (1975), the Solomon Islands (1978), Tuvalu (1978), Saint Lucia (1979), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1979), Antigua and Barbuda (1981), Belize (1981), and Saint Kitts and Nevis (1983).

Though the situation was the same in every one of the Queen's realms beyond the United Kingdom, only within Scotland did the title Elizabeth II cause controversy as there had never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland. In an act of sabotage, new Royal Mail post boxes in Scotland, bearing the royal cypher EIIR, were vandalised, after which, to avoid further problems, post boxes and Royal Mail vehicles in Scotland bore only the Crown of Scotland. A legal case, MacCormick v. Lord Advocate (1953 SC 396), was taken to contest the right of the Queen to title herself Elizabeth II within Scotland, arguing that to do so would be a breach of the Act of Union. The case, however, was lost on the grounds that the pursuers had not title to sue the Crown and the numbering of monarchs was part of the Royal Prerogative, and thus not governed by the Act of Union. It was suggested by Winston Churchill that future British monarchs should be numbered according to either their English or Scottish predecessors, whichever number is higher.[11]

Less publicised controversies included the argument that the monarch was addressed as Your Grace in the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland (the monarchs of Renaissance England had been called both "Your Grace" and "Your Majesty"[12]) and that the standard title had been King/Queen of Scots (rex/reg scotorum) rather than of Scotland (rex/reg scotia). At the opening ceremony of the devolved Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh in 1999, attended by the Queen, the Presiding Officer Lord Steel said at the close of his opening address: "It is good that today, once again, we the elected representatives of the people are able to welcome your majesty, not only as Queen of the United Kingdom, but seated as you are among us, to greet you in the historic and constitutionally correct manner, with warmth and affection, as Queen of Scots."[13] In 2002 Winnie Ewing, then president of the Scottish National Party, wrote to the Queen asking her to adopt the title "Elizabeth I" in Scotland.[14]

Current[edit]

Americas[edit]

 Antigua and Barbuda
  • 1982 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Antigua and Barbuda and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 The Bahamas
  • 1973 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Barbados
  • 1966 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Barbados and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Belize
  • 1981 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth The Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Belize and of Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Canada
  • 6 February 1952 – 29 May 1953: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith
  • 29 May 1953 – :
In English: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, Canada and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith[15][N 1]
In French: Sa Majesté Elizabeth Deux, par la grâce de Dieu Reine du Royaume-Uni, du Canada et de ses autres royaumes et territoires, Chef du Commonwealth, Défenseur de la Foi[17][N 2]
 Grenada
  • 1974 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Grenada and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Jamaica
  • 1962 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Jamaica and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • 1983 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Christopher and Nevis and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Saint Lucia
  • 1979 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Lucia and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • 1979 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth

British Isles[edit]

 United Kingdom
  • 6 February 1952 – 26 March 1953
In English: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith
In Latin: Elizabeth II, Dei Gratia Magnae Britanniae, Hiberniae et terrarum transmarinarum quae in ditione sunt Britannica Regina, Fidei Defensor
  • 26 March 1953 – :
In English: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith[18][2]
In Latin: Elizabeth II, Dei Gratia Britanniarum Regnorumque Suorum Ceterorum Regina, Consortionis Populorum Princeps, Fidei Defensor[19]

Oceania[edit]

 Australia
  • 6 February 1952 – 1953: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith
  • 1953 – 1973: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, Australia and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith[N 3][21]
  • 1973 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
New Zealand New Zealand
  • 6 February 1952 – 1953: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith
  • 1953 – 1974: Her Majesty Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Her Other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
  • 1974 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of New Zealand and Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
 Papua New Guinea
  • 1975 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of Papua New Guinea and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth[22]
 Solomon Islands
  • 1978 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Solomon Islands and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Tuvalu
  • 1978 – : Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Tuvalu and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth

Former[edit]

Africa[edit]

 Ghana
  • 1957 – 1960: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Ghana and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Nigeria
  • 1960 – 1963: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Nigeria and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Sierra Leone
  • 1961 – 1971: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Sierra Leone and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Tanganyika[N 4]
  • 1961 – 1962: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Tanganyika and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Uganda
  • 1962 – 1963: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Uganda and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Kenya
  • 1963 – 1964: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Kenya and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Malawi
  • 1964 – 1966: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Malawi and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Mauritius
  • 1968 – 1992: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Mauritius and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 South Africa
  • 1953 – 1961: Elizabeth the Second, Queen of South Africa and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth[23]
 Gambia
  • 1965 – 1970: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, Queen of The Gambia and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
[N 5]

Americas[edit]

 Trinidad and Tobago
  • 1962 – 1976: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Trinidad and Tobago and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth
 Guyana
  • 1966 – 1970: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Guyana and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth

Asia[edit]

