List of tributaries of Imperial China
List of tributaries
A status hierarchy was an explicit element of the tributary system in which Korea and Vietnam were ranked higher than others, including Japan, the Ryukyus, Siam, the Burmese kingdoms and others. All diplomatic and trade missions were construed in the context of a tributary relationship with Imperial China, including:
- Brunei (文萊)
- Goguryeo (173 tribute missions) 
- Baekje (45 tribute missions) 
- Silla (19 tribute missions) 
- Unified Silla (63 tribute missions in 8th century) 
- Goryeo (The envoy missions)
- Joseon Dynasty (391 envoy missions between 1392 and 1450, 435 special embassy missions between 1637 and 1881.)
- Ryūkyū Kingdom (Ryukyuan missions to Imperial China)
- Internal vassals (206 BC - ?) – Upon the founding of the dynasty, the first emperor awarded up to one-half of territory of Han as fiefdoms to various relatives, who ruled as princes. These fiefdoms collected their own taxes and established their own laws and were not directly administered by imperial government. Consolidation and centralization by succeeding emperors increased imperial controls, gradually dissolving the princedoms.
- Dayuan (102 BC) – Kingdom located in the Fergana Valley. Hearing tales of their high-quality horses, which would be of great utility in combatting the Xiongnu, Emperor Wu of Han dispatched an expedition to acquire their submission and the horses. The first expedition of 3,000 was woefully undermanned, but the second, numbering 100,000 besieged the capital, bringing them into submission after negotiations. The expedition returned with 10,000 horses along with a promise to pay an annual tribute in horses.
- Dian Kingdom (109 BC) – A kingdom located in modern-day Yunnan province. Brought into subjugation by Emperor Wu of Han, who annexed the kingdom into an imperial commandary but allowed local rulers to remain in power.
- Jushi (108 BC) – City-state in modern-day Turpan. Brought into submission by an imperial expedition dispatched by Emperor Wu of Han.
- Loulan (108 BC) – Located along the northeastern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in modern-day Xinjiang province. Brought into submission by an imperial expedition dispatched by Emperor Wu of Han.
- Minyue (138 BC - ?) – A Baiyue people situated in modern-day Fujian province. After an attack by the Minyue people, Emperor Wu of Han launched a massive expedition, and forced their entire population to relocate within imperial borders.
- Nanyue (211 BC - 111 BC) – A kingdom situated today's northern Vietnam, and the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi founded by a former Chinese general, Zhao Tuo. Under Zhao Tuo it paid nominal tribute to Han but his successors lost more and more power. After a coup d'état against the king, Han directly conquered the kingdom and directly administered it from then on.
- Xiongnu (53 BC - 10) – A nomadic confederation/empire in Central Asia and modern day Mongolia and extending their control to territories as far as Siberia, western Manchuria, the areas along the Caspian Sea, and modern day Chinese provinces of Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Xinjiang. They entered tributory relations with the Han after several defeats, territorial losses, and internal conflicts. Tributory relationships terminated as a result of diplomatic fumblings during the reign of Wang Mang. Xinjiang passed to Chinese control after their defeat.
- Wusun (105 BC - ?) – Central Asian people. Bitter enemies with the Xiongnu, they entered a military alliance with the Han. In 53 BC, the kingdom split into two following a succession dispute. Both continued to recognize Han sovereignty and remained faithful vassals.
During Wang Mang's reign, relations with many of the empire's allies and tributories deteriorated, due in large part to Wang Mang's arrogance and inept diplomacy.
- Southern Xiongnu (50 - 220) – The Xiongnu split into northern and southern factions. The southern Xiongnu brought themselves into tributory relations with the Han. They were resettled along with large numbers of Chinese immigrants in frontier regions. Economically dependent on Han, they were obliged to provide military services under a tightened tributory system with greater direct imperial supervision.
Southern and Northern, Tang
The Chinese retaliated against Cham which was raiding the Rinan coast around 430s-440s by seizing Qusu, and then plundering the capital of the Cham around Huế. Around 100,000 jin in gold was the amount of plunder. Lin Yi then paid 10,000 jin in gold, 100,000 jin in silver, and 300,000 jin in copper in 445 as tribute to China. The final tribute paid to China from Lin Yi was in 749, among the items were 100 strings of pearls, 30 jin gharuwood, baidi, and 20 elephants.
Enslaved people from tributary countries were sent to Tang China by various groups, the Cambodians sent albinos, the Uyghurs sent Turkic Karluks, the Japanese sent Ainu, and Turkish (Tujue) and Tibetan girls were also sent to China. Prisoners captured from Liaodong, Korea, and Japan were sent as tribute to China from Balhae. Tang dynasty China received 11 Japanese girl dancers as tribute from Balhae in 777.
