List of tributaries of Imperial China
List of tributaries
A status hierarchy was an explicit element of the tributary system in which Korea and Vietnam were ranked higher than others, including Japan, the Ryukyus, Siam, the Burmese kingdoms and others. All diplomatic and trade missions were construed in the context of a tributary relationship with Imperial China, including:
- Brunei (文莱)
- Goguryeo (173 tribute missions) 
- Baekje (45 tribute missions) 
- Silla (19 tribute missions) 
- Unified Silla (63 tribute missions in 8th century) 
- Goryeo (The envoy missions)
- Joseon Dynasty (391 envoy missions between 1392 and 1450, 435 special embassy missions between 1637 and 1881.)
- Ryūkyū Kingdom (Ryukyuan missions to Imperial China)
- Internal vassals (206 BC - ?) – Upon the founding of the dynasty, the first emperor awarded up to one-half of territory of Han as fiefdoms to various relatives, who ruled as princes. These fiefdoms collected their own taxes and established their own laws and were not directly administered by imperial government. Consolidation and centralization by succeeding emperors increased imperial controls, gradually dissolving the princedoms.
- Dayuan (102 BC) – Kingdom located in the Fergana Valley. Hearing tales of their high-quality horses, which would be of great utility in combatting the Xiongnu, Emperor Wu of Han dispatched an expedition to acquire their submission and the horses. The first expedition of 3,000 was woefully undermanned, but the second, numbering 100,000 besieged the capital, bringing them into submission after negotiations. The expedition returned with 10,000 horses along with a promise to pay an annual tribute in horses.
- Dian Kingdom (109 BC) – A kingdom located in modern-day Yunnan province. Brought into subjugation by Emperor Wu of Han, who annexed the kingdom into an imperial commandary but allowed local rulers to remain in power.
- Jushi (108 BC) – City-state in modern-day Turpan. Brought into submission by an imperial expedition dispatched by Emperor Wu of Han.
- Loulan (108 BC) – Located along the northeastern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in modern-day Xinjiang province. Brought into submission by an imperial expedition dispatched by Emperor Wu of Han.
- Minyue (138 BC - ?) – A Baiyue people situated in modern-day Fujian province. After an attack by the Minyue people, Emperor Wu of Han launched a massive expedition, and forced their entire population to relocate within imperial borders.
- Nanyue (211 BC - 111 BC) – A kingdom situated today's northern Vietnam, and the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi founded by a former Chinese general, Zhao Tuo. Under Zhao Tuo it paid nominal tribute to Han but his successors lost more and more power. After a coup d'état against the king, Han directly conquered the kingdom and directly administered it from then on.
- Xiongnu (53 BC - 10) – A nomadic confederation/empire in Central Asia and modern day Mongolia and extending their control to territories as far as Siberia, western Manchuria, the areas along the Caspian Sea, and modern day Chinese provinces of Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Xinjiang. They entered tributory relations with the Han after several defeats, territorial losses, and internal conflicts. Tributory relationships terminated as a result of diplomatic fumblings during the reign of Wang Mang. Xinjiang passed to Chinese control after their defeat.
- Wusun (105 BC - ?) – Central Asian people. Bitter enemies with the Xiongnu, they entered a military alliance with the Han. In 53 BC, the kingdom split into two following a succession dispute. Both continued to recognize Han sovereignty and remained faithful vassals.
During Wang Mang's reign, relations with many of the empire's allies and tributories deteriorated, due in large part to Wang Mang's arrogance and inept diplomacy.
- Southern Xiongnu (50 - 220) – The Xiongnu split into northern and southern factions. The southern Xiongnu brought themselves into tributory relations with the Han. They were resettled along with large numbers of Chinese immigrants in frontier regions. Economically dependent on Han, they were obliged to provide military services under a tightened tributory system with greater direct imperial supervision.
Southern and Northern, Tang
The Chinese retaliated against Cham which was raiding the Rinan coast around 430s-440s by seizing Qusu, and then plundering the capital of the Cham around Huế. Around 100,000 jin in gold was the amount of plunder. Lin Yi then paid 10,000 jin in gold, 100,000 jin in silver, and 300,000 jin in copper in 445 as tribute to China. The final tribute paid to China from Lin Yi was in 749, among the items were 100 strings of pearls, 30 jin gharuwood, baidi, and 20 elephants.
