List of traditional territories of the indigenous peoples of North America

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This list of traditional territories of the original peoples of North America gives an overview of the names of the indigenous "countries" of North America. In this sense, "country" refers to the name of the land...the ground...the territory of a nation, rather than the name of the nation ("tribe") itself. This article is only about the name for the land of a nation.

For example, the traditional territory (country/land) of the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) Nation is called Waaziija, meaning "the Grand Pinery". In English, the land of an indigenous nation was historically, and sometimes still is, referred to as a "country", such as "(the) Winnebago country". Some Latinate forms exist in English such as "Iroquoia", "Huronia", and "Apacheria".

The distinction between nation and land is like the French people versus the land of France, the Māori people versus Aotearoa, or the Saami people versus Sápmi (Saamiland).

List of traditional territories[edit]

Autonym(s) for the traditional territory[Note 1] Conventional or historic English monikers for the traditional territory, with various attested spellings[Note 2] The nation affiliated with that territory Further information Wikipedia article?[Note 3]
? The Aa'ku (Acoma Pueblo) traditional territory—autonym unknown. Athe Acoma country,[1] the Acoma homeland[2] AThe Aa'ku (Acoma) Nation No
? The A'aninin (Gros Ventre) traditional territory—autonym unknown. AGros Ventre country,[3] the Gros Ventre country,[4] the Gros Ventre homeland[5] AThe A'aninin (Gros Ventre) Nation See also Niitsitpiis-stahkoii, the traditional territory of the wider Blackfoot Confederacy. No
? The Andastoerrhonon (Susquehannock/Conestoga) traditional territory—autonym unknown. Athe Susquehannock country,[6] the Susquehannock homeland,[7] the Andaste country,[8] Andaste,[9] the Conestoga country,[10] the Minquas country,[11] the Minquas' Land,[12] the Minquas land[13] AThe Andastoerrhonon (Susquehannock/Conestoga) Nation In the Huron and French languages of the Jesuit mission era: Gandastogue,[14] Andastoé, Andastogué ("country of Andastes").[15] No
Anishinaabewaki,[16] Anishinaabe Ahiki,[17] Anishinaabe-aki,[18] Anishinaabeg Akiing[19] AAnishinaabe Country,[20] Anishinaabe country,[21] the Anishinaabe Aki[22] AThe Anishinaabe People are a supra-national identity which encompasses the three nations of the Three Fires Confederacy: the Ojibwe Nation, the Odawa Nation, and the Potawatomi Nation, plus the culturally related Algonquin Nation, Mississauga Nation, and Nipissing Nation. Because the name "Anishinaabe" also serves as a synonym for "Ojibwe" or "Odawa" (or the other specific nations) and also means "Indian", the various forms of "Anishinaabe Aki" can also mean "Ojibwe country", "Odawa country" (and so forth), and also "Indian Country" in general. French: l'Anishinabe Aki.[22]

"The Nishnawbe Aski territory" refers to the land of the amalgamated national identity which was formed in 1983 by the OjiCree-, Ojibway-, Cree-, and Algonquin-speaking bands which were party to the two treaties which cover Northern Ontario.[23] See also the entries for Ojibwewaki (Ojibwa country), Bodéwadmiakiwen (Potawatomi country), and Omàmiwininiwak (Algonquin) traditional territory.

? The Aniyvwiya (Cherokee) traditional territory—autonym unknown. ACherokee Country,[24] Cherokee country,[25] the Cherokee country,[26] the Cherokee homeland[27] AThe Aniyvwiya (Cherokee) Nation No
Apsáalooke Issawua,[28] Absarog-Issawua[29] ("Land of the Children of the Large Beaked Bird") ACrow country,[30] the Crow country,[31] the Land of the Crow Indians[29] AThe Apsáalooke (Crow) Nation No
Atna Nenn'[32] ("Land of the Ice People") AAhtna Country,[33] the Ahtna country[34] AThe Ahtna (Copper River) Nation The traditional territory of the Upper Ahtna people is called Tatl'ahwt'aenn Nenn' ("Headwaters People's Country").[35] No
? The Attawandaron (Neutral) traditional territory—autonym unknown. Athe Neutral country,[36] the country of the Neutrals,[37] the Neutrals' territory[38] AThe Attawandaron (Neutral) Nation The Kahkwa nation was either one of the Erie[39] or Neutral nations, or the name in the Seneca language for the Neutral and Erie nations as a whole.[38] In the Huron language, the Kahkwa traditional territory is called Atrakwae.[40] In English, it has been referred to as "Kahkwa territory".[41] No
Báxoje Máyan[28] ("Land of the Gray Snow People") AIoway country,[42] the Iowa country[43] AThe Báxoje (Iowa/Ioway) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Pahkutawiru "among the Ioway, in Ioway country."[42] No
Bodéwadmiakiwen,[28] Bodewadmi kik[28] ("Land of the Keepers of the Fire") Athe Potawatomi country,[44] Potawatomi land[28] AThe Bodéwadmi (Potawatomi) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Raawaruhkisiru ("among the Potawatomi; in Potawatomi country").[45] See also Anishinaabewaki. No
Chahta Yakni[46] ("Land of Chahta") AChoctaw country,[47] the Choctaw country[48] AThe Chahta (Choctaw) Nation In Choctaw legend, "Chahta" is the name of the first man to come out of the earth.[49] No
Chicora[50] Athe land of Chicora[51] AThe Chicora Nation Spanish: tierra de Chicora.[52] No
Chikashsha Yakni, Chikasha yakni[53] ("Land of Chicksa") AChickasaw Country,[54] the Chickasaw country[55] AThe Chikashsha (Chickasaw) Nation In Chickasaw legend, "Chicksa" is the name of the second man to come out of the earth.[56] No
Denendeh ("Land of the People") Athe Dene country[57] AThe Dene name has two primary meanings: The name "Denendeh", though now confined to the NWT, could conceivably be employed as a supra-national name for all the Northern Athabaskan traditional territories as a whole, in a similar way that "Anishinaabewaki" transcends modern political boundaries.