The Song dynasty received 302 tribute missions from other countries. Vietnamese missions consisted of 45 of them, another 56 were from Champa. More tribute was sent by Champa in order to curry favor from China against Vietnam. Champa brought as tribute Champa rice, a fast-growing rice strain, to China, which massively increased Chinese yields of rice.
Massive numbers of Korean boy eunuchs, Korean girl concubines, falcons, ginseng, grain, cloth, silver, and gold were sent as tribute to the Mongol Yuan dynasty. such as the Korean eunuch Bak Bulhwa and Korean Empress Gi. Goryeo incurred negative consequences as a result of the eunuch Bak Bulhwa's actions. The tribute payment brought much harm to Korea.
Under the Ming dynasty, countries that wanted to have any form of relationship with China, political, economic or otherwise, had to enter the tribute system. As a result, tribute was often paid for opportunistic reasons rather than as a serious gesture of allegiance to the Chinese emperor, and the mere fact that tribute was paid may not be understood in a way that China had political leverage over its tributary. Also some tribute missions may just have been up by ingenious traders. A number of countries only paid tribute once, as a result of Zheng He's expeditions. As of 1587, in Chinese sources the following countries are listed to have paid tribute to the Ming emperors: The Hongwu Emperor started tributary relations in 1368, emissaries being sent to countries like Korea, Vietnam, Champa, Japan, of which Korea, Vietnam, and Champa sent back tribute in 1369. During Hongwu's rule, Liuch'iu sent 20, Korean sent 20, Champa sent 19, and Vietnam sent 14 tribute missions. The tribute system was an economically profitable form of government trade, and Korea requested and successfully increased the number of tributes sent to Ming from once every three years to three times each year starting in 1400, and eventually four times each year starting in 1531.
- Almalik (?)
- Altan Khan (annually since 1570)
- Anding(?) (beginning in 1374)
- Annam (every three years since 1369)
- Arabia (Tienfang, identical to Mecca?) (somewhere between 1426 and 1435, 1517, sometimes between 1522 and 1566)
- Aru (1407)
- Baihua(?) (1378)
- Bengal (1408, 1414, 1438)
- Borneo (Solo?) (1406)
- Brunei (1371, 1405, 1408, 1414, 1425)
- Cambodia (Chenla, since 1371)
- Cail, Djofar, Maldives, Burma (Yawa), Lambri (Nanwuli, on Sumatra), Kelantan, Qilani(?), Xialabi (Arabia?), Kuchani (?), Wushelatang(?), Aden, Rum, Bengal, Shelaqi(?), Bakoyi(?), Coimbatore, Heigada(?), Lasa(?), Barawa, Mogadishu, Qianlida(?), Kannur (all somewhere between 1403 and 1425)
- Calicut (1405, 1407, 1409)
- Ceylon (1411, 1412, 1445, 1459)
- Champa (every three years since 1369)
- Chijin (another group of Mongols?) (beginning in 1404, every five years since 1563)
- Chola (1370, 1372, 1403)
- Cochin (1404, 1412)
- Coimbatore (1411)
- Dahui(?) (1405)
- Danba(?) (1377)
- Doyan(?), Fuyü(?), Taining(?) (1388, twice a year from 1403)
- Ejijie(?), Hashin(?) (somewhere between 1522 and 1566)
- Gumala (?) (1420)
- Gulibanzu (Pansur?) (1405)
- Hadilan (Khotelan?)
- Hami (beginning in 1404, annually from 1465, every five years from 1475)
- Handong(?) (?)
- Herat (1402, 1409, 1437)
- Hotan (1408?)
- Huotan (identical to Khujand?)
- Ilbalik and Beshbalik (1391, 1406, 1413, 1418(?), 1437, 1457ff)
- Jaunpur (1420)
- Japan (every 10 years)
- Java (1372, 1381, 1404, 1407, every three years for some time after 1443)
- Jienzhou(?) (annually)
- Jurchens and other tribes in the northeast (irregularly)
- Karakhodjo (1409, 1430, afterwards together with Turfan)
- Khorasan (1432)
- Kollam (1407)
- Korea (annually)
- Kuncheng (Kunduz?)
- Lanbang(?) (1376, 1403–1435)
- Liuchen(?) (1430, afterwards together with Turfan)
- Liuqiu (Ryukyu Islands, every two years since 1368)
- Malacca (1405, 1411, 1412, 1414, 1424, 1434, 1445ff, 1459)
- Melinde (1414)
- Niekoli (or Miekoli) (?)
- Medina (somewhere between 1426 and 1435)
- Ormus (1405)
- Pahang (1378, 1414)
- Palembang (1368, 1371, 1373, 1375, 1377)
- Samudra (1383, 1405, 1407, 1431, 1435)
- Philippines (1372, 1405, 1576)
- Quxian (1437)
- Rum (after 1524 every five years)
- Samarkand (1387, 1389, 1391 etc., after 1523 every five years)
- Saolan (identical to Sairam?)
