List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan

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This is a list of places in Japan having standing links to local communities in other countries. In most cases, the association, especially when formalised by local government, is known as "town twinning" (though other terms, such as "partner towns" or "sister cities" are sometimes used as well), and while most of the places included are towns, the list also includes villages, cities, districts, and counties with similar links.

The list is arranged by traditional region and then by prefecture. See also the lists of twin towns and sister cities.

Hokkaido[edit]

Abashiri
Canada Port Alberni, British Columbia, Canada (9 February 1986)[1]
Asahikawa
United States Bloomington, Illinois, United States[2]
United States Normal, Illinois, United States
South Korea Suwon, South Korea
Russia Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia
China Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
Chitose
United States Anchorage, Alaska, United States
Japan Ibusuki, Kagoshima, Japan
Norway Kongsberg, Norway
Hakodate
Canada Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Russia Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, Russia[3]
Russia Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia
Australia Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia
China Tianjin, China
Indonesia Makassar, Indonesia
Hokkaido[4]
Canada Alberta, Canada
South Korea Busan, South Korea
South Korea Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
China Heilongjiang, China
United States Massachusetts, United States[5]
Russia Sakhalin Oblast, Russia
South Korea Seoul, South Korea[6]
Ishikari
Canada Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada
China Pengzhou, Sichuan, China
Russia Vanino, Khabarovsk Krai, Russia
Kitami
Canada Barrhead, Alberta, Canada[a]
United States Elizabeth, New Jersey, United States[7]
South Korea Jinju, South Korea.
Russia Poronaysk, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia.
Kushiro City
Canada Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
Russia Kholmsk, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia
Russia Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Kamchatka Krai, Russia
Memuro
United States Tracy, California, United States
Monbetsu
Russia Korsakov, Sakhalin, Russia
Muroran
Japan Joetsu, Niigata, Japan
United States Knoxville, Tennessee, United States[8]
Japan Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan
Nayoro
Russia Dolinsk, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia
Canada Lindsay, Ontario, Canada
Nemuro
United States Sitka, Alaska, United States
Russia Severo-Kurilsk, Russia
Otaru
New Zealand Dunedin, New Zealand
Russia Kholmsk, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia
Russia Nakhodka, Primorsky Krai, Russia
Rumoi
Russia Ulan Ude, Republic of Buryatia, Russia[9]
Sapporo[10][11]
Turkey Adana, Turkey[not in citation given]
South Korea Daejeon, South Korea
Germany Munich, Germany
Russia Novosibirsk, Russia
United States Portland, Oregon, United States
China Shenyang, Liaoning, China
Saroma
United States Palmer, Alaska, United States
Shinhidaka
United States Lexington, Kentucky, United States[12]
Takikawa
United States Springfield, Massachusetts, United States
Teshio
United States Homer, Alaska, United States
Russia Tomari, Russia
Tōbetsu
Sweden Leksand, Sweden
Tomakomai
New Zealand Napier, New Zealand
Wakkanai
Philippines Baguio City, Philippines
Russia Korsakov, Russia
Russia Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia

Tōhoku[edit]

Aomori[edit]

Hachinohe
United States Federal Way, Washington, United States[13]
Misawa
United States East Wenatchee, Washington, United States
United States Wenatchee, Washington, United States
Sannohe
Australia Tamworth, New South Wales, Australia

Iwate[edit]

Hanamaki
Austria Berndorf, Baden, Austria
United States Hot Springs, Arkansas, United States
United States Rutland, Vermont, United States
Ichinoseki
Australia Central Highlands Region, Queensland, Australia (November 19, 2011)[14]
Iwaizumi
United States Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin, United States[15]
Kamaishi
France Digne-les-Bains, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France (20 April 1994)[16]
Kanegasaki
United States Amherst, Massachusetts, United States
China Changchun, Jilin, China
Germany Leinefelde-Worbis, Germany
Miyako
China Yantai, Shandong Province, China (26 October 1993)
Philippines La Trinidad, Benguet, Luzon Island, Philippines (7 August 1992)[17]
Morioka
Canada Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (23 May 1985)[18]
Ōshū
Australia City of Greater Shepparton, Victoria, Australia (3 March 1979)
Austria Reutte, Tirol, Austria (6 June 1991)
Austria Breitenwang, Tirol, Austria (6 June 1991)[19]
Ōtsuchi
United States Fort Bragg, California, United States[20]