Enslaved people from tributary countries were sent to Tang China by various groups, the Cambodians sent albinos, the Uyghurs sent Turkic Karluks, the Japanese sent Ainu, and Turkish (Tujue) and Tibetan girls were also sent to China. Prisoners captured from Liaodong, Korea, and Japan were sent as tribute to China from Balhae. Tang dynasty China received 11 Japanese girl dancers as tribute from Balhae in 777.
The Song dynasty received 302 tribute missions from other countries. Vietnamese missions consisted of 45 of them, another 56 were from Champa. More tribute was sent by Champa in order to curry favor from China against Vietnam. Champa brought as tribute Champa rice, a fast-growing rice strain, to China, which massively increased Chinese yields of rice.
Massive numbers of Korean boy eunuchs, Korean girl concubines, falcons, ginseng, grain, cloth, silver, and gold were sent as tribute to the Mongol Yuan dynasty. such as the Korean eunuch Bak Bulhwa and Korean Empress Gi. Goryeo incurred negative consequences as a result of the eunuch Bak Bulhwa's actions. The tribute payment brought much harm to Korea.
Under the Ming dynasty, countries that wanted to have any form of relationship with China, political, economic or otherwise, had to enter the tribute system. As a result, tribute was often paid for opportunistic reasons rather than as a serious gesture of allegiance to the Chinese emperor, and the mere fact that tribute was paid may not be understood in a way that China had political leverage over its tributary. Also some tribute missions may just have been up by ingenious traders. A number of countries only paid tribute once, as a result of Zheng He's expeditions. As of 1587, in Chinese sources the following countries are listed to have paid tribute to the Ming emperors: The Hongwu Emperor started tributary relations in 1368, emissaries being sent to countries like Korea, Vietnam, Champa, Japan, of which Korea, Vietnam, and Champa sent back tribute in 1369. During Hongwu's rule, Liuch'iu sent 20, Korean sent 20, Champa sent 19, and Vietnam sent 14 tribute missions. The tribute system was an economically profitable form of government trade, and Korea requested and successfully increased the number of tributes sent to Ming from once every three years to three times each year starting in 1400, and eventually four times each year starting in 1531.
- Almalik (?)
- Altan Khan (annually since 1570)
- Anding(?) (beginning in 1374)
- Annam (every three years since 1369)
- Arabia (Tienfang, identical to Mecca?) (somewhere between 1426 and 1435, 1517, sometimes between 1522 and 1566)
- Aru (1407)
- Baihua(?) (1378)
- Bengal (1408, 1414, 1438)
- Borneo (Solo?) (1406)
- Brunei (1371, 1405, 1408, 1414, 1425)
- Cambodia (Chenla, since 1371)
- Cail, Djofar, Maldives, Burma (Yawa), Lambri (Nanwuli, on Sumatra), Kelantan, Qilani(?), Xialabi (Arabia?), Kuchani (?), Wushelatang(?), Aden, Rum, Bengal, Shelaqi(?), Bakoyi(?), Coimbatore, Heigada(?), Lasa(?), Barawa, Mogadishu, Qianlida(?), Kannur (all somewhere between 1403 and 1425)
- Calicut (1405, 1407, 1409)
- Ceylon (1411, 1412, 1445, 1459)
- Champa (every three years since 1369)
- Chijin (another group of Mongols?) (beginning in 1404, every five years since 1563)
- Chola (1370, 1372, 1403)
- Cochin (1404, 1412)
- Coimbatore (1411)
- Dahui(?) (1405)
- Danba(?) (1377)
- Doyan(?), Fuyü(?), Taining(?) (1388, twice a year from 1403)
- Ejijie(?), Hashin(?) (somewhere between 1522 and 1566)
- Gumala (?) (1420)
- Gulibanzu (Pansur?) (1405)
- Hadilan (Khotelan?)
- Hami (beginning in 1404, annually from 1465, every five years from 1475)
- Handong(?) (?)