 Pakistan
  • 1953 – 1956: Elizabeth the Second, Queen of the United Kingdom and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth[23]
 Ceylon[N 6]
  • 1953 – 1972: Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Ceylon and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth[23]

Europe[edit]

 Malta
  • 1964 – 1974: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Malta and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth

Oceania[edit]

 Fiji
  • 1970 – 1987: Her Majesty Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Fiji and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth

Unofficial[edit]

Americas[edit]

 British Columbia, Canada
  • 1959 – : Mother of all People[24]
 Jamaica
 Nebraska, US

Europe[edit]

 Gibraltar
 Guernsey
 Isle of Man
 Jersey
  • 6 February 1952 – : Duke of Normandy

Oceania[edit]

 Fiji
  • 1998 – :
In Fijian: Tui Viti or Vunivalu[30]
In English: Queen or paramount chief of Fiji
 New Zealand
  • 1952 – :
In Māori: Kotuku
In English: The White Heron[31]

Military ranks[edit]

 Canada
New Zealand New Zealand
 United Kingdom

Commonwealth of Nations honours[edit]

Commonwealth realms[edit]

Appointments
Country Date Appointment Post-nominal letters
 United Kingdom 1935 – 6 February 1952 Member of the Royal Family Order of King George V
Royal Family Order of King George V - ribbon bar.png
1952 – Sovereign
 United Kingdom 1937 – 6 February 1952 Member of the Royal Family Order of King George VI[32]
FamilyOrderGeorgeVI-ribbon.jpg
6 February 1952 – Sovereign
 United Kingdom 1947 – 6 February 1952 Royal Lady of the Most Noble Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter UK ribbon.png
LG
1952 – Sovereign
 United Kingdom 12 June 1947 – 6 February 1952 Member of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India[33]
Galó de l'Orde de l'Estrella de l'Índia.gif
CI
1952 – Sovereign
International 1947 – 6 February 1952 Dame Grand Cross of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem
Order of St John (UK) ribbon.png
GCStJ
6 February 1952 – Sovereign Head
 United Kingdom 1951 – 6 February 1952 Lady of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council PC
Commonwealth realms[N 8] 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Royal Victorian Order
UK Royal Victorian Order ribbon.svg
Commonwealth realms 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Order of Merit
Galó de l'Orde del Mèrit (UK).png
Commonwealth realms 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Order of the Companions of Honour
Order of the Companions of Honour Ribbon.gif
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle
Order of the Thistle UK ribbon.png
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick
Ribbon bar Order of St. Patrick.jpg
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath (ribbon).svg
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Order BritEmp (civil) rib.PNG
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Distinguished Service Order
Dso-ribbon.png
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Imperial Service Order
United-kingdom584.gif
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India
ImperialOrderCrownIndiaRibbon.gif
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire
Order of the Indian Empire Ribbon.svg
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Order of British India
OBI 1838-1939.jpg
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Indian Order of Merit
Lint Indische Orde van Verdienste Indian Order of Merit.jpg
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Order of Burma
Order of Burma (United Kingdom) - ribbon bar.png
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Royal Order of King George IV
Royal Family Order of King George V - ribbon bar.png
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert
Royal Order of Victoria and Albert - ribbon bar.gif
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Royal Family Order of King Edward VII
Ord.fam.EdwardVII.JPG
 United Kingdom 6 February 1952 – Sovereign of the Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II
GBR Family Order Elizabeth II BAR.png
 Canada 1957 – Chief Hunter of the Order of the Buffalo Hunt[34]
 Canada 17 April 1967 – Sovereign of the Order of Canada[35]
Order of Canada (CC) ribbon bar.png
 Canada (British Columbia) 1971 – Member of the Order of the Dogwood
 Canada 1 July 1972 – Sovereign of the Order of Military Merit[36]
Order of Military Merit (Canada) ribbon (CMM).jpg
 Australia 14 February 1975 – Sovereign Head of the Order of Australia[37]
OrderAustraliaRibbon.png
 New Zealand 13 March 1975 – Sovereign Head of the Queen's Service Order[38]
QueenServiceRibbon.png
 Barbados 27 July 1980 – Sovereign of the Order of Barbados
Order of Barbados.gif
 Saint Lucia 1980 – Sovereign of the Order of St Lucia[39]
Order of Saint Lucia ribbon bar.png
 Solomon Islands 1981 – Sovereign of the Order of the Solomon Islands
Star of the Solomon Islands.png
 New Zealand 6 February 1987 – Sovereign of the Order of New Zealand[40]
Order of New Zealand ribbon.png
 Belize 16 August 1991 – Sovereign of the Order of the National Hero
 Belize 16 August 1991 – Sovereign of the Order of Belize
Order of Belize - ribbon bar.png
 Belize 16 August 1991 – Sovereign of the Order of Distinction
Order of Distinction (Belize) - ribbon bar.png
 New Zealand 30 May 1996 – Sovereign of the New Zealand Order of Merit[41]
New Zealand Order of Merit ribbon.png
 Bahamas 1996 – Sovereign of the Order of Merit of the Bahamas
Order of Merit (Bahamas).png
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1998 – Sovereign of the Order of the National Hero
Order of the National Hero (Saint Kitts and Nevis).png
 Antigua and Barbuda 31 December 1998 – Sovereign of the Order of the National Hero
Order of the National Hero Antigua and Barbuda Ribbon.png
 Antigua and Barbuda 31 December 1998 – Sovereign of the Order of the Nation
Order of the Nation Antigua and Barbuda Ribbon.png
 Antigua and Barbuda 31 December 1998 – Sovereign of the Most Exalted Order of Merit (Antigua and Barbuda)
Order of Merit Antigua and Barbuda Ribbon.png
 Antigua and Barbuda 31 December 1998 – Sovereign of the Order of Princely Heritage
Order of Princely Heritage Antigua and Barbuda Ribbon.png
 Canada 3 October 2000 – Sovereign of the Order of Merit of the Police Forces[42]
Order of Merit of the Police Forces (Canada) ribbon (COM).jpg
 Papua New Guinea 23 August 2005 – Sovereign of the Order of Logohu
Order of Logohu (PNG) ribbon.png
 Papua New Guinea 2005 – Sovereign of the Order of the Star of Melanesia
Order of the Star of Melanesia.png
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 2005 – Sovereign of the Order of St Christopher and Nevis
Order of St Christopher and Nevis (Saint Kitts and Nevis).png
 Grenada 31 December 2007 – Sovereign of the Prestige Order of the National Hero
 Grenada 31 December 2007 – Sovereign of the Order of Grenada
Decorations and medals
Country Date Decoration Post-nominal letters
United Kingdom British Commonwealth 1935 King George V Silver Jubilee Medal
Ribbon - King George V Silver Jubilee Medal.png
United Kingdom British Commonwealth 1937 King George VI Coronation Medal
Ribbon - King George VI Coronation Medal.png
 United Kingdom 1945 Defence Medal
Ribbon - Defence Medal.png
 United Kingdom 1945 War Medal 1939–1945
Ribbon - War Medal.png
 Canada 1951 Canadian Forces Decoration and five bars
CD-ribbon and 5 bars.png
CD
 United Kingdom 11 October 2016 Naval Long Service and Good Conduct Medal and five bars
Ribbon - Naval Long Service and Good Conduct Medal v3.png
[43][44]
 United Kingdom 11 October 2016 Army Long Service and Good Conduct Medal and five bars
Ribbon - Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct (Military).png
 United Kingdom 11 October 2016 RAF Long Service and Good Conduct Medal and five bars
Ribbon - Royal Air Force Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.png