Miyagi[edit]

Kakuda
United States Greenfield, Indiana, United States
Misato
United States Winona, Minnesota, United States
Miyagi Prefecture
United States Delaware, United States[21]
Sendai
Mexico Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico
China Changchun, Jilin, China
United States Dallas, Texas, United States[b][22]
South Korea Gwangju, South Korea[23]
Belarus Minsk, Belarus[24]
Finland Oulu, Finland[25]
France Rennes, Brittany, France
China Riverside, California, United States
Taiwan Tainan, Taiwan[26]
Tome
United States Southlake, Texas, United States
Canada Vernon, British Columbia, Canada

Akita[edit]

Akita
China Lanzhou, People's Republic of China
Germany Passau, Germany
Philippines Malabon City, Philippines
United States Kenai, Alaska, United States
United States St. Cloud, Minnesota, United States
Russia Vladivostok, Russia

Yamagata[edit]

Murayama
Canada Barrie, Ontario, Canada
Russia Yakutsk, Sakha Republic, Russia[27]
Sakata
China Tangshan, Hebei, China
Russia Zheleznogorsk-Ilimsky, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia
Yamagata[28]
United States Boulder, United States
Japan Izu Ōshima, Japan
China Jilin City, Jilin, China
Japan Kami, Miyagi, Japan
Iran Khorramabad, Iran[29]
Austria Kitzbühel, Tyrol, Austria
Australia Swan Hill, Victoria, Australia
Russia Ulan-Ude, Buryatia, Russia

Fukushima[edit]

Aizuwakamatsu
China Jingzhou, Hubei Province, China (15 June 1991)
United States Saipan, Northern Mariana Island, United States (22 September 2006)[30]
Iwaki
China Fushun, Liaoning Province, China (15 April 1982)
Australia Townsville, Queensland, Australia (21 August 1991)[31]
Koori
United States Elizabethtown, Kentucky, United States
Koriyama
Netherlands Heumen, Gelderland, Netherlands (25 June 1988)[32]
Miharu
United States Rice Lake, Wisconsin, United States
Shirakawa
France Compiègne, Oise, France (20 October 1988)
United States Anoka, Minnesota, United States (13 October 2006)[33]

Kantō[edit]

Ibaraki[edit]

Mito
United States Anaheim, California, United States
Moriya
United States Greeley, Colorado, United States
Germany Mainburg, Germany
Toride
United States Yuba City, California, United States
Tsuchiura
United States Palo Alto, California, United States[34]
Tsukuba
United States Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States[35][36]
France Grenoble, France
United States Irvine, California, United States
United States Milpitas, California, United States
China Shenzhen, Guangdong, China[b][37]
Yūki
Belgium Mechelen, Belgium

Tochigi[edit]

Moka
United States Glendora, California, United States
Nikkō
United States Rapid City, South Dakota, United States[38]
Oyama[39]
China Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province, China (22 October, 2010)
China Benxi, Liaoning Province, China (26 October, 2014)
Australia Cairns, Far North Queensland, Australia (15 May, 2005)
Sano[40]
China Quzhou, Zhejiang Province, China (11 November, 1997)
United States Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States (1 October, 1994)
Utsunomiya
New Zealand Manukau City, New Zealand
France Orléans, France
United States Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States
China Qiqihar, Heilongjiang, China

Gunma[edit]

Isesaki
China Ma'anshan, Anhui, China
United States Springfield, Missouri, United States
Japan Teradomari, Niigata, Japan
Maebashi[41]
Italy Orvieto, Umbria, Italy (12 December, 1997)
United States Birmingham, Alabama, United States (21 October, 1998)
United States Menasha, Wisconsin, United States (22 August, 2005)
Minakami
United States Canyon, Texas, United States[42]
United States Huntsville, Texas, United States[c][43]
Ōta
United States Burbank, California, United States
United States Lafayette and West Lafayette, Indiana, United States
China Yingkou, Liaoning, China
Takasaki[44]