See also Tłı̨chǫ Ndè (Dogrib country).

Diné Bikéyah ("Land of the People"), Naabeehó Bikéyah,[59] Dinétah ("Among the People") ANavajoland,[60] the Navajo country[61] AThe Diné (Navajo) Nation In contrast to Diné Bikéyah, the name Dinétah can refer specifically to the original homeland, in contrast to the wider territory which resulted from the Navajos' westerly expansion in historic times. The name Naabeehó Bináhásdzo refers to the Navajo reservation jurisdiction and its political government.[59] (link)
Dule Nega,[62] Dulenega,[63] Tulenega[64] ("House of the People"), Guna Yala, Kuna Yala ("Land of the Kuna") Athe Kuna homeland,[65] the Kuna country,[66] Kuna country,[67] the Dule homeland[68] AThe Dule (Guna/Kuna) Nation Besides being a name of entire traditional territory, Guna Yala is also specifically the name of the Panamanian political administrative comarca ("shire") where the Kuna are based. That political division was formerly known as Comarca Kuna Yala, the Province of San Blas, and the Comarca Tulenega. No
Dusgaowehonoga, Dus-gaˊ-o-weh-o-noˊ-ga[69] ATuscarora country,[70] the Tuscarora country[71] AThe Ska-Ruh-Reh (Tuscarora) Nation See also Haudenosauneega (Iroquoia). No
Gawi Wachi ("The Place of Nurturing")[72] Athe Tarahumara country,[73] Tarahumara country,[74] the Rarámuri country,[75] Rarámuri country,[76] AThe Rarámuri (Tarahumara) Nation No
Gweugwehonoga, Gwe-uˊ-gweh-o-noˊ-ga[69] ("Land of the People of the Great Swamp") ACayuga Country,[77] Cayuga country,[78] the Cayuga country[79] AThe Guyohkohnyoh (Cayuga) Nation See also Haudenosauneega (Iroquoia). No
Haudenosauneega, Ho-de-no-sau-nee-ga[80] ("Land of the People who are Building a Long House"), Aquanishuonigy[81] AIroquoia, the Iroquois Country,[82] the Country of the Confederate Indians,[81] the Country of the Five Nations,[83] the Country of the Six Nations.[84] AThe Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. The confederated identity encompasses the Mohawk Nation, Oneida Nation, Cayuga Nation, Seneca Nation, and Onondaga Nation. Other nations, such as the Tuscarora Nation, were adopted by the Haudenosaunee in historic times. French: Pays des Iroquois.[85] Haudenosauneega or Aquanishuonigy is traditionally composed of five "countries": 1) "Aquanishuonigy proper" (the traditional territories of the Five Nations in New York), 2) Ohi-yo' (the Ohio Valley), 3) Tiiuchsochruntie (the Lower Peninsula of Michigan), 4) Couchsachrage (the Adirondack Mountains), and 5) Skaniadarade (Southern Ontario).[86]

See also Kanién:ke (Mohawk country), Onayotekaonoga (Oneida country), Gweugwehonoga (Cayuga country), Nundawaonoga (Seneca country), Onundagaonoga (Onondaga country), and Dusgaowehonoga (Tuscarora country).

Hiakim[87] Athe Yaqui country,[88] the Yaqui homeland,[89] Yaqui lands,[87] Yaqui land,[90] the Yaqui Homelands[91] AThe Yoeme (Yaqui) Nation No
? The Hinono'eino (Arapaho) traditional territory—autonym unknown. AArapaho country,[92] the Arapaho country,[93] the Arapaho homeland,[94] Arapahoe country,[30] the Arapahoe homeland[95] AThe Hinono'eino (Arapaho) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Sariˀitihkawiru ("among the Arapahos, in Arapaho country").[96] No
Hopitutskwa,[97] Hopi Tutskwa[98] ("Land of the Peaceful Ones") AHopiland,[99] Hopi Land,[100] Hopi lands,[101] the Hopi Tutskwa,[102] the Hopi country,[103] Hopi country[104] AThe Hopi Nation No
Inokinki,[28] Inokinghi[105] ("Place of the Inoca") Athe Illinois Country,[106] the Illinois country,[105] the country of the Inoca,[106] the Inoca homeland[106] AThe Inoca (Illinois/Illini) Confederacy traditionally includes these five principal nations: Cahokia Nation, Kaskaskia Nation, Michigamea Nation, Peoria Nation, and Tamaroa Nation. There were several other, more obscure member nations in the early historic period. French: Pays des Illinois[106] (not to be confused with the French political territory of the Illinois Country which was named after the indigenous traditional territory). The original meaning of the autonym Inoca, Inoka is presently unknown.[107] No
Inuit Nunaat[108] ("Land of the People") Athe Inuit homeland,[109] the Inuit country,[110] the Eskimo country[111] AThe Inuit (Eskimo) Nation

"We Eskimo are an international community sharing common language, culture, and a common land along the Arctic coast of Siberia, Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Although not a nation-state, as a people, we do constitute a nation."