Other Commonwealth countries[edit]

Appointments
Country Date awarded Appointment Post-nominal letters
 Pakistan 1960 Nishan-e-Pakistan[2]
Order of Pakistan.png
NPk
 Nigeria 1969 Grand Commander of the Order of the Niger[2]
Ribbon bar of the Order of the Niger.gif
GCON
 Singapore 1972 Order of Temasek[2]
Darjah Utama Temasek ribbon (from 1996).png
DUT(1st)
 Malaysia 1972 Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara (Kehormat)[2][45]
MY Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara (Crown of the Realm) - DMN.svg
DMN
 Maldives 1972 Member of the Distinguished Order of Ghaazi[2] Nishan Ghaazeege 'Izzaitheri Veriyaa
Order of Ghazi (Maldives) - ribbon bar.png
NGIV
 Brunei 1972 Member First Class of the Most Esteemed Royal Family Order[2]
BRU Family Order of Brunei 1st Class.svg
DK
 Kenya 1972 Order of the Golden Heart of Kenya[2]
Order of the Golden Heart of Kenya.svg
CGH
 Gambia 1974 Grand Commander of the Order of the Republic of Gambia[2]
Ord.Gambia-ribbon.gif
GCRG
 Malawi 1979 Member First Class of the Order of the Lion[2]
Ord.LionMalawi.gif
 Botswana 1979 Member of the Presidential Order[2]
PresidentialOrder.Botswana-ribbon.gif
POB
 Nigeria 1989 Grand Commander of the Order of the Federal Republic[46]
Order of the Federal Republic (civil) - Nigeria - ribbon bar.gif
GCFR
 Malta 28 May 1992 Honorary Companion of Honour of the National Order of Merit[47]
MLT National Order of Merit BAR.svg
KUOM
 Brunei 1992 Royal Family Order of the Crown of Brunei[2]
BRU Royal Family Order of the Crown of Brunei.svg
DKMB
 South Africa 1995 Grand Cross in Gold of the Order of Good Hope[2]
Ord.GoodHope-ribbon.gif
 South Africa 2010 Companion in Gold of the Order of the Companions of O. R. Tambo[48]
Order of the Companions of O.R. Tambo (ribbon bar).gif
 Malta 23 October 2000 Honorary Companion of Honour with Collar of the National Order of Merit[47]
MLT National Order of Merit BAR.svg
 Malta 23 November 2005 Honorary Member of the Xirka Ġieħ ir-Repubblika[49]
MLT Xirka Gieh ir-Repubblika BAR.svg
SG
 Ghana 2007 Honorary Companion of the Order of the Star of Ghana[50]
Ribbon bar of the Order of the Star of Ghana.gif
CSG
 Tonga The Most Illustrious Order of Queen Salote Tupou III[51]
The Most Illustrious Order of Queen Salote Tupou III Member.gif
Decorations and medals
Country Date Decoration Post-nominal letters
 Dominica 1985 Dominica Award of Honour[2]
DMA Dominica Award of Honour.png
DAH
 Trinidad and Tobago 1985 Trinity Cross Medal in Gold[2]
TTO Trinity Cross.png
TC
 Brunei 1992 Sultan of Brunei Silver Jubilee Medal[2]
Sultan's Silver Jubilee Medal (1992).gif