- Sukhothai (every three years since 1371-1448)
- Sulu (1417, 1421)
- Syria (Fulin?, 1371)
- Tamerlane (1387, 1391)
- Tieli (?), Zhiloxiashi (?), Marinduque (1405)
- Turfan (1430, 1497, 1509, 1510, every 5 years since 1523)
- Wala (Oirads) (beginning in 1403, annually, with interruptions, since 1458)
- Zhilo(?), Badakhshan, Andkhui, Isfahan, Shiraz. (somewhere between 1403 and 1424)
- A number of Tibetan temples and tribes from the Tibetan border or the southwest.
Tribute in the form of servants, eunuchs, and virgin girls came from: China's various ethnic tribes, Mongolia, Korea, Annam, Cambodia, Central Asia, Siam, Champa, and Okinawa. During the early Ming dynasty, young Korean virgin girls and eunuchs were occasionally demanded as tribute by Ming Emperors, such as the Xuande Emperor, for the imperial harem in imitation of the previous dynasty's precedent, as were Vietnamese women and eunuchs. Korea stopped sending human tribute after 1435. A total of 98 virgins and 198 eunuchs were sent from Korea to Ming.
There were Korean, Jurchen, Mongol, Central Asian, and Vietnamese eunuchs under the Yongle Emperor, including Mongol eunuchs who served him while he was the Prince of Yan. In 1381, Muslim and Mongol eunuchs were captured from Yunnan, and possibly among them was the great Ming maritime explorer Zheng He. Vietnamese eunuchs like Ruan Lang, Ruan An, Fan Hong, Chen Wu, and Wang Jin were sent by Zhang Fu to the Ming. During Ming's early contentious relations with Joseon, when there were disputes such as competition for influence over the Jurchens in Manchuria, Korean officials were even flogged by Korean-born Ming eunuch ambassadors when their demands were not met. Some of the ambassadors were arrogant, such as Sin Kwi-saeng who, in 1398, got drunk and brandished a knife at a dinner in the presence of the king. Sino-Korean relations later became amiable, and Korean envoys' seating arrangement in the Ming court was always the highest among the tributaries.
On 30 Jan 1406, the Ming Yongle Emperor expressed horror when the Ryukyuans castrated some of their own children to become eunuchs in order to give them to Yongle. Yongle said that the boys who were castrated were innocent and didn't deserve castration, and he returned the boys to Ryukyu and instructed them not to send eunuchs again.
An anti pig slaughter edict led to speculation that the Zhengde emperor adopted Islam due to his use of Muslim eunuchs who commissioned the production of porcelain with Persian and Arabic inscriptions in white and blue color. Muslim eunuchs contributed money in 1496 to repairing Niujie Mosque. Central Asian women were provided to the Zhengde Emperor by a Muslim guard and Sayyid Hussein from Hami. The guard was Yu Yung and the women were Uighur. It is unknown who really was behind the anti-pig slaughter edict. The speculation of him becoming a Muslim is remembered alongside his excessive and debauched behavior along with his concubines of foreign origin. Muslim Central Asian girls were favored by Zhengde like how Korean girls were favored by Xuande. A Uighur concubine was kept by Zhengde. Foreign origin Uighur and Mongol women were favored by the Zhengde emperor.
There was much speculation that the Yongle Emperor's real mother was a Korean or Mongolian concubine. Relations between Ming China and Joseon Korea improved dramatically and became much more amicable and mutually profitable during Yongle's reign, who also had a strong penchant for Korean cuisine and women, as did his grandson, the Xuande Emperor.
This list covers states that sent tribute between 1662 and 1875, and were not covered under the Lifanyuan. Therefore, Tibet or the Khalkha are not included, although they did send tribute in the period given:
- Annam (annually, every three years on
- Dzungars (1681, 1685, 1735, 1738, 1742, 1743, 1745, 1746, 1752, and 1753)
- Great Britain (1793, no tribute presented in 1795, 1805, and 1816)
- Khanate of Kokand (between 1774–1798)
- Kirgiz (1757 and 1758)
- Korea (three or four times a year; 435 embassies, 1637-1881)
- Ku er le Beg (1762)
- Laos (17 times)
- Netherlands (1663(?), 1667, 1686, and 1795).