—Inuit Circumpolar Council-Alaska[112]

Inuit Nunaat is used by the international Inuit Circumpolar Council; for example in the April 2009 "Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Sovereignty in the Arctic."[113] Two months later, in June 2009, the Canadian-sponsored Inuit organization changed the name of the specifically Canadian Inuit regions from Inuit Nunaat to Inuit Nunangat[114] ("The People's Land, Water, and Ice").[115] The four Canadian Inuit regions are the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (Northwest Territories and Northern Yukon), Nunavut ("Our Land"), Nunavik ("Great Land", Northern Quebec), and Nunatsiavut ("Our Beautiful Land", Northern Labrador). There is also NunatuKavut ("Our Ancient Land"), the traditional territory of the NunatuKavummuit (Inuit-Metis) of southern Labrador. There are seven Alaskan Native Corporations (see ANC link for map) which are predominantly Inuit in composition: Arctic Slope Regional Corporation, NANA Regional Corporation, Bering Straits Native Corporation, Calista Corporation, Bristol Bay Native Corporation, Koniag, Inc., and Chugach Alaska Corporation.

The existing Inuit-affiliated political divisions and regional corporations only partially reflect the traditional cultural and linguistic diversity of the Inuitic peoples.[116] For example, the boundaries of the Danish political entity Kalaallit Nunaat are bigger than the traditional territory of the Kalaallit proper (West Greenland Inuit). There are two other Inuitic peoples in Greenland: the Tunumiit (East Greenland Inuit), who live in Tunu[117] and the Inughuit (Polar Eskimos) of North Greenland.