Foreign honours[edit]

Appointments
Country Date Appointment Post-nominal letters
 Denmark 1947 Knight of the Order of the Elephant[2]
Orderelefant ribbon.png
RE
 Egypt 1948 Grand Cordon of the Order of El Kemal[2]
EGY - Order of the Virtues - Supreme and first classes.svg
 France 1948 Grand Cross of the National Order of the Legion of Honour[2]
Legion Honneur GC ribbon.svg
   Nepal 1949 Order of Ojaswi Rajanya[2]
Ord.Rajanya.Nepal-Ribbon.gif
 Netherlands 1950 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion[2]
NLD Order of the Dutch Lion - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Jordan 1953 Member with Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali[2]
JOR Al-Hussein ibn Ali Order BAR.svg
1984 Member with Sash
 Sweden 1953 Member of the Royal Order of the Seraphim[2]
Seraphimerorden ribbon.svg
LSerafO
1975 Member with Collar LSerafO m kedja
 Panama 1953 Gold Collar of the Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero[2]
PAN Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Libya 1954 Grand Collar of the Order of Idris I[2]
Order of Idris I (Libya) - ribbon bar.gif
Ethiopia Ethiopia 1954 Chain and Collar of the Order of the Seal of Solomon[2]
ETH Order of Solomon BAR.png
 Norway 1955 Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav[2]
Order Sint Olaf 1 kl.png
 Portugal 1955 Sash of the Three Orders[2] (the Order of Christ, the Order of Aviz and the Order of Santiago conferred as a single award)
PRT Three Orders BAR.png
 Iraq 1956 Member with Chain of the Grand Order of the Hashemites[2]
Order of the Hashemites (Iraq) - ribbon bar.gif
 Italy 1958 Dame of the Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Republic[2]
Cordone di gran Croce di Gran Cordone OMRI BAR.svg
Germany Germany 1958 Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany[2]
GER Bundesverdienstkreuz 9 Sond des Grosskreuzes.svg
 Peru 1960 Grand Cross in Diamonds of the Order of the Sun[2]
PER Order of the Sun of Peru - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Argentina 1960 Grand Collar of the Order of the Liberator General San Martin[2]
ARG Order of the Liberator San Martin - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Thailand 1960 Dame of the Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri[2]
Order of the Royal House of Chakri (Thailand) ribbon.png
 Tunisia 1961 Grand Collar of the Order of Independence[2]
Order of Independence v. 1959 (Tunisia) - ribbon bar.gif
 Finland 1961 Collar of the Order of the White Rose[2]
FIN Order of the White Rose Grand Cross BAR.png
 Mali 1961 Grand Cordon of the National Order of Mali
MLI National Order - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Senegal 1961 Grand Cross of the National Order of the Lion[2]
SEN Order of the Lion - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Liberia 1961 Knight Grand Band of the Order of the Pioneers of Liberia[2]
Order of the Pioneers of Liberia - ribbon bar.png
1979 Knight Grand Cordon with Collar
 Côte d'Ivoire 1961 Grand Cross of the National Order of the Ivory Coast[2]
Cote d'Ivoire Ordre national GC ribbon.svg
 Liberia 1962 Knight Grand Band of the Order of the Star of Africa[2]
Order of the Star of Africa (Liberia) - ribbon bar.png
 Japan 1962 Collar and Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum[2]
JPN Daikun'i kikkasho BAR.svg
 Cameroon 1963 Grand Cross of the Ordre de la Valeur Camerounaise[2]
Order of Valour.svg
 Belgium 1963 Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold[2]
Grand Crest Ordre de Leopold.png
 Greece 1963 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer[2]
GRE Order Redeemer 1Class.png
GCR
 Iceland 1963 Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Falcon[2]
ISL Icelandic Order of the Falcon - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Chile 1965 Grand Collar of the Order of Merit[2]
CHL Order of Merit of Chile - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Austria 1966 Grand Star of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria[2][52]
AUT Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria - 1st Class BAR.png
 Brazil 1968 Grand Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross[2]
BRA Order of the Southern Cross - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Abu Dhabi 1969 Member First Class of the Order of Al-Nahayyan[2]
Order of Al-Nahayyan (Abu Dhabi) - ribbon bar.gif
 Gabon 1969 Grand Cross of the Order of the Equatorial Star[2]
GAB Order of the Equatorial Star - Grand Cross BAR.png
Afghanistan Afghanistan 1971 Order of the Supreme Sun[2]
Order of the Supreme Sun (Kingdom of Afghanistan).gif