Saitama[edit]

Chichibu[45]
Hanyū
Philippines Baguio, Philippines
Japan Kaneyama, Fukushima, Japan
Belgium Durbuy, Belgium
Higashimatsuyama
Netherlands Nijmegen, Netherlands[46]
Kasukabe
Australia Fraser Coast Region, Queensland, Australia (29 April 2007)
United States Pasadena, California, United States (3 July 1993)[47]
Kawagoe
United States Salem, Oregon, United States (1 August 1986)
Germany Offenbach am Main, Hessen, Germany (24 August 1983)
France Autun, Saone-et-Loire, France (18 October 2002)[48]
Kumagaya
New Zealand Invercargill, New Zealand[49]
Niiza
Finland Jyväskylä, Finland
Japan Nasushiobara, Tochigi, Japan
Japan Tōkamachi, Niigata, Japan
China Jiyuan, Henan, China
Germany Neuruppin, Germany
Ogano
Russia Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Saitama[50]
Sugito
Australia Busselton, Western Australia, Australia
Tokorozawa
South Korea Anyang, Gyeonggido, South Korea (7 April 1998)
China Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, China (20 April 1992)
United States Decatur, Illinois, United States (6 May 1966)[51]

Chiba[edit]

Chiba (City)
Canada North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Paraguay Asunción, Paraguay
United States Houston, Texas, United States[52]
Philippines Quezon City, Philippines
China Tianjin, China
Switzerland Montreux, Switzerland
China Wujiang District, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China
Chiba Prefecture
United States Wisconsin, United States[53]
Chikura, Minamibōsō
Belgium Blankenberge, Belgium
Japan Saitama, Saitama, Japan
Funabashi
United States Hayward, California, United States
Denmark Odense, Denmark
China Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
Ichihara
United States Mobile, Alabama, United States
Ichikawa
United States Gardena, California, United States
China Leshan, Sichuan, China
Indonesia Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia
Germany Rosenheim, Bavaria, Germany
South Korea Wonju, South Korea
Isumi
United States Duluth, Minnesota, United States
Russia Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, Russia
United States Woburn, Massachusetts, United States
Kashiwa
Australia Camden, New South Wales, Australia
China Chengde, Hebei, China
United States Guam, United States
United States Torrance, California, United States
Japan Tsugaru, Aomori, Japan
Matsudo
Australia City of Whitehorse, Victoria, Australia[d]
Japan Kurayoshi, Tottori, Japan
Miyoshi, Minamibōsō
United States Ferndale, Washington, United States
Narita
New Zealand Foxton, New Zealand
South Korea Incheon, South Korea
South Korea Jeongeup, South Korea
Denmark Næstved, Denmark
United States San Bruno, California, United States
China Xianyang, Shaanxi, China
Sodegaura
Brazil Itajaí, Brazil[54]
Tateyama
United States Bellingham, Washington, United States[55]
Japan Fuefuki, Yamanashi, Japan
Australia Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia[56]
Yachiyo
Thailand Bangkok, Thailand
United States Tyler, Texas, United States

Tokyo[edit]