- Nepal (1732(?), 1792, 1794, 1795, 1823, 1842, and 1865)
- Portugal (1670, 1678, 1752, and 1753)
- Ryukyu (every two years on average, 122 times in total between 1662 and 1875)
- Siam (48 times, most of them after 1780 and before the reign of Rama IV)
- Sikkim (since 1791 )
- Sulu (1726, 1733, 1743, 1747, 1752, 1753, and 1754)
- Turpan (1673 and 1686)
After the Second Manchu invasion of Korea, Joseon Korea was forced to give several of their royal princesses as concubines to the Qing Manchu regent Prince Dorgon. In 1650 Dorgon married the Korean Princess I-shun (義/願). The Princess' name in Korean was Uisun and she was Prince Yi Kaeyoon's (Kumrimgoon) daughter. Dorgon married two Korean princesses at Lianshan.
The tribute system did not dissolve in 1875, but tribute embassies became less frequent and regular: twelve more Korean embassies until 1894, one more (abortive one) from Liuqiu in 1877, three more from Annam, and four from Nepal, the last one in 1908.
In 1886 after Britain took over Burma, they maintained the sending of tribute to China, putting themselves in a lower status than in their previous relations. It was agreed in the Burmah convention in 1886, that China would recognize Britain's occupation of Upper Burmah while Britain continued the Burmese payment of tribute every ten years to Beijing.
- Chinese imperialism
- Chinese nationalism
- Foreign relations of imperial China
- Greater China
- History of China#Imperial era
- Imperial Chinese tributary system
- List of recipients of tribute from China
- Silk Road
- adoption of Chinese literary culture
- Tributary state
- Zheng He
- puppet state
- satellite state
- client state
- Gundry, R. S. "China and her Tributaries," National Review (United Kingdom), No. 17, July 1884, pp. 605-619., p. 605, at Google Books
- Kang, David C. (2010). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute, p. 59., p. 59, at Google Books
- Wang, Zhenping. (2005). Ambassadors from the islands of immortals: China-Japan relations in the Han-Tang period, pp. 4-5, p. 4, at Google Books; excerpt, criticizing "the western tributary theory, which sees the world only from the viewpoint of the Chinese and overly simplifies the intricate domestic and international situations ...."
- "Tribute and Trade", KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.
- Gundry, "Annam," pp. 613-615., p. 613, at Google Books
- Mohammad Al-Mahdi Tan Kho; Hurng-yu Chen (July 2014). "Malaysia-Philippines Territorial Dispute: The Sabah Case" (PDF). National Chengchi University. NCCU Institutional Repository. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
- Wan Kong Ann; Victor H. Mair; Paula Roberts; Mark Swofford (April 2013). "Examining the Connection Between Ancient China and Borneo Through Santubong Archaeological Sites" (PDF). Tsinghua University and Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania. Sino-Platonic Papers. ISSN 2157-9687. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- Johannes L. Kurz. "Boni in Chinese Sources: Translations of Relevant Texts from the Song to the Qing Dynasties" (PDF). Universiti Brunei Darussalam. National University of Singapore. p. 1. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- Kerr, George. (2000). Okinawa: The History of an Island People, p. 65., p. 65, at Google Books
- Gundry, "Burma," pp. 611-613., p. 611, at Google Books
- Shambaugh, David L. et al. (2008). International Relations of Asia, p. 54 n15., p. 54, at Google Books citing the 1818 Collected Statutes of the Qing Dynasty (DaQing hui-tien)
- "Funan". About.com. Retrieved 2007-06-02.
- "The Kingdom of Funan and Chenla (First to Eighth Century AD)". Archived from the original on 2006-05-03. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
- Pratt, Keith L. (1999). Korea: a historical and cultural dictionary. p. 482.
- Korea Herald. (2004) Korea now, p. 31; excerpt, "The Chinese also insist that even though Goguryeo was part of Chinese domain, Silla and Baekje were states subjected to China's tributary system."
- Chisholm, Hugh. (1911). The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. 15, p. 224, p. 224, at Google Books
- Yoda, Yoshiie et al. (1996) The Foundations of Japan's Modernization: a Comparison with China's Path, p. 40., p. 40, at Google Books; excerpt, "While other countries in East Asia were almost consistently emeshed within the Chinese tribute system, Japan found itself sometimes inside sometimes outside of the system ...."
- According to the Book of Later Han vol. 85, Records of Three Kingdoms vol. 30 and Book of Jin, vol. 97, 2 tribute missions in 1st century, 4 tribute missions in 3rd century, 10 tribute missions in 5th century was sent to Imperial China.
- Yoda, p. 40., p. 40, at Google Books; excerpt, "... King Na was awarded the seal of the Monarch of the Kingdom of Wa during the Chinese Han dynasty, and Queen Himiko, who had sent a tribute mission to the Wei Dynasty (third century) was followed by the five kings of Wa who also offered tribute to the Wei. This evidence points to the fact that at this period Japan was inside the Chinese tribute system ...."