 Luxembourg 1972 Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau[2]
Huisorde van de Gouden Leeuw van Nassau Ribbon.gif
 Yugoslavia 1972 Yugoslav Great Star[2]
Order of the Yugoslavian Great Star Rib.png
 Mexico 1973 Grand Collar of the Order of the Aztec Eagle[2]
MEX Order of the Aztec Eagle 1Class BAR.png
 Zaire 1973 Grand Cordon of the Order of the Leopard[2]
National Order of the Leopard (Zaire) - ribbon bar.png
 Egypt 1975 Collar of the Order of the Nile[2]
EGY Order of the Nile - Grand Cordon BAR.png
 Japan 1975 Golden Medal of Merit of Japanese Red Cross
Red Cross Order of Merit (Japan).png
 Japan 1975 Golden Medal of Honorary Member of Japanese Red Cross
Red Cross Order of Merit (Japan).png
 Portugal 1978 Grand Collar of the Order of Saint James of the Sword[2]
PRT Order of Saint James of the Sword - Grand Cross BAR.png
GColSE
Romania Romania 1978 – 1989[N 9] Member First Class of the Order of the Star of the Socialist Republic of Romania[2]
Rib order star romania 1kl.jpg
 Kuwait 1979 Collar of the Order of Mubarak the Great[2]
Order of Mubarak the Great (Kuwait) - ribbon bar.gif
 Bahrain 1979 Collar of the Order of al-Khalifa[2]
Wisam al-Khalifa 1st class.gif
 Oman 1979 Member First Class of the Order of Oman[2]
The Order of Oman.gif
 Saudi Arabia 1979 Collar of the King Abdulaziz Order of Merit[2][55]
Spange des König-Abdulaziz-Ordens.png
 Tunisia 1980 Grand Cordon of the Order of the Republic[2]
Order of the Republic (Tunisia) - ribbon bar.gif
 Morocco 1980 Collar of the Special Class of the Order of Muhammad[2]
 Oman 1982 Member of the Order of Al Said[2]
The Order of Al Said.gif
 Spain 1986 Collar of the Royal and Distinguished Spanish Order of Carlos III[2][56]
Order of Charles III - Sash of Collar.svg
 South Korea 1986 Member of the Order of Mungunghwa[2]
Grand Order of Mugunghwa (South Korea) - ribbon bar.gif
 Spain 1989 Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece[2][57]
Order of the Golden Fleece Rib.gif
 Poland 1991 Grand Ribbon of the Order of Merit[2]
POL Order Zaslugi RP kl1 BAR.png
 Hungary 1991 Grand Cross of the Order of Merit[2]
HUN Order of Merit of the Hungarian Rep 1class Collar BAR.svg
 Portugal 1993 Grand Collar of the Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of Valour, Loyalty and Merit
PRT Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Colombia 1993 Grand Collar of the Order of the Cross of Boyaca[2]
Order of Boyacá - Extraordinary Grand Cross (Colombia) - ribbon bar.png
 Kuwait 1995 Member Special Class of the Order of Kuwait
Order of Kuwait (Special Class).gif
 Poland 1996 Knight of the Order of the White Eagle[2]
POL Order Orła Białego BAR.svg
 Czech Republic 1996 Member First Class with Collar of the Order of the White Lion[58]
CZE Rad Bileho Lva 1 tridy BAR.svg
 Latvia 1996 Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Three Stars
LVA Order of the Three Stars - Grand Cross BAR.png
 Peru 1998 Grand Cross of the Order of Merit[2]
Order of Merit for Distinguished Service (Peru).svg
 Romania 2000 Member with Sash of the Order of the Star of Romania[59]
Star of Romania Ribbon.PNG
 Kazakhstan 2000 Member of the Order of the Golden Eagle
Ord.GoldenEagle-ribbon.gif
 Slovenia 2001 Golden Order of Freedom of the Republic of Slovenia
 Croatia 12 December 2001 Member with Sash and Grand Star of the Grand Order of King Tomislav[60]
Ribbon of an order of king Tomislav.png
 Lithuania 17 October 2006 Grand Cross with Golden Chain of the Order of Vytautas the Great[61][62]
LTU Order of Vytautas the Great with the Golden Chain BAR.png
 Estonia 19 October 2006 Collar of the Cross of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana[63]
EST Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana - 1st Class BAR.png
 Turkey 14 May 2008 Member First Class of Order of the State of Republic of Turkey[64]
Order of the State of Republic of Turkey.png
 Slovenia 2008 Order for Exceptional Merits
Order for Exceptional Merits (Slovenia).png
 Slovakia 2008 Member First Class of the Order of the White Double Cross[65]
SVK Rad Bieleho Dvojkriza 1 triedy BAR.svg
 United Arab Emirates 25 November 2010 Order of Zayed[66]
Order Zayed rib.png
Decorations
Country Date Decoration Post-nominal letters
   Nepal 1961 Mahendra Chain[2]
 Sudan 1964 Chain of Honour[2]
Chain of Honor Sudan.png
 Indonesia 1974 Star of Indonesia, First Class[2] Chain of Honour[2]
Bintang Republik Indonesia Adipurna Ribbon Bar.gif
 Saudi Arabia 1979 Badr Chain
 Qatar 1979 Collar of the Independence[2]
Order of Independence (Qatar) - ribbon bar.gif
 United Arab Emirates 1989 Collar of the Federation[2]
Order of Union Sash.gif