- Herat (1402, 1409, 1437)
- Hotan (1408?)
- Huotan (identical to Khujand?)
- Ilbalik and Beshbalik (1391, 1406, 1413, 1418(?), 1437, 1457ff)
- Jaunpur (1420)
- Japan (every 10 years)
- Java (1372, 1381, 1404, 1407, every three years for some time after 1443)
- Jienzhou(?) (annually)
- Jurchens and other tribes in the northeast (irregularly)
- Karakhodjo (1409, 1430, afterwards together with Turfan)
- Khorasan (1432)
- Kollam (1407)
- Korea (annually)
- Kuncheng (Kunduz?)
- Lanbang(?) (1376, 1403–1435)
- Liuchen(?) (1430, afterwards together with Turfan)
- Liuqiu (Ryukyu Islands, every two years since 1368)
- Malacca (1405, 1411, 1412, 1414, 1424, 1434, 1445ff, 1459)
- Melinde (1414)
- Niekoli (or Miekoli) (?)
- Medina (somewhere between 1426 and 1435)
- Ormus (1405)
- Pahang (1378, 1414)
- Palembang (1368, 1371, 1373, 1375, 1377)
- Samudra (1383, 1405, 1407, 1431, 1435)
- Philippines (1372, 1405, 1576)
- Quxian (1437)
- Rum (after 1524 every five years)
- Samarkand (1387, 1389, 1391 etc., after 1523 every five years)
- Saolan (identical to Sairam?)
- Sukhothai (every three years since 1371-1448)
- Sulu (1417, 1421)
- Syria (Fulin?, 1371)
- Tamerlane (1387, 1391)
- Tieli (?), Zhiloxiashi (?), Marinduque (1405)
- Turfan (1430, 1497, 1509, 1510, every 5 years since 1523)
- Wala (Oirads) (beginning in 1403, annually, with interruptions, since 1458)
- Zhilo(?), Badakhshan, Andkhui, Isfahan, Shiraz. (somewhere between 1403 and 1424)
- A number of Tibetan temples and tribes from the Tibetan border or the southwest.
Tribute in the form of servants, eunuchs, and virgin girls came from: China's various ethnic tribes, Mongolia, Korea, Annam, Cambodia, Central Asia, Siam, Champa, and Okinawa. Young Korean virgin girls, aged 13 to 25, and eunuchs were occasionally demanded as tribute by Ming Emperors, such as the Xuande Emperor, for the imperial harem in imitation of the previous dynasty's precedent, as were Vietnamese women and eunuchs. Korea stopped sending human tribute after 1435. A total of 98 virgins and 198 eunuchs were sent from Korea to Ming.
There were Korean, Jurchen, Mongol, Central Asian, and Vietnamese eunuchs under the Yongle Emperor, including Mongol eunuchs who served him while he was the Prince of Yan. In 1381, Muslim and Mongol eunuchs were captured from Yunnan, and possibly among them was the great Ming maritime explorer Zheng He. Vietnamese eunuchs like Ruan Lang, Ruan An, Fan Hong, Chen Wu, and Wang Jin were sent by Zhang Fu to the Ming. During Ming's early contentious relations with Joseon, when there were disputes such as competition for influence over the Jurchens in Manchuria, Korean officials were even flogged by Korean-born Ming eunuch ambassadors when their demands were not met. Some of the ambassadors were arrogant, such as Sin Kwi-saeng who, in 1398, got drunk and brandished a knife at a dinner in the presence of the king. Sino-Korean relations later became amiable, and Korean envoys' seating arrangement in the Ming court was always the highest among the tributaries.
On 30 Jan 1406, the Ming Yongle Emperor expressed horror when the Ryukyuans castrated some of their own children to become eunuchs in order to give them to Yongle. Yongle said that the boys who were castrated were innocent and didn't deserve castration, and he returned the boys to Ryukyu and instructed them not to send eunuchs again.