Jiwére Máyan,[28] Wadodana Máyan[118] ("Land of the Otoes") AOtoe country,[119] the Otoe country,[120] the country of the Otoe Indians[119] AThe Jíwere (Otoe) Nation No
? The Ka'igwu (Kiowa) traditional territory—autonym unknown. AKiowa country,[121] the Kiowa country,[122] the Kiowa homeland[123] AThe Ka'igwu (Kiowa) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Kaˀiwaru ("among the Kiowa; in Kiowa country").[124] No
Kanién:ke,[28] Kanienkeh,[125] Kanyę̂·ke[126] ("Land of Flint"), Ganeagaonoga, Gä-neă-ga-o-noˊ-ga[69] AMohawk country,[127] the Mohawk country,[128] Mohawk territory,[129] the Mohawk homeland,[130] the Mohawk homelands,[131] the Mohawk Territory[131] AThe Kahniakenhaka (Mohawk) Nation In the Huron and French languages of the Jesuit mission era: Annien̈ę,[132] Agné, Agne, Agnée, Agnié, Agniée, Agniés, Agniez ("the French appellation of Mohawks and their country.")[133] In the Maliseet language: Meqewihkuk ("where Mohawks live; in, to Mohawk territory").[134] See also Haudenosauneega (Iroquoia). No
? The Kanza (Kaw) traditional territory—autonym unknown. AKaw Country,[135] Kaw country,[136] the Kaw country,[137] Kansa country,[138] the Kansa country,[139] the Kaw homeland[140] AThe Kanza (Kaw) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Arahuuru ("in Kansa country").[141] No
Karúk Veezívzaaneen[142] ("Land of the Upriver People") AKaruk Country,[143] Karuk country,[144] Karuk territory[142] AThe Karuk Nation No
Kulhulmcilh[28] ("Our Land") ANuxalk country,[145] Bella Coola country,[146] the Bella Coola country[147] AThe Nuxálk (Bella Coola) Nation No
Lakhota Makhoche[148] ("Land of the Allies") ALakota Country,[149] the Lakota Country,[150] the Lakota country,[151] the Lakota homeland,[152] the Teton country,[153] the Teton Sioux homeland [154] AThe Lakhota (Teton Sioux) Nation The Lakota nation is one of seven nations of the Oceti Šakowiŋ, the Seven Fires Council of the Great Sioux Nation. No
Lënapehòkink,[155] Lenapehoking,[156] Lenape Hoking[157] ("In the People's Land"), Scheyischbi ("The Place Bordering the Ocean") ADelaware Indian country,[158] the Delaware Indian country,[159] Lenape country,[160] the Lenape country[161] AThe Lenape (Delaware) Nation Lenapehoking is reportedly a modern coining which could conceivably be used for any land which has been affiliated with the Lenape, such as the Ohio treaty lands and tribal jurisdiction in Oklahoma, while Scheyischbi refers to the original homeland on the Mid-Atlantic seaboard.[162] (link)
Lingít Aaní,[163] Lingit Aani[164] ("Land of the People of the Tides") ATlingit country,[165] the Tlingit country,[166] the Tlingit Country,[167] Traditional Tlingit Country,[168] the Tlingit homeland[169] AThe Lingít (Tlingit) Nation No
Mánu: Yį Įsuwą[28] ("Land of the River People") ACatawba Country,[170] the Catawba country,[171] the Catawba homeland[172] AThe Iswa (Catawba) Nation No
Massa-adchu-es-et ("Region of the Great Hills",[173] "The Great-Hill Country"[174]) AMassachussett country[175] AThe Massa-adchu-es-et (Massachusett) Nation In the Abenaki language: Msajosek ("where there are many hills").[173] The English colony, later U.S. state, was named after the traditional territory and its people. The traditional territory of the Agawam band of Massachusset is named Wonnesquamsauke ("Pleasant Water Place"); the name was shortened in English to "Agawam", "Squam", and "Annisquam".[176] No
Mayach ("The First Land, the Land Just Sprouted"[177]) Athe Maya Homeland,[178] the Mayan homeland[179] AThe Uinicob (Maya) Nation No
Mēxihco ("Place of the Mexica") Athe Mexica homeland,[180] the land of the Mexica,[181] the land of the Mexica Indians[182] AThe Mēxihcah (Aztec) Nation The nation-state of Mexico is named after the traditional territory of the Mēxihcah people. No
Mi'kma'ki,[183] Migmagi[184] ("Land of the Allies") AMi'kmaq country,[185] the Mi'kmaq homeland,[186] Micmac country,[187] the Micmac country,[188] the Micmac homeland[189] AThe Mi'kmaw (Micmac) Nation In the Passamaquoddy-Maliseet language: Mihkomahkik.[190] See also Wabanahkik (Wabanaki country). No
Môhikaniks, Monheganick[191] ("Land of the Wolf People") AMohegan country,[192] the Mohegan country,[193] the Mohegan Homeland,[194] the Mohegan homeland[195] AThe Mohegan Nation No
Myaamionki[28] ("Place of the Downstream People") Athe Myaamiaki homeland,[196] Miami country,[197] the Miami country,[198] the Miami Country,[199] Miami Indian country,[200] the Miami Indian country,[201] the Miami homeland,[202] homeland of the Miami Confederacy[203] AThe Myaamiaki (Miami) Nation and Confederacy. The Miami Confederacy traditionally includes the Miami Nation proper (the "Great Miami"), the Eel River Nation, the Piankeshaw Nation, and the Wea Nation. See also Waayaahtanonki (Wea country). No
Nanticoke Ahkee, Nantaquak Ahkee, Nentego Ahkee ("Land of the Tidewater People"),[28] Nanticoke Pamtuckquah ("River of the Tidewater People") ANanticoke country,[204] the Nanticoke country,[205] Nanticoke territory,[206] the Nanticoke homeland[207] AThe Nentego (Nanticoke) Nation Nanticoke Pamtuckquah could refer to the original homeland along the Nanticoke River, while Nanticoke Ahkee would refer to post-exodus lands as well.[118] No
Na:tinixw[208] ("Where the Trails Return" = Hupa Valley) AHupa country,[209] the Hupa country,[210] the Hupa homeland,[211] Hoopa country[212] the Hoopa country[213] AThe Hupa Nation No
Nayantaquit,[214] Nayantakick,[215] Nianticut,[214] Nehantick,[214] Naïantukq-ut,[214] Naantucke,[214] Naihantick[214] Niantic,[214] Nehântick,[216] ("At a point of land on a tidal river, estuary", "Of long-necked waters") ANiantic country,[217] the Niantic country,[218] the Niantic territory[219] AThe Nehântick (Niantic) Nation No
N'DahAhKiNaNa[220] ("Our Ancient Heartland") Athe Mohican country,[221] the Mohican homeland[222] AThe Muh-he-ka-neew (Mohican) Nation In the Abenaki language: Mahiganek ("At the Mohicans").[223] No
Ndakinna,[224] N'dakina[225] ("Our Land") AAbenaki country,[226] the Abenaki country,[227] the Abenaki homeland[228] AThe Alnôbak (Abenaki) Nation In the Passamaquoddy-Maliseet language: Aponahkik.[229] The traditional territory of the historic Wawenoc band, "the Wawenoc country",[230] is called Mawooshen, "the Land of Mawooshen",[231] Mavooshen,[232] Moasham,[232] and Mawashen, meaning "Berry Place."[232] See also Wôbanakik (Wabanaki country). No