- Book of Sui, vol. 81
- The Early Relations between China and Japan
- Delmer M. Brown, John Whitney Hall. The Cambridge History of Japan: Ancient Japan, pp. 280-283., p. 280, at Google Books
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kentoshi" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 511, p. 511, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
- Yoda, p. 40., p. 40, at Google Books; excerpt, "... Japanese missions to the Sui [Dynasty] (581-604) ... were recognized by the Chinese as bearers of imperial tribute ...."
- Imperial envoys made perilous passages on kentoshi-sen ships to Tang China "The cross-cultural exchanges began with 5 missions between 600 and 614, initially to Sui China (on kenzuishi-sen), and at least 18 or 19 missions were sent to T’ang China from 630 to 894 although not all of them were designated kentoshi."
- Fogel, Joshua A. (2009). Articulating the Sinosphere: Sino-Japanese Relations in Space and Time, pp. 102-107., p. 102, at Google Books
- Yoda, p. 40., p. 40, at Google Books; excerpt, "Japanese missions to the ... Tang Dynasties were recognized by the Chinese as bearers of imperial tribute; however, in the middle of the ninth century -- the early Heian Period -- Japan rescinded he sending of missions to the Tang Empire. Subsequently Japan conducted a flourishing trade with China and for the next five hundred years also imported much of Chinese culture, while nevertheless remaining outside the tribute system."
- Edwin O. Reischauer (1955). Ennin's travels in T'ang China: Chapter Ⅲ - Kentoshi. ISBN 978-89-460-3814-1
- Old book of Tang, vol. 199
- Fogel, p. 27., p. 27, at Google Books; Goodrich, Luther Carrington et al. (1976). Dictionary of Ming biography, 1368-1644, p. 1316., p. 1316, at Google Books; note: the economic benefit of the Sinocentric tribute system was profitable trade. The tally trade (kangō bōeki or kanhe maoyi in Chinese) was a system devised and monitored by the Chinese -- see Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric et al. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia, p. 471.
- Frederick W. Mote, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank. The Cambridge history of China: The Ming dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1, pp. 491-492., p. 491, at Google Books
- Kwak, Tae-Hwan et al. (2003). The Korean peace process and the four powers, p. 100., p. 100, at Google Books; excerpt, "The tributary relations between China and Korea came to an end when China was defeated in the Sino-Japanese war of 1894-1895."
- Seth, Michael J. (2006). A concise history of Korea, p. 64, p. 64, at Google Books; excerpt, "China found instead that its policy of using trade and cultural exchanges and offering legitimacy and prestige to the Silla monarchy was effective in keeping Silla safely in the tributary system. Indeed, the relationship that was worked out in the late seventh and early eighth centuries can be considered the beginning of the mature tributary relationship that would characterize Sino-Korean interchange most of the time until the late nineteenth century;"
- Korean History Project, Unified Silla.
- Kwak, p. 99., p. 99, at Google Books; excerpt, "Korea's tributary relations with China began as early as the fifth century, were regularized during the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392), and became fully institutionalized during the Yi dynasty (1392-1910)."
- Clark, Donald N. (1998). "The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 Part 2". The Cambridge history of China. 8: 280. ISBN 0-521-24333-5.
Between 1392 and 1450, the Choson court dispatched 391 envoys to China: on average, seven each year.
- Kang, David C. (2010). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute. Columbia University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-231-15318-8.
thus, between 1637 and 1881, Korea sent 435 special embassies to the Qing court, or an average of almost 1.5 embassies per year.
- Chinese Sui Dynasty annals
- Kadaram and Kataha
- First Ruler of Melaka : Parameswara 1394-1414
- Gundry, "Nepal," pp. 609-610., p. 609, at Google Books
- The Political Economy of Philippines- China Relations
- "The Ancient Ryukyus Period/The Sanzan Period"
- Gundry, "Ryūkyū," pp. 615-616., p. 615, at Google Books
- Kerr, George. (2000). Okinawa: The History of an Island People, p. 74., p. 74, at Google Books
- Kerr, p. 66., p. 66, at Google Books
- Gundry, "Siam," pp. 616-619., p. 616, at Google Books
- Gundry, "Tibet," pp. 610-611., p. 610, at Google Books
- page 63 of the book, "MAPPING HISTORY WORLD HISTORY, by Dr. Ian Barnes. ISBN 978-1-84573-323-0
- Robert S. Wicks (1992). Money, markets, and trade in early Southeast Asia: the development of indigenous monetary systems to AD 1400. SEAP Publications. p. 210. ISBN 0-87727-710-9. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Edward H. Schafer (1963). The golden peaches of Samarkand: a study of Tʻang exotics. University of California Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-520-05462-8. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- Михаил Иосифович Сладковский (1981). Тхе лонг роад: Сино-Руссиян экономик контактс фром анциент тимес то 1917. Прогресс Публишерс. p. 13.