Adachi-ku
Australia Belmont, Australia[57]
Edogawa
Australia Gosford, New South Wales, Australia
Hachioji[58]
South Korea Siheung, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea (7 November, 2006)
China Tai'an, Shandong Province, China (23 September, 2006)
Taiwan Kaohsiung, Taiwan (1 November, 2006)
Higashimurayama[59]
United States Independence, Missouri, United States
Japan Kashiwazaki, Niigata, Japan
China Suzhou, Jiangsu, China
Kōtō
Canada Surrey, British Columbia, Canada
Setagaya
Australia Bunbury, Western Australia, Australia
Austria Döbling, Vienna, Austria
Canada Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Shinagawa[60]
New Zealand Auckland, New Zealand[b]
China Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
Japan Hayakawa, Yamanashi, Japan
United States Portland, Maine, United States
Shinjuku
China Dongcheng District, Beijing, China
Japan Ina, Nagano, Japan
United Kingdom London Borough of Lambeth, London, United Kingdom
Greece Lefkada, Greece
Germany Mitte, Germany
Tokyo[61]
United States New York City, New York, United States (1960)
China Beijing, China (1979)
Australia New South Wales, Australia (1984)
South Korea Seoul, South Korea (1988)
Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia (1989)
Brazil São Paulo State, Brazil (1990)
Egypt Cairo, Egypt (1990)
Russia Moscow, Russia (1991)
Germany Berlin, Germany (1994)
Italy Rome, Italy (1996)
United Kingdom London, United Kingdom (2015)

Kanagawa[edit]

Atsugi
Japan Yokote, Akita, Japan
Japan Abashiri, Hokkaidō, Japan
United States New Britain, Connecticut, United States
China Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China
South Korea Gunpo, South Korea
Fujisawa[62]
South Korea Boryeong, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea (15 November, 2002)
China Kunming, Yunnan Province, China (5 November, 1981)
Canada Windsor, Ontario, Canada (2 December, 1987)
United States Miami Beach, Florida, United States (5 March, 1959)
Hadano
Japan Suwa, Nagano, Japan
United States Pasadena, Texas, United States
South Korea Paju, South Korea
Philippines General Santos, Philippines
Hiratsuka[63]
United States Lawrence, Kansas, United States (21 September, 1990)
Kamakura
Japan Ashikaga, Tochigi, Japan
China Dunhuang, Gansu, China
Japan Hagi, Yamaguchi, Japan
United States Nashville, Tennessee, Tennessee, United States[64]
France Nice, France[65]
Japan Ueda, Nagano, Japan
Kanagawa Prefecture[66]
Germany Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Australia City of Gold Coast, Australia
South Korea Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
China Liaoning Province, China
United States Maryland, United States
Ukraine Odessa Oblast, Ukraine
Malaysia Penang, Malaysia
Sweden Västra Götaland County, Sweden
Kawasaki
United States Baltimore, Maryland, United States
South Korea Bucheon, South Korea
Vietnam Da Nang, Vietnam[e]
Japan Fujimi, Nagano, Japan
Germany Lübeck, Germany
Japan Naha, Okinawa, Japan
Japan Nakashibetsu, Hokkaidō, Japan
Croatia Rijeka, Croatia
Austria Salzburg, Austria
United Kingdom Sheffield, United Kingdom
China Shenyang, Liaoning, China
Australia Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
Yokohama[67][68]
Mexico Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico[not in citation given]
China Beijing, China[f]
South Korea Busan, South Korea[f]
Romania Constanţa, Romania
China Dalian, Liaoning, China[g]
Germany Frankfurt, Germany[69]
Germany Hamburg, Germany
Vietnam Hanoi, Vietnam[f]
Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam[f]
France Lyon, France[70]
Philippines Manila, Philippines
Australia Melbourne, Victoria, Australia[g]
India Mumbai, Maharashrta, India
United States Oakland, California, United States[g]
Ukraine Odessa, Ukraine
United States San Diego, Calfifornia, United States
China Shanghai, China[b]
Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan[f]
Canada Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada[71]
Yokosuka
Japan Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima, Japan[b]
France Brest, France
United States Corpus Christi, Texas, United States
Australia Fremantle, Australia
United Kingdom Medway, England, United Kingdom

Chūbu[edit]

Niigata[edit]

Kamo
Japan Ōshima, Tokyo, Japan
Russia Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Khabarovsk Krai, Russia
China Zibo, Shandong, China
Myōkō
Slovenia Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia
Switzerland Zermatt, Valais, Switzerland
Nagaoka
Germany Bamberg, Germany[b]
United States Fort Worth, Texas, United States
United States Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
Switzerland Romainmôtier-Envy, Switzerland
Germany Trier, Germany
Niigata
Russia Birobidzhan, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia
United States Galveston, Texas, United States
China Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
Russia Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk Krai, Russia
United Kingdom Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom
France Nantes, France
South Korea Ulsan, South Korea
Russia Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, Russia