Honorary military positions[edit]

Australia Australia
Canada Canada
Fiji Fiji
Ghana Ghana
New Zealand New Zealand
South Africa South Africa
  • South Africa 1947 – 1961: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Durban Light Infantry
  • South Africa 1947 – 1961: Colonel-in-Chief of the South African Railways and Harbours Brigade
  • South Africa 1952 – 1961: Colonel-in-Chief of the Imperial Light Horse
  • South Africa 1953 – 1961: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Natal Carbineers
  • South Africa 1953 – 1961: Colonel-in-Chief of the Kaffrarian Rifles
United Kingdom United Kingdom

Non-national titles and honours[edit]

Freedom of the City[edit]

Commonwealth realms
Foreign

Member and fellowships[edit]

Country Date Organisation Position
 United Kingdom 1947 – 1952 Royal Society Fellow (FRS)
 United Kingdom 1947 – Worshipful Company of Drapers Freeman (by patrimony, her father (King George VI) being a member)
 United Kingdom 1947 – Institution of Civil Engineers Honorary Member and Patron[74]
 United Kingdom 1951 – Royal College of Surgeons of England Honorary Fellow (FRCS)
 United Kingdom 1951 – Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Honorary Fellow (FRCOG)

Scholastic[edit]

Since ascending the throne, the Queen has not accepted honorary degrees, as this would technically place her under the jurisdiction of the chancellor of whichever university had bestowed the degree, a position deemed unsuitable for a reigning monarch.

Degrees
Country Date School Degree
 United Kingdom 1946 University of London Bachelor of Music (BMus) honoris causa
 United Kingdom 1948 University of Oxford Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) honoris causa
 United Kingdom 1949 University of Wales Doctor of Music (DMus) honoris causa
 United Kingdom 1951 University of Edinburgh Doctor of Laws (LLD) honoris causa
 United Kingdom 1951 University of London Doctor of Laws (LLD) honoris causa

Professional[edit]

In April 2013 the Queen was presented with an honorary BAFTA award by Sir Kenneth Branagh in a ceremony at Windsor Castle. The BAFTA was given for her "lifelong support of the British film and television industry".[75]