- Schafer 1963, p. 66.
- Brantly Womack (2006). China and Vietnam: the politics of asymmetry. Cambridge University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-521-61834-7. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- Richard Bulliet; Pamela Kyle Crossley; Daniel Headrick; Steven Hirsch; Lyman Johnson (2008). The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History: to 1550. Cengage Learning. p. 279. ISBN 0-618-99238-3. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- Lynda Noreen Shaffer, A Concrete Panoply of Intercultural Exchange: Asia in World History (1997) in Asia in Western and World History, edited by Ainslie T. Embree and Carol Gluck (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe), p. 839-840.
- Katharine Hyung-Sun Moon (January 1997). Sex Among Allies: Military Prostitution in U.S.-Korea Relations. Columbia University Press. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-0-231-10642-9.
- Boudewijn Walraven; Remco E. Breuker (2007). Korea in the Middle: Korean Studies and Area Studies : Essays in Honour of Boudewijn Walraven. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-90-5789-153-3.
- Gwyn Campbell; Suzanne Miers; Joseph C. Miller (8 September 2009). Children in Slavery through the Ages. Ohio University Press. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-0-8214-4339-2.
- Jinwung Kim (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. pp. 172–. ISBN 0-253-00024-6.
- Ki-baek Yi (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. pp. 157–. ISBN 978-0-674-61576-2.
- Simon Winchester (27 October 2009). Korea. HarperCollins. pp. 225–. ISBN 978-0-06-075044-2.
- Peter H. Lee (13 August 2013). Sourcebook of Korean Civilization: Volume One: From Early Times to the 16th Century. Columbia University Press. pp. 681–. ISBN 978-0-231-51529-0.
- John K. Fairbank and Têng Ssu-yü: On the Ch'ing Tributary System, in: Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 6, no. 2 (1941), p. 137-150
- John K. Fairbank and Têng Ssu-yü: On the Ch'ing Tributary System, in: Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 6, no. 2 (1941), p. 150ff
- Edward L. Dreyer (1982). Early Ming China: a political history, 1355-1435. Stanford University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-8047-1105-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Kang, Jae-eun. The Land of Scholars: Two Thousand Years of Korean Confucianism. Homa & Sekey Books. p. 179. ISBN 9781931907309. Retrieved 29 June 2016. "Reciprocating a tribute usually exceeded the tribute itself, which was a profitable government trade to the small nation but a big burden for China. Therefore, China requested for Joseon to send tribute only "once every three years," but in contrast, Joseon requested to send a tribute "thrice each year" or "four times per year" instead and achieved it."
- E. Bretschneider (1888). Mediæval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources: Fragments Toward the Knowledge of the Geography and History of Central and Western Asia from the 13th to the 17th Century, Volume 2. LONDON: Trübner & Co. p. 291. Retrieved 2011-06-09.(Original from the New York Public Library)
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. SUNY Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-7914-2687-6.
- Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee; Luther Carrington Goodrich; 房兆楹 (1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. pp. 288–. ISBN 978-0-231-03801-0.
- Yuan-kang Wang (6 December 2010). Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics. Columbia University Press. pp. 301–. ISBN 978-0-231-52240-3.
- Iain Robertson (2005). Understanding international art markets and management. Routledge. p. 182. ISBN 0-415-33956-1. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett; John King Fairbank (1988). The Cambridge history of China: The Ming dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 301. ISBN 0-521-24332-7. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee, Luther Carrington Goodrich, Chao-ying Fang (1976). Dictionary of Ming biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. p. 1597. ISBN 0-231-03833-X. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- Association Denis Crispin Twitchett, John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8. Cambridge University Press. p. 284. ISBN 0-521-24333-5. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- O. Harrassowitz (1991). Journal of Asian history, Volume 25. p. 130. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- Conrad Schirokauer; Miranda Brown; David Lurie; Suzanne Gay (1 January 2012). A Brief History of Chinese and Japanese Civilizations. Cengage Learning. pp. 247–. ISBN 1-133-70924-9.
- Hugh Dyson Walker (20 November 2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. pp. 259–. ISBN 978-1-4772-6517-8.
- 김한규 (1999). 한중관계사 II. 아르케. pp. 581~585. ISBN 89-88791-02-9.
- John W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0490-4.
- Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 212–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1 July 2011). Perpetual happiness: the Ming emperor Yongle. University of Washington Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-295-80022-6.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. SUNY Press. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-0-7914-2687-6.
- Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee; Luther Carrington Goodrich; 房兆楹 (January 1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. pp. 1363–. ISBN 978-0-231-03833-1.