Nēhiýānāhk[233] ("In the Land of the Cree"), Nēhiýaw-askiy[234] ("Land of the Cree") Atraditional Cree territory,[235] the Cree country[236] AThe Nēhiyaw (Cree) Nation The national name Nēhiyaw is from the Plains Cree, but serves as a pan-Cree name (see for example the Cree Wikipedia article). So Nēhiýānāhk serves as a default name for Cree country as a whole, in a similar way that Anishinaabewaki is based on an Ojibwe spelling, but serves as common name for the entire supra-national Aninishinaabe traditional territory. The traditional territory of the East Crees is called Eeyou Istchee and Iynu Asci ("Land of the People"). Eeyou or Iyyu is the spelling in northern East Cree, while Iynu in southern East Cree. The traditional territory of the Plains Cree in particular is Paskwāwiýinīnāhk ("In the Land of the Plains Cree").[233] No
Newe Segobia[237] ("The People's Earth Mother") AWestern Shoshone country,[238] the Western Shoshone homeland,[239] Newe Country,[240] the Newe Country[241] AThe Newe (Western Shoshone) People "Newe country"[242] and "the Newe country"[243] has also been applied in English to the traditional territory of any and all of the Newe peoples (Shoshone, Bannock, and Paiute). No
Niitsitpiis-stahkoii[244] ("Land of the Original People"), Nitawahsin-nanni[245] ("Our Land") ABlackfoot country,[246] the Blackfoot country,[247] Blackfeet Country,[248] the Blackfoot homeland[249] AThe Niitsitapi (Blackfoot) Confederacy traditionally includes the Káínaa (Blood) Nation, Piikani (Piegan) Nation, Siksika (Blackfoot) Nation, Tsu T’ina (Sarcee) Nation, and the Haaninin (Gros Ventre) Nation. See also the entry for Hinono'eino (Gros Ventre) traditional territory. No
Nippenit, Nipnet, Neepnet, Neipnett[250] ("In a Place of Water", "Watering Place")[251] Nipamaug, Nipmuck, Nipmug ("Freshwater Fishing-Place")[251] ANipmuc Country,[252] Nipmuc country,[253] the Nipmuck Country,[254] the Nipmuck country,[255] the Nipmuc country[256] the Nipmuc homeland[257] AThe Nipamaug (Nipmuc) Nation The traditional territory of the Wabaquasset band of Nipmuc is named Wabaquasset, Wabaquassuck.[258] No
Nitaskinan[259] ("Our Land") AAtikamekw country,[260] traditional homeland of the Tête-de-Boule Indians[261] AThe Atikamekw (Têtes-de-Boules) Nation A historic French term is "pays des Têtes-de-Boules."[262] (link)
Nitassinan,[263] Ntesinan[264] ("Our Land") AInnu country,[265] the Innu country,[266] Montagnais country,[267] the Montagnais country,[268] the Innu homeland[269] AThe Innu (Montagnais) Nation An early French name: "le pays des Montagnais".[270] Nitassinan refers to Innu territory as a whole. Innu Assi ("Land of the People") refers to those lands within Nitassinan whose title is held by the Innu. In the Passamaquoddy-Maliseet language: Muhtaniyewihkuk ("In Innu Territory").[271] (link)
No-wa-mu[272] ("Mother Earth") AJemez country,[273] the Jemez country,[274] the Jemez homeland,[275] the Jemez World[276] AThe Walatowa (Jemez) Nation No
Nʉmʉnʉʉ Sookobitʉ[28] ("Comanche Earth") AComanche country,[277] the Comanche country,[278] the Comanche homeland,[279] the Comancheria,[280] Comancheria AThe Nʉmʉnʉʉ (Comanche) Nation Spanish: Comanchería, la Comanchería.[281] In the Skiri Pawnee language: Raarihtaaru ("among the Comanche; in Comanche country").[282] (link)
Nundawaonoga, Nun-daˊ-wä-o-noˊ-ga[69] ("Land of the People of the Great Hill") ASeneca country,[283] the Seneca country[284] AThe Onondowahgah (Seneca) Nation See also Haudenosauneega (Iroquoia). No
Ñút^achi Máyan[28] ("Land of the People of the River Mouth") Athe Missouria homeland,[285] the Missouria country[286] AThe Ñút^achi (Missouria) Nation No
Nutshimiu-aschiiy, Nuchimiiyu-chhiiy[28] ("Land in the Country", "Land of the Interior") ANaskapi country,[287] the Naskapi country[288] AThe Iyuw (Naskapi) Nation The Innu (Montagnais) consider the Naskapi to be a component band of their nation, yet the Naskapi generally conceive of themselves to be a distinct nation from the Montagnais, with their own language. No
? The Ogáxpa (Quapaw) traditional territory—autonym unknown. AQuapaw country,[289] the Quapaw country,[290] the Quapaw homeland[291] AThe Ogáxpa (Quapaw) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Uukaahpaawiru ("among the Quapaw; in Quapaw country").[292] No
Ojibwewaki[293] ("Land of the Record Keepers") Athe Chippewa country,[294] the Ojibway country,[295] Ojibwe country,[296] Ojibwe Country,[297] the Ojibwa country[298] AThe Ojibwe (Ojibwa/Chippewa) Nation See also Anishinaabewaki. No
? The Olekwo'l (Yurok) traditional territory—autonym unknown. Athe Yurok country,[299] Yurok country[300] AThe Olekwo'l (Yurok) Nation In the Karuk language: Yurúk Veezívzaaneen ("Land of the Downriver People"). No
Omaeqnomenew-ahkew[28] ("Land of the Wild Rice People") AMenominee country,[301] the Menominee country,[302] the Menominee homeland[303] AThe Kiash Matchitiwuk (Menominee) Nation No
? The Omàmiwininiwak (Algonquin) traditional territory—autonym unknown. Athe Algonquin country,[304] the Algonquin homeland[305] AThe Omàmiwininiwak (Algonquin) Nation In the Abenaki language: Os8gonek ("Place of the Algonquin").[223] See also Anishinaabewaki. No
Onayotekaonoga, O-naˊ-yote-kä-o-noˊ-ga[69] ("Land of the People of the Upright Stone") Onyota’a:ka’, Onʌyoteʼa·ka·' ("People and Homelands of the Standing Stone")[118] AOneida country,[306] the Oneida country,[307] the Country of the Oneidas,[307] the Oneida Territory,[131] the Oneida homeland[308] AThe Onayotekaono (Oneida) Nation See also Haudenosauneega (Iroquoia). No
Onundagaonoga, O-nunˊdä-ga-o-noˊ-ga[69] ("Land of the People of the Hills") AOnondaga Country,[309] Onondaga country,[310] the Onondaga country,[311] the original country of Onondaga[311] AThe Onundagaono (Onondaga) Nation See also Haudenosauneega (Iroquoia). No
O'odham Jeweḍ[28] ("Land of the People") AO'odham country,[312] Papago and Pima country[313] AThe O'odham (Papago and Pima) Nation Despite the outsiders' designations of "Pima" and "Papago", the trend among the O'odham people is to consider themselves to be bands of the same cultural nation:

"The division of O'odham lands has resulted in an artificial division of O'odham society. O'odham bands are now broken up into 4 federally recognized tribes: the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Gila River Indian Community, the Ak-Chin Indian Community and the Salt River (Pima Maricopa) Indian community." (quote from the Tohono O'odham Nation website)[314]

In contrast to the entire traditional territory, O'odham ha-jeweḍga refers to the political Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation.[28] Tohono ("Desert") is the O'odham name for the Tohono O'odham (Pagago) portion of O'odham Jeweḍ.[28] The Spanish name for this portion is Papaguería, which has also been used in English. The name "Tohono country",[314] "the tohono jewed",[315] "Papago country",[316] "the Papago country",[317] and "the Papago homeland"[318] are also attested. For the Akimel O'odham (Pima) portion of the traditional territory, the names "Pima country",[319] "the Pima country",[320] and "the Pima homeland"[321] are attested.

Paariru[322] ("Among the Pawnee; Pawnee country") APawnee country,[323] the Pawnee country,[324] the traditional Pawnee homeland[325] AThe Paari (Pawnee) Nation Of the Pawnee band territories, the Skiri (Skidi Pawnee) country is named Ckiiriru[326] and the Chawi (Republican Pawnee) country is named Cawiiriru.[327] No
Panaôbskaiiak[328] ("Land of the Penobscots") Athe Penobscot country,[329] the Penobscot homeland[330] AThe Panawahpskek (Penobscot) Nation In the Eastern Abenaki spelling (the Penobscot national language is nearly identitical to Eastern Abenaki): Pana8bskaiiak ("Land of the Penobscots").[223] In Western Abenaki spelling: Panȣbskaik, Panaȣbskaiiak. In the Passamaquoddy-Maliseet language: Panuwapskek.[331] No
? The Paⁿka (Ponca) traditional territory—autonym unknown. APonca country,[332] the Ponca country,[333] the Ponca homeland[334] AThe Paⁿka (Ponca) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Riihitawiru ("among the Ponca").[292] No
Pequatit[335] ("At the Destroyers") APequod,[336] Pequot country,[337] the Pequot country,[338] the old Pequot homeland,[339] the Pequt countrey[340] AThe Pequttôog (Pequot) Nation The traditional territory of the Wunnashowatuckoog band of Pequot is Wunnashowatuckqut or (shortened) Showatuckqut[341] ("Where the River Splits").[342] No
Peskotomuhkatik,[343] peskotomuhkatihkuk[344] ("In the Land of the Polluck-Spearers") APassamaquoddy country,[345] Passamaquoddy territory[343] the Traditional Ancestral Homeland Territory of the Passamaquoddy Tribe,[346] traditional Passamaquoddy territory,[346] Passamaquoddy Territory,[347] the Passamaquoddy Territory,[347] Passamaquoddy Ancestral Territory,[346] Passamaquoddy Homeland Territory[347] AThe Peskotomuhkati (Passamaquoddy) Nation See also Waponahkik (Wabanaki country). No
Pokanoket[348] ("Land of the Bitter Water Bays and Coves") AWampanoag Country,[349] Wampanoag country,[350] the Wampanoag Homeland,[351] the Wampanoag homeland,[352] Wampanoag territory,[353] the Wampanoag territory[354] AThe Wôpanâak (Wampanoag) Nation No
? The Sahnish (Arikara) traditional territory—autonym unknown. AArikara country,[355] the Arikara country,[356] the Sahnish homeland[357] AThe Sahnish (Arikara) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Astarahiru ("among the Arikara, in Arikara country").[358] No
S’atsoyaha ("Land of the Sun-fire People"),[28] S’atsole yudjiha ("Yuchi Homeland")[359] AYuchi country,[360] the Yuchi country,[361] Euchee country,[362] the Yuchi homeland,[363] the Uchee country,[364] AThe Tsoyaha (Yuchi) Nation No
Shawandasse Tula ("Southwind Earth")[28] AShawnee country,[365] the Shawnee country,[366] the Shawnee homeland[367] AThe Shaawanwaki (Shawnee) Nation No
Shiwinnaqin[368] ("At the Flesh People") AZuniland,[369] Zuni Country,[370] Zuni's aboriginal territories,[371] the A'shiwi country[372] AThe A:shiwi (Zuni) Nation No
Solh Temexw[373] ("Our Land") AStó:lō traditional territory,[373] Sto:lo country,[374] the Sto:lo country,[375] Stolo country[376] AThe Sto:lo (Fraser River) Nation No
Sq'ʷayáiɬaqtmš[377] AChehalis Indian Country,[378] the Chehalis country[379] AThe Q'ʷay'áy'iɬq' (Chehalis) Nation No
? The Téenek traditional territory—autonym unknown. AThe Huasteca,[380] Wasteka,[381] the La Huasteca,[382] the Huastec homeland[383] AThe Téenek (Huastec) Nation In the Nahuatl language: Cuextlan,[384] Kuextlan.[385] In Spanish: la Huasteca. (link)
Thâkînâwe, Sâkînâwe[386] ("Land of the Yellow Earth People") Athe Sac country,[387] the Sauk country,[388] the Sauk homeland[389] AThe Othâkîwaki (Sauk/Sac) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Saakiiwaru ("among the Sauk, in Sauk country").[390] No
? The Tickanwa•tic (Tonkawa) traditional territory—autonym unknown. ATonkawa country,[391] the Tonkawa country[392] AThe Tickanwa•tic (Tonkawa) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Tarikawiru ("among the Tonkawas, Tonkawa country").[393] No
Tin-ta-mayuhk[394] ("My Country"), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh-ulh[377] ("Relating to the People of the Sacred Water"), Sko-mish-oath[394] Athe Squamish Country,[394] the Squamish country,[395] Squamish territory[394] AThe Skwxwú7mesh (Squamish) Nation The Skwxwú7mesh interviewee who shared the name Tin-ta-mayuhk also says: "Musqueams have a name too, same word, but pronounced differently; people up Lillooet have different name;" (sounds like Tsasch) "all mean the same, 'my country.'"[394] No