Toyama[edit]

Kurobe [72]
Netherlands Sneek, Friesland, Netherlands (20 September 1970)
United States Macon, Georgia, United States (10 May 1977)
Takaoka [73]
Tonami [74]
Netherlands Lisse, Friesland, Netherlands (25 April 1991)
Turkey Yalova, Yalova Province, Turkey (3 October 1989)
China Panjin, Liaoning, China (21 April 1992)
Toyama (City)
United States Durham, North Carolina, United States
Brazil Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo State, Brazil
China Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China
Australia Wellington, New South Wales, Australia
Toyama Prefecture
China Liaoning Province, China[75]
United States Oregon, United States[76]
Russia Primorsky Krai, Russia[75]
Uozu [77]
Thailand Chiangmai, Mueang Chiang Mai District, Thailand (25 April 1991)

Ishikawa[edit]

Hakusan
United Kingdom Boston, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom
United States Columbia, Missouri, United States
Australia Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
Kaga
Canada Dundas, Ontario, Canada
Russia Usolye-Sibirskoye, Russia
Kanazawa
United States Buffalo, New York, United States
Belgium Ghent, Belgium[78]
Russia Irkutsk, Russia
South Korea Jeonju, South Korea
France Nancy, France
Brazil Porto Alegre, Brazil
China Suzhou, Jiangsu, China
Komatsu
Belgium Vilvoorde, Belgium
Nanao
Russia Bratsk, Inkutsk Oblast, Russia
South Korea Gimcheon, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
China Jinzhou, Dalian, China
United States Monterey, California, United States
United States Morgantown, Kentucky, United States
Nomi
Russia Shelekhov, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Fukui[edit]

Echizen
Japan Takayama, Gifu, Japan
Japan Motosu, Gifu, Japan
United States Montevallo, Alabama, United States
Tsuruga
South Korea Donghae, Gangwon, South Korea
China Taizhou, Zhejiang, China
Russia Nakhodka, Russia

Yamanashi[edit]

Hokuto
Canada Crowsnest Pass, Alberta, Canada[h]
Japan Fukuroi, Shizuoka, Japan
Japan Hamura, Tokyo, Japan
Japan Joetsu, Niigata, Japan
United States LeMars, Iowa, United States
United States Madison County, Kentucky, United States
Italy Manciano, Tuscany, Italy
Japan Nishitokyo, Tokyo, Japan
South Korea Pocheon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
Kiyosato
United States Berea, Kentucky, United States[79]
Yamanashi Prefecture
South Korea Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea
United States Fairfield, California, United States
United States Iowa, United States
Brazil Minas Gerais, Brazil
France Saône-et-Loire, France
China Sichuan Province, China

Nagano[edit]

Matsumoto[80]
Nagano (City)
United States Clearwater, Florida, United States
Nagano Prefecture
Taiwan Changhua County, Taiwan
China Hebei, China
United States Missouri, United States
Otari
United Kingdom Ottery St Mary, England, United Kingdom
Shiojiri
Japan Itoigawa, Niigata, Japan
Japan Minamiizu, Shizuoka, Japan
United States Mishawaka, Indiana, United States[83]
Tōmi
United States Madras, Oregon, United States

Gifu[edit]

Gifu
Italy Florence, Italy
Brazil Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
United States Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
China Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
Austria Meidling District, Vienna, Austria
Canada Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
Hida
Belgium Libin, Belgium

Shizuoka[edit]