An anti pig slaughter edict led to speculation that the Zhengde emperor adopted Islam due to his use of Muslim eunuchs who commissioned the production of porcelain with Persian and Arabic inscriptions in white and blue color. Muslim eunuchs contributed money in 1496 to repairing Niujie Mosque. Central Asian women were provided to the Zhengde Emperor by a Muslim guard and Sayyid Hussein from Hami. The guard was Yu Yung and the women were Uighur. It is unknown who really was behind the anti-pig slaughter edict. The speculation of him becoming a Muslim is remembered alongside his excessive and debauched behavior along with his concubines of foreign origin. Muslim Central Asian girls were favored by Zhengde like how Korean girls were favored by Xuande. A Uighur concubine was kept by Zhengde. Foreign origin Uighur and Mongol women were favored by the Zhengde emperor.
There was much speculation that the Yongle Emperor's real mother was a Korean or Mongolian concubine. Relations between Ming China and Joseon Korea improved dramatically and became much more amicable and mutually profitable during Yongle's reign, who also had a strong penchant for Korean cuisine and women, as did his grandson, the Xuande Emperor.
This list covers states that sent tribute between 1662 and 1875, and were not covered under the Lifanyuan. Therefore, Tibet or the Khalkha are not included, although they did send tribute in the period given:
- Annam (annually, every three years on
- Dzungars (1681, 1685, 1735, 1738, 1742, 1743, 1745, 1746, 1752, and 1753)
- Great Britain (1793, no tribute presented in 1795, 1805, and 1816)
- Khanate of Kokand (between 1774–1798)
- Kirgiz (1757 and 1758)
- Korea (three or four times a year; 435 embassies, 1637-1881)
- Ku er le Beg (1762)
- Laos (17 times)
- Netherlands (1663(?), 1667, 1686, and 1795).
- Nepal (1732(?), 1792, 1794, 1795, 1823, 1842, and 1865)
- Portugal (1670, 1678, 1752, and 1753)
- Ryukyu (every two years on average, 122 times in total between 1662 and 1875)
- Siam (48 times, most of them after 1780 and before the reign of Rama IV)
- Sikkim (since 1791 )
- Sulu (1726, 1733, 1743, 1747, 1752, 1753, and 1754)
- Turpan (1673 and 1686)
After the Second Manchu invasion of Korea, Joseon Korea was forced to give several of their royal princesses as concubines to the Qing Manchu regent Prince Dorgon. In 1650 Dorgon married the Korean Princess I-shun (義/願). The Princess' name in Korean was Uisun and she was Prince Yi Kaeyoon's (Kumrimgoon) daughter. Dorgon married two Korean princesses at Lianshan.
The tribute system did not dissolve in 1875, but tribute embassies became less frequent and regular: twelve more Korean embassies until 1894, one more (abortive one) from Liuqiu in 1877, three more from Annam, and four from Nepal, the last one in 1908.
In 1886 after Britain took over Burma, they maintained the sending of tribute to China, putting themselves in a lower status than in their previous relations. It was agreed in the Burmah convention in 1886, that China would recognize Britain's occupation of Upper Burmah while Britain continued the Burmese payment of tribute every ten years to Beijing.
- Chinese imperialism
- Chinese nationalism
- Foreign relations of imperial China
- Greater China
- History of China#Imperial era
- Imperial Chinese tributary system
- List of recipients of tribute from China
- Silk Road
- adoption of Chinese literary culture
- Tributary state
- Zheng He
- puppet state
- satellite state
- client state
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- Imperial envoys made perilous passages on kentoshi-sen ships to Tang China "The cross-cultural exchanges began with 5 missions between 600 and 614, initially to Sui China (on kenzuishi-sen), and at least 18 or 19 missions were sent to T’ang China from 630 to 894 although not all of them were designated kentoshi."
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thus, between 1637 and 1881, Korea sent 435 special embassies to the Qing court, or an average of almost 1.5 embassies per year.
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|last3=in Authors list (help)
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- This article incorporates text from China's intercourse with Korea from the XVth century to 1895, by William Woodville Rockhill, a publication from 1905 now in the public domain in the United States.
- This article incorporates text from Mediæval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources: Fragments Toward the Knowledge of the Geography and History of Central and Western Asia from the 13th to the 17th Century, Volume 2, by E. Bretschneider, a publication from 1888 now in the public domain in the United States.
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