Tłı̨chǫ Ndè,[396] Tlicho Nde[397] ("Land of the Dog-Flank People") Athe Dogrib country[398] AThe Tłı̨chǫ (Dogrib) Nation See also Denendeh. No
Továngar[399] ("The World") ATongva country,[400] the Tongva homeland,[401] Tongva-Gabrielino country,[402] Gabrielino country,[403] the Gabrielino country,[404] the Gabrieleno homeland[405] AThe Tongva (Gabrielino) Nation No
Tsenacommacah,[406] Tsenacomoco, Tenakomakah, Attanoughkomouck, Attan-Akamik ("Land of Much Events") Athe Powhatan country,[407] Powhatan country,[408] the Powhatan homeland,[409] Powhatan's territory[410] AThe PoHaTan (Powhatan) Confederacy Tsenacommacah is also glossed as "Virginia". The name was perceived by the early English settlers to be the native equivalent for what they called "Virginia". Tsenacommacah appears to be cognate with Ojibwe danakamigad "be an activity, be an event, happen". Arahatecoh is the traditional territory of the Arrohattoc nation within the Powhatan confederacy.[411] (link)
Tséstho'e, Zesthoe[412] ("Land of Our People") ACheyenne country,[413] the Cheyenne country,[414] the Cheyenne homeland[415] AThe Tsitsistas and So'taeo'o (Cheyenne) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Sahiiru ("in Cheyenne country").[292] No
Tupippuh Nummu[416] ("Our Homeland") Athe Timbisha Homeland,[417] Timbisha country,[418] the Panamint country[419] AThe Timbisha (Panamint) Nation No
? The Tutunucu (Totonac) traditional territory—autonym unknown. ATotonac country,[420] the Totonac country,[421] the Totonac homeland,[422] AThe Tutunucu (Totonac) Nation In the Nahuatl language: Totonacapan ("Place of the Totonac").[423] No
Waayaahtanonki[28] ("Place of the Whirlpool") Athe Wea country,[424] the Wea lands[425] AThe Waayaahtanwa (Wea) Nation See also Myaamionki (Miami country). No
Wabanahkik (in the Micmac language), Waponahkik (in the Maliseet-Passamaquoddy language), Wôbanakik (in the Abenaki-Penobscot language).[426] These all mean "Land of Dawn, Land of the First Light". Athe Dawnland,[427] Wabanaki country,[428] the Wabanaki country,[429] Wabanaki Country,[430] the land of the Wabanaki[429] AThe Wabanaki Confederacy includes the Micmac Nation, Maliseet Nation, Passamaquoddy Nation, Penobscot Nation, and Abenaki Nation. The name for the Dawnland in other Algonkic languages: Wàbanakìng (in Algonquin), Waabanakiing (in Ojibwe), Waabnakiing (in Odawa), Wabnekig (in Potawatomi).[426] No
? The Wah-Zha-Zhi (Osage) traditional territory—autonym unknown. AOsage country,[431] the Osage country,[432] the great Osage homeland,[433] the Osage homelands,[433] the Osage ancestral territory[434] AThe Wah-Zha-Zhi (Osage) Nation In the Skiri Pawnee language: Pasaasiru ("among the Osages; in Osage territory").[292] No
Washeshu Itdeh,[435] Wa She Shu E Deh[436] ("The People from Here") AWašiw lands,[435] Washoe country,[437] the Washoe country[438] AThe Wašiw (Washoe) Nation No
Wazija Haci[439] ("Those who dwell in the pines"), Wazija,[440] Wazidja,[441] Waazija[442] ("The Grand Pinery") Athe Wazija,[440] the Wazidja,[440] the Hočąk Wazija,[440] the land of the Hočągara,[440] Ho-Chunk country,[443] Winnebago country,[444] the Winnebago country,[445] the Winnebago homeland[446] AThe Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) Nation An early French name: pays des Puants.[447] No
Wendake[448] ("The Land Apart") AHuronia,[449] the Huron country,[450] the Wyandot country,[451] Wyandotte country,[452] the Wyandotte country,[453] the Wendat country,[454] the Huron-Wendat country,[455] Old Huronia[456] (=Wendake Ehen) AThe Wendat (Wyandot/Huron) Nation French: la Huronie,[457] le pays des Hurons,[455] Contrée des Hurons.[455] In the Abenaki language: Ksitegwiiak ("Land of the Hurons").[223] Unlike the Huron-Wendat in Quebec, the three Wendat groups in the U.S. trace their origin to the Tionontati (Petun/Tobacco), Wenro, and Neutral nations,[449] and to only one of the original Huron nations (the Attignawantan nation), rather to the Huron Confederacy as a whole.[458] (link)
Wintʰu· Po·m[28] ("Land of the People") AWintu country[459] AThe Wintu Nation There are traditionally nine band territories, such as wenem memen bos ("the middle water place/country"),[28] and nomte pom[28] or Nom ti pom[460] ("In the west country").[461] No
Wolastokuk[331] ("Land of the Beautiful River") AMaliseet country,[462] the Malecite country AThe Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) Nation See also Waponahkik (Wabanaki country). No
X̱aaydag̱a Gwaay.yaay,[463] Xhaaidlagha Gwaayaai,[464] Xaadala Gwayee[465] ("Islands at the Edge of the World"), X̱aayda gwaay, Haida Gwaii[466] ("Islands of the People") AHaida country,[467] the Haida homeland[468] AThe X̱aadas (Haida) Nation (link)
Yagaocanahagary[469] ("Land Between the Two Points") APiscataway Country[470] AThe Piscataway (Conoy) Nation No
? The Yokot'anob (Chontal) traditional territory—autonym unknown. Athe Chontalpa,[471] the Chontal homeland[472] AThe Yokot'anob (Chontal) Nation In the Nahuatl language: Chontalpa ("Land of the Foreigners").[471] In Spanish: la Chontalpa.[473] "Chontalpa" remains the name of a Mexican economic planning region coterminous with four political municipalities. No