Atami[84]
China Zuhai, Guangdong Province, China (25 July 2004)
Italy Sanremo, Liguria, Italy (10 November 1976)
Portugal Cascais, Lisboa Region, Portugal (2 July 1990)
Fuji[85]
China Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, China (13 January 1989)
United States Oceanside, California, United States (2 December 1991)
Gotenba[86]
United States Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, United States (22 August 1960)
United States Beaverton, Oregon, United States (22 November 1987)
Hamamatsu
United States Chehalis, Washington, United States
United States Porterville, California, United States
United States Rochester, New York, United States
Poland Warsaw, Poland[87]
Kakegawa
United States Corning, New York, United States
United States Eugene, Oregon, United States
Japan Ōshū, Iwate, Japan
Mishima[88]
China Lishui, Zhejiang Province, China (12 May 1997)
New Zealand New Plymouth, Taranaki Region, New Zealand (29 April 1991)
United States Pasadena, California, United States (24 July 1957)
Nagaizumi
Japan Aoki, Nagano, Japan
New Zealand Wanganui, New Zealand
Numazu[89]
China Yueyang, Hunan Province, China (5 April 1985)
United States Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States (1 July 1963)
Shimada
Switzerland Brienz, Switzerland
Japan Himi, Toyama, Japan
China Huzhou, Zhejiang, China
United States Richmond, California, United States
Shimoda
United States Newport, Rhode Island, United States
Japan Numata, Gunma, Japan
Japan Hagi, Yamaguchi, Japan
Shizuoka
France Cannes, France
Vietnam Huế, Vietnam[b]
Japan Jōetsu, Niigata, Japan
Japan Muroran, Hokkaidō, Japan
United States Omaha, Nebraska, United States
Japan Saku, Nagano, Japan[b]
United States Shelbyville, Indiana, United States
United States Stockton, California, United States

Aichi[edit]

Anjō
United States Huntington Beach, California, United States
Australia Hobsons Bay, Australia
Denmark Kolding, Denmark
Kariya
Canada Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
Kasugai
Canada Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada
Komaki
South Korea Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
United States Wyandotte, Michigan, United States
Nagakute
Belgium Waterloo, Belgium
Nagoya[90]
United States Los Angeles, California, United States
Mexico Mexico City, Mexico
China Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
Australia Sydney, Australia
Italy Turin, Italy
Nishio
Japan Echizen, Fukui, Japan
Japan Ena, Gifu, Japan
New Zealand Porirua, New Zealand
Okazaki
China Hohhot, Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China
United States Newport Beach, California, United States
Sweden Uddevalla, Sweden
Seto
China Jingdezhen, Jiangxi, China
France Limoges, France
Tunisia Nabeul, Tunisia
Tahara
South Korea Dongjak-gu, Seoul, South Korea
United States Georgetown, Kentucky, United States
China Kunshan, Jiangsu, China
Japan Miyada, Nagano, Japan
United States Princeton, Indiana, United States
Toyohashi
China Nantong, Jiangsu, China
United States Toledo, Ohio, United States[91]
Germany Wolfsburg, Germany
Toyota
United States Detroit, Michigan, United States
United Kingdom Derby, England, United Kingdom

Kansai[edit]

Mie[edit]

Yokkaichi
United States Long Beach, California, United States
Australia Sydney, New South Wales, Australia[g]
China Tianjin, China

Shiga[edit]

Higashiōmi[92]
Hikone
United States Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
China Xiangtan, Hunan, China
Kōka
United States Marshall, Michigan, United States
United States Sturgis, Michigan, United States[j][93]
United States Traverse City, Michigan, United States[k][94]
Konan
United States DeWitt, Michigan, United States[95]
Kusatsu
Czech Republic Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic
United States Pontiac, Michigan, United States
China Xuhui District, Shanghai, China
Moriyama
United States Adrian, Michigan, United States
Ōmihachiman
Japan Fujinomiya, Shizuoka, Japan
United States Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States
United States Leavenworth, Kansas, United States
Japan Matsumae, Hokkaidō, Japan
South Korea Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
Ōtsu
Switzerland Interlaken, Switzerland
South Korea Kumi, South Korea
United States Lansing, Michigan, United States[96]
China Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang, China
Germany Würzburg, Germany
RittŌ
United States Birmingham, Michigan, United States
China Hengyang, Hunan, China
Ryūō
United States Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, United States
Shiga Prefecture[97]
China Hunan, China
United States Michigan, United States
Brazil Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Takashima
United States Petoskey, Michigan, United States[l]
Yasu
United States Clinton Charter Township, Michigan, United States[98]