- Denis C. Twitchett; Frederick W. Mote (28 January 1998). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Dynasty. Cambridge University Press. pp. 283–. ISBN 978-0-521-24333-9.
- Wade, Geoff (July 1, 2007). "Ryukyu in the Ming Reign Annals 1380s-1580s". Working Paper Series (93). Asia Research Institute National University of Singapore: 75. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 5, 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Jay A. Levenson; National Gallery of Art (U.S.) (1991). Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Yale University Press. pp. 477–. ISBN 978-0-300-05167-4.
- Bernard O'Kane (15 December 2012). The Civilization of the Islamic World. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-1-4488-8509-1.
- http://www.bonhams.com/auctions/20024/lot/37/ Bonhams Auctioneers : A rare blue and white screen Zhengde six-character mark and of the period
- Oriental Blue and White, London, 1970, p.29.
- Britannica Educational Publishing (2010). The Culture of China. Britannica Educational Publishing. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-1-61530-183-6.
- Kathleen Kuiper (2010). The Culture of China. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-1-61530-140-9.
- Britannica Educational Publishing (1 April 2010). The Culture of China. Britannica Educational Publishing. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-1-61530-183-6.
- Suzanne G. Valenstein (1988). A Handbook of Chinese Ceramics. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-0-8109-1170-3.
- Susan Naquin (16 December 2000). Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400-1900. University of California Press. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-0-520-92345-4.
- Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee; Luther Carrington Goodrich; 房兆楹 (1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. pp. 309–. ISBN 978-0-231-03801-0.
- B. J. ter Haar (2006). Telling Stories: Witchcraft And Scapegoating in Chinese History. BRILL. pp. 4–. ISBN 90-04-14844-2.
- Frank Trentmann (22 March 2012). The Oxford Handbook of the History of Consumption. OUP Oxford. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-0-19-162435-3.
- John W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0491-1.
- Peter C Perdue (30 June 2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5.
- Frederick W. Mote (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 657–. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.
- Hua, Hsieh Bao. Concubinage and Servitude in Late Imperial China. Lexington Books. p. 285. ISBN 9780739145166. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Watt, James C. Y.; Leidy, Denise Patry. Defining Yongle: Imperial Art in Early Fifteenth-century China. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 12. ISBN 9781588391537. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Mote, Frederick W. Imperial China 900-1800. Harvard University Press. p. 594. ISBN 9780674012127. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- The Taiping Rebellion. M.E. Sharpe. p. 661. ISBN 9780765619532. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Swope, Kenneth M. A Dragon's Head and a Serpent's Tail: Ming China and the First Great East Asian War, 1592-1598. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780806185026. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Forges, Roger V. Des; Major, John S. The Asian World, 600-1500. Oxford University Press. p. 152. ISBN 9780195178432. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- "Arts of Asia". Arts of Asia Publications. 1 January 2008: 120. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Fogel, Joshua A. The Teleology of the Modern Nation-state: Japan and China. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 209. ISBN 9780812238204. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- He, Li; Knight, Michael; Vinograd, Richard Ellis; Bartholomew, Terese Tse; Chan, Dany; Culture, Asian Art Museum--Chong-Moon Lee Center for Asian Art and; Art, Indianapolis Museum of; Museum, St Louis Art. Power and glory: court arts of China's Ming dynasty. Asian Art Museum--Chong-Moon Lee Center for Asian Art and Culture. p. 153. ISBN 9780939117420. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Chase, Kenneth Warren. Firearms: A Global History to 1700. Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 9780521822749. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Tsai, Shih-shan Henry. Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle. University of Washington Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780295981093. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Weidner, Marsha Smith; Berger, Patricia Ann; Art, Helen Foresman Spencer Museum of; Francisco, Asian Art Museum of San. Latter Days of the Law: Images of Chinese Buddhism, 850 - 1850 ; [exhibition, August 27 - October 9 1994 ...]. University of Hawaii Press. p. 107. ISBN 9780824816629. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Dardess, John W. Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 34. ISBN 9781442204904. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Dardess, John W. Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 39. ISBN 9781442204904. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Schirokauer, Conrad; Brown, Miranda. A Brief History of Chinese Civilization. Cengage Learning. p. 187. ISBN 1133709257. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- John K. Fairbank and Têng Ssu-yü: On the Ch'ing Tributary System, in: Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 6, no. 2 (1941), p. 193ff
- Kang, Jae-un (2006). The land of scholars: two thousand years of Korean Confucianism. Homa & Sekey Books. ISBN 1-931907-30-7.
Joseon requested to send a tribute "thrice each year" or "four times per year" instead and achieved it.
- Robinson, Martin; Bender, Andrew (2004). Korea. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-449-5.