Criteria for inclusion[edit]

For the purpose of this list, "nation" refers to the historic, whole national identities, rather than to the fragmented "reservation nations" or "bands". The whole nations are what John Beaucage, Grand Council Chief of the Anishinabek Nation, refers to as "true nations" in contrast with the fragmented "First Nations":

“First Nations must work towards the restoration of our own model of nationhood made up of our true nations. In essence, moving away from 633 First Nations—from Aamjiwnaang to Zhiibhaasing—to governance based on the nearly 60 indigenous nations, from the Abenaki Nation to the Wendat Nation and all those in between.”
—John Beaucage, “A Vision of a New Assembly of First Nations” (emphasis added), 2009[474]

Or what the Government of Quebec calls "the 11 aboriginal nations of Québec" in contrast with their component "55 aboriginal communities".[475] And so the criteria for inclusion is not the same as what are named "Indian tribes" by the U.S. Federal Register and the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), or what are called "First Nations" by the Canadian government and Assembly of First Nations (AFN). It would be interesting to compile the names for the "band territories" of the 633 fragmented First Nations of the AFN, or the names of the "reservation territories" of the 632 fragmented Indian Nations of the NCAI, but that is beyond the scope of this article, except as side notes in the "further information" column.

So this list does not include the names for reservations or reserves, but only of the entire national homeland (or the homeland of a confederated identity such as the Haudenosaunee Confederacy or Colville tribes). For example, this list wouldn't give the Cherokee name for the Qualla Boundary reservation, but only the name for "the Cherokee country" as a whole. Ideally a single name could conceivably encompass not only the Contact-era ancestral territory, but also any area which at some time or another was conceived to be part of the national domain, such as post-Removal lands.

"Northeastern Oklahoma is the seat of government for the sovereign nation of the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma. However, all of the lands where the Miami have lived over time are still referred to as “Myaamionki” (the Place of the Myaamia)."
—The Miami Tribe of Oklahoma.[476]

The names do not have to be from olden days. The names could be recently coined and still be included in this list.

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as it requires some discernment as to what are the "whole nations" — the "true nations" in Beaucage's words.


  1. ^ When the name of a traditional territory has several possible etymologies, only one or a few English translations are given here (for example Ojibwewaki = "Land of the Record Keepers" is only one of several possibilities). For more, see the Wikipedia article for each nation and the various folk etymologies and proposed etymologies for their national name.
  2. ^ Though the column of conventional and historic English monikers is not meant to be a comprehensive list, and though some of the references are ephemeral, this column does give a snapshot of how the traditional territories have been spoken of in everyday English.
  3. ^ This column contains links to existing articles about a single nation's traditional territory. Ideally such Wikipedia articles would include a composite map which showed how each indigenous national territory is portrayed in all of these:
    • key maps from scholars, such as the national boundaries from the Handbook of North American Indians, Alfred Kroeber's culture area maps, and Sturtevant's 1967 "Early Indian Tribes, Culture Areas, & Linguistic Stocks" map.
    • key maps from general sources, such as the tribal boundaries from National Geographic's Indians of North America map from 1972.
    • a map of all treaty lands which that nation is a party, as documented in the Royce land cession maps and the Canadian numbered treaties.
    • the map(s) submitted by each U.S. Indian Nation during the Indian Claims Commission.
    • the final ICC "judicially established" map.
    • the NAGPRA "area of interest" map from each U.S. Indian Nation.
    • a map showing the location of all former reservation lands.
    • a map of current reservation and trust lands.
    • the location of national sites and diasporic populations situated outside of those lands—for example, outlying historic villages (such as the Bulltown Lenape village in what's now West Virginia, which was never a part of Lenape treaty lands) and modern "satellite" communities (for example, the "at-large" Community Groups of the Cherokee Nation).
    • a map of the State Designated Tribal Statistical Area (SDTSA) for state-recognized Indian Nations.
    • and most importantly, "tribally-interpreted", "indigenous-approved" maps, such as the traditional territory maps from the on-going British Columbia Treaty Process, and depictions of legendary boundaries from oral history.


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