In 1975 she received the highest distinction of the Scout Association of Japan, the Golden Pheasant Award.[76]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In some cases, such as an oath of allegiance, Elizabeth's Canadian title is shortened to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Canada.[16] On Canadian coins, it is rendered in Latin as Elizabeth II D.G. Regina ("Elizabeth II Dei Gratia Regina", or, in English, "Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, Queen).
  2. ^ In some older documents in French, Elizabeth's name is spelled Élisabeth.
  3. ^ This title is shown on the Great Seal of Victoria in Latin as Elizabeth II Dei Gratia Britanniarum Terrae Australis Regnorumque Suorum Ceterorum Regina, Consortionis Populorum Princeps, Fidei Defensor.[20]
  4. ^ Now part of Tanzania.
  5. ^ Although Elizabeth was recognised as Queen of Rhodesia by the Rhodesian government, she never accepted or exercised the office for the years between the Rhodesian declaration of independence in 1965 and the proclamation of a republic in Rhodesia in 1970.
  6. ^ Now Sri Lanka.
  7. ^ The kingship of Gibraltar continues to be among the titles of the Spanish monarchy. However, since 2010 the Government of Gibraltar has started to use the title "Queen of Gibraltar" in reference to Elizabeth II.[28] Initially only used on coinage, the title now appears on several Gibraltar and UK government documents referencing the Queen in relation to Gibraltar.[29]
  8. ^ Sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations sharing the same person as monarch.
  9. ^ The Queen stripped Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, who was overthrown in a popular revolution, of his honorary British knighthood in December 1989,[53] and returned her own order because "of revulsion at the abuse of human rights in Romania for which Ceaușescu is responsible".[54]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2002). Fifty Years the Queen. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 72. ISBN 1-55002-360-8. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb "Burke's Peerage and Gentry > The Royal Family > HM Queen Elizabeth II". Burke's Peerage & Gentry and The Origins Network. Retrieved 24 October 2010. 
  3. ^ Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (1952), Documents on Canadian External Relations, 18, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved 20 December 2009 
  4. ^ Government of South Africa (7 February 1952). "Proclamation No. 12 of 1952". Government Gazette Extraordinary. Queen's Printer. CLXVII (4781). 
  5. ^ "Proclamation of the accession of Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II, from the steps of Parliament House, Canberra, 1952 Feb. 8". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  6. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 39458. p. 757. 6 February 1952.
  7. ^ a b Bousfield 2002, p. 75
  8. ^ Twomey, Anne (2006), The Chameleon Crown, Sydney: Federation Press, p. 105, ISBN 9781862876293 
  9. ^ Privy Council Office (24 November 1952), "Memorandum for Prime Minister", in Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Documents on Canadian External Relations, 18–2, Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada 
  10. ^ "Documenting a Democracy > Royal Style and Titles Act 1973 (Cth)". Museum of Australian Democracy. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  11. ^ Winston Churchill, House of Commons Official Report cols 199–201, 15 April 1953
  12. ^ OED, 2nd Edition, under "Grace", 16b
  13. ^ "Opening Ceremony of the Scottish Parliament: 1st July 1999 (30:47)". The Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 26 October 2016. 
  14. ^ "Queen urged to change title". BBC. 22 May 2002. 
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 2013-12-15.  1985, Ch. R-12.
  16. ^ Oath of office "Governor General of Canada > Media > Fact Sheets > Oaths of Office" Check |url= value (help). Rideau Hall. Retrieved 28 October 2008. [dead link]
  17. ^ Loi sur les titres royaux Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 39873. p. 3023. 29 May 1953.
  19. ^ François Velde (4 September 2007). "Royal Arms, Styles, and Titles of Great Britain". Heraldica. François Velde. Retrieved 20 April 2009. 
  20. ^ Greg Taylor (2006). The Constitution of Victoria. Federation Press. ISBN 1-86287-612-6. 
  21. ^ "Royal Styles and Titles Act 1953" (PDF). Canberra: Commonwealth Government Printer. 1953. Schedule. 
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  23. ^ a b c Wheare, K.C. (1953). "The Nature and Structure of the Commonwealth". American Political Science Review. 47 (4): 1022. doi:10.2307/1951122. JSTOR 1951122. 
  24. ^ Buckner, Phillip (2005). "The Last Great Royal Tour: Queen Elizabeth's 1959 Tour to Canada". In Buckner, Phillip. Canada and the End of Empire. Vancouver: UBC Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-7748-0915-9. Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  25. ^ "Queen to visit Trench Town", Daily Mail, retrieved 6 February 2013 
  26. ^ "Queen speaks to Jamaican Parliament". BBC. 19 February 2002. Retrieved 6 February 2013. 
  27. ^ Smith, Sally Bedell (2012). Elizabeth the Queen: The Life of a Modern Monarch. New York: Random House. p. 435. ISBN 9780812979794. 
  28. ^ a b "No. 103/2010" (PDF) (Press release). Gibraltar: Government of Gibraltar. 2010-05-06. Retrieved 2016-04-18. 
  29. ^ "United Kingdom Partnership Agreement" (PDF). www.gov.uk. HM Government. 2014-10-15. Retrieved 2016-04-18. The Governor of Gibraltar is the representative of the Queen of Gibraltar, Queen Elizabeth II. 
  30. ^ "Fiji chiefs say Britain's Elizabeth still Queen of Fiji". Radio New Zealand. 19 November 2002. Retrieved 29 October 2008. 
  31. ^ "The Monarchy Today > Queen and Commonwealth > The Queen's role in New Zealand". Buckingham Palace. Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2008. 