The tribute taken to Beijing three or four times a year during most of the Joseon period provides an interesting insight into Korean products at this time.
|last3=in Authors list (help)
- van Braam Houckgeest, Andreas Everardus. (1797). Voyage de l'ambassade de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales hollandaises vers l'empereur de la Chine, dans les années 1794 et 1794; see also 1798 English translation: An authentic account of the embassy of the Dutch East-India company, to the court of the emperor of China, in the years 1974 and 1795, Vol. I.
- de Guignes, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph (1808). Voyage a Pékin, Manille et l'Ile de France.
- Thackeray, Frank W.; editors, John E. Findling, (2012). Events that formed the modern world : from the European Renaissance through the War on Terror. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 200. ISBN 1598849018.
- Hummel, edited by Arthur W. (1991). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing period : (1644 - 1912) (Repr. ed.). Taipei: SMC Publ. p. 217. ISBN 9789576380662.
- Hummel, edited by Arthur W. (1991). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing period : (1644 - 1912) (Repr. ed.). Taipei: SMC Publ. p. 217. ISBN 9789576380662.
- Library of Congress. Orientalia Division (1943). Hummel, Arthur William, ed. 清代名人傳略: 1644-1912 (reprint ed.). 經文書局. p. 217.
- Jr, Frederic Wakeman, (1985). The great enterprise : the Manchu reconstruction of imperial order in seventeenth-century China (Book on demand. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 892. ISBN 9780520048041.
- Dawson, Raymond Stanley (1972). Imperial China (illustrated ed.). Hutchinson. p. 275.
- Dawson, Raymond Stanley (1976). Imperial China (illustrated ed.). Penguin. p. 306.
- 梨大史學會 (Korea) (1968). 梨大史苑, Volume 7. 梨大史學會. p. 105.
- The annals of the Joseon princesses.
- Kwan, Ling Li. Transl. by David (1995). Son of Heaven (1. ed.). Beijing: Chinese Literature Press. p. 217. ISBN 9787507102888.
- Alfred Stead (1901). China and her mysteries. LONDON: Hood, Douglas, & Howard. p. 100. Retrieved February 19, 2011.(Original from the University of California)
- William Woodville Rockhill (1905). China's intercourse with Korea from the XVth century to 1895. LONDON: Luzac & Co. p. 5. Retrieved February 19, 2011.(Colonial period Korea ; WWC-5)(Original from the University of California)
- This article incorporates text from The National Review, a publication from 1884 now in the public domain in the United States.
- This article incorporates text from The encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 15, by Hugh Chisholm, a publication from 1911 now in the public domain in the United States.
- This article incorporates text from China and her mysteries, by Alfred Stead, a publication from 1901 now in the public domain in the United States.
- This article incorporates text from China's intercourse with Korea from the XVth century to 1895, by William Woodville Rockhill, a publication from 1905 now in the public domain in the United States.
- This article incorporates text from Mediæval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources: Fragments Toward the Knowledge of the Geography and History of Central and Western Asia from the 13th to the 17th Century, Volume 2, by E. Bretschneider, a publication from 1888 now in the public domain in the United States.
- van Braam Houckgeest, Andreas Everardus. (1797). Voyage de l'ambassade de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales hollandaises vers l'empereur de la Chine, dans les années 1794 et 1795. Philadelphia: M.L.E. Moreau de Saint-Méry.
- _______________. (1798). An authentic account of the embassy of the Dutch East-India company, to the court of the emperor of China, in the years 1794 and 1795, Vol. I. London : R. Phillips.
- Fairbank, John K. "Tributary Trade and China's Relations with the West", The Far Eastern Quarterly (1942). Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 129–149.
- de Guignes, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph. (1808). Voyage a Pékin, Manille et l'Ile de France. Paris. OCLC 417277650
- Kang, David C. (2010). East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute. New York : Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231153188; OCLC 562768984
- Kerr, George H. (1965). Okinawa, the History of an Island People. Rutland, Vermont: C.E. Tuttle Co. OCLC 39242121
- Kwak, Tae-Hwan and Seung-Ho Joo. (2003). The Korean peace process and the four powers. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate. ISBN 9780754636533; OCLC 156055048
- Korea Herald. (2004) Korea now. Seoul: Korea Herald. ISSN 1739-225X; OCLC 43438924
- Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301
- Pratt, Keith L., Richard Rutt, and James Hoare. (1999). Korea : a historical and cultural dictionary, Richmond: Curzon Press. ISBN 9780700704637; ISBN 978-0-7007-0464-4; OCLC 245844259
- Seth, Michael J. (2006). A concise history of Korea: from the neolithic period through the nineteenth century. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742540040; OCLC 65407346
- Wang, Zhenping. (2005). Ambassadors from the islands of immortals: China-Japan relations in the Han-Tang period. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 9780824828714; OCLC 260081991