  32. ^ "The Monarchy Today > Queen and public > Honours > Royal Family Orders". Buckingham Palace. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008. 
  33. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37976. p. 2569. 6 June 1947.
  34. ^ "Manitoba Order of the Buffalo Hunt". Manitoba Historical Society. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  35. ^ "Governor General of Canada > Honours > National Honours > Order of Canada". Rideau Hall. Retrieved 30 October 2008. 
  36. ^ "Governor General of Canada > Honours > National Honours > Order of Military Merit". Rideau Hall. Retrieved 30 October 2008. 
  37. ^ "Government of Australia > Honours > Awards > A–Z of Awards > Order of Australia". Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 30 October 2008. 
  38. ^ "Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet > New Zealand Honours > The Queen's Service Order". The Crown in Right of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 October 2008. 
  39. ^ "Government of Saint Lucia > Constitution of the Order of Saint Lucia". Government Information Service. Retrieved 30 October 2008. 
  40. ^ "Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet > New Zealand Honours > The Order of New Zealand". The Crown in Right of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 October 2008. 
  41. ^ "Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet > New Zealand Honours > The New Zealand Order of Merit". The Crown in Right of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 October 2008. 
  42. ^ "Governor General of Canada > Honours > National Orders > Order of Merit of the Police Forces". Rideau Hall. Retrieved 30 October 2008. [permanent dead link]
  43. ^ "Queen and Duke of Edinburgh receive long service medals". The Telegraph. 11 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016. 
  44. ^ Barrie, Joshua (12 October 2016). "Queen gets special medal to mark one of her 'special' achievements". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 14 October 2016. 
  45. ^ "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1972." (PDF). 
  46. ^ Royal Collection • Queen & Commonwealth, retrieved 29 May 2012
  47. ^ a b Honorary Appointments to the National Order of Merit, Office of the Prime Minister, Malta, retrieved 22 January 2011
  48. ^ "President Zuma officially begins United Kingdom state visit". Government of South Africa. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  49. ^ Honorary Members, Office of the Prime Minister, Malta, retrieved 20 September 2012
  50. ^ Order of the Star of Ghana, Royal Collection, retrieved 29 May 2012
  51. ^ [1], retrieved 01 March 2012
  52. ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 214. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  53. ^ Bridge, Adrian (26 January 1994). "Apologies ma'am, we lost your gong". The Independent. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  54. ^ British Foreign Office quoted in The Observer, 31 December 1989
  55. ^ State visit of Saudi Arabia in U.K., 2010, Photo
  56. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado
  57. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado
  58. ^ "The Prague Castle > Office of the Czech President > State Decorations > Order of the White Lion > List". Office of the President. Retrieved 31 October 2008. 
  59. ^ (Romanian) Recipients of the order (Excel sheet), Presidency of Romania website
  60. ^ "Odluka o odlikovanju Njezinog Veličanstva Elizabete II., kraljice Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva Velike Britanije i Sjeverne Irske" (in Croatian). Narodne novine. 3 January 2002. Retrieved 28 April 2011. 
  61. ^ Lithuanian Presidency Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Lithuanian Orders searching form
  62. ^ http://www.president.lt/en/news.full/7176 "Official Welcome Ceremony for the Queen at Presidential Palace" Check |url= value (help) (Press release). Office of the President of the Republic of Lithuania. 17 October 2006. Retrieved 31 October 2008. 
  63. ^ "The President of the Republic greeted Queen Elizabeth II" (Press release). Office of the President. 19 October 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2015. 
  64. ^ Photo of Queen Elizabeth and Turkish President Abdullah Gül in Buckingham Palace
  65. ^ Order of the White Double Cross, 1st Class, Office of the President of the Slovak Republic, retrieved 22 January 2011
  66. ^ Johnson, Alice (26 November 2010). "Khalifa, Queen Elizabeth II exchange orders". gulfnews.com. 
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar HM The Queen Archived 28 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Debrett's, retrieved 23 January 2011
  68. ^ Smith, Joanna (23 May 2012), "Royal visit 2012: Prince Charles collects honorary RCMP title", Toronto Star, retrieved 25 May 2012 
  69. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35464. p. 887. 24 February 1942. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  70. ^ The London Gazette: no. 39950. p. 4689. 28 August 1953.
  71. ^ http://ottawa.ca/en/city-hall/your-city-government/policies-and-administrative-structure/key-city
  72. ^ Royal Household (August 2006). "Mailbox". Royal Insight Magazine. Buckingham Palace (August 2006). Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008. 
  73. ^ "Queen Elizabeth II's 1983 California visit". Los Angeles Times. 2 June 2012. 
  74. ^ Watson, Garth (1988). The Civils. Thomas Telford. p. 85. ISBN 0-7277-0392-7. 
  75. ^ "Queen honoured with Bafta award for film and TV support". BBC News Online. London. 4 April 2013. 
  76. ^ reinanzaka-sc.o.oo7.jp/kiroku/documents/20140523-3-kiji-list.pdf

External links[edit]

  • Hansard recording of debate on the royal title in the British House of Commons, 3 March 1953