Kyoto[edit]

Ayabe[99]
Israel Jerusalem, Jerusalem District, Israel (9 February 2000)
China Changshu, Jiangsu Province, China (12 may, 1989)
Jōyō
South Korea Gyeongsan, South Korea
United States Vancouver, Washington, United States
Kameoka[100]
Kyoto (City)
United States Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Germany Cologne, Germany
Italy Florence, Italy
Mexico Guadalajara, Mexico
Vietnam Huế, Vietnam[f]
Turkey Istanbul, Turkey[f]
South Korea Jinju, South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea[f]
Ukraine Kiev, Ukraine
Turkey Konya, Turkey[f]
France Paris, France[m]
Czech Republic Prague, Czech Republic
China Qingdao, Shandong, China[f]
Philippines Valencia, Bukidnon, Philippines
India Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India[f]
China Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
Croatia Zagreb, Croatia
Kyoto Prefecture
United Kingdom Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom[101]
Israel Jerusalem, Israel
Russia Leningrad Oblast, Russia
United States Oklahoma, United States
China Shaanxi, China
Italy Tuscany, Italy
Indonesia Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia[102]
Maizuru
India Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India
China Dalian, Liaoning, China
Russia Nakhodka, Primorsky Krai, Russia
United Kingdom Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom
Miyazu[103]
China Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, China (6 July 1987)
New Zealand Nelson, Nelson Region, New Zealand (7 May 1976)
United States Delray Beach, Florida, United States (19 September 1977)
Mukō
United States Saratoga, California, United States[104]
China Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
Uji
Canada Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada
Sri Lanka Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka
China Xianyang, Shaanxi, China

Osaka[edit]

Higashiosaka[105]
Germany Mitte, Berlin, Germany (12 August 1959)
United States Glendale, California, United States (23 September. 1960)
Hirakata[106]
South Korea Yeongam County, Jeollanam-do, South Korea (March 1995)
China Changning District, Shanghai, China (December 1987)
Australia City of Logan, Queensland, Australia (March 2008)
Izumi
United States Bloomington, Minnesota, United States
Kadoma
Netherlands Eindhoven, Netherlands
Japan Kami, Hyōgo, Japan
Brazil São José dos Campos, Brazil
Kashiwara
Italy Grosseto, Italy
Kawachinagano
United States Carmel, Indiana, United States[107]
Kishiwada[108]
Minoo[109]
New Zealand Lower Hutt, Wellington Region, New Zealand (16 July 1995)
Mexico Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico (12 October 2003)
Moriguchi
Neyagawa
Osaka (City)
Hungary Budapest, Hungary[n]
Argentina Buenos Aires, Argentina[n]
South Korea Busan, South Korea[n]
United States Chicago, Illinois, United States
Germany Hamburg, Germany
Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
India Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
United Kingdom Manchester, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom
Australia Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Italy Milan, Italy
Russia Saint Petersburg, Russia
United States San Francisco, California, United States
Brazil São Paulo, Brazil[111]
China Shanghai, China
Chile Valparaíso, Chile
Osaka Prefecture[112]
United States California, United States
United Arab Emirates Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Indonesia East Java, Indonesia
Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
China Jiangsu, China
Italy Lombardy, Italy
Russia Primorsky Krai, Russia
China Shanghai, China
Australia Queensland, Australia
France Val-d'Oise, France
Sakai
United States Berkeley, California, United States
Japan Higashiyoshino, Nara, Japan
China Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China
Japan Tanegashima, Kagoshima, Japan
New Zealand Wellington, New Zealand
Suita[113]
Sri Lanka Moratuwa, Colombo District, Sri Lanka (20 July 1982)
Australia Bankstown, New South Wales, Australia (9 March 1989)
Takatsuki[114]
China Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, China (18 March 1987)
Philippines Manila, Philippines (25 November 1979)
Australia Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia (13 November 1991)
Toyonaka[115]
United States San Mateo, California, United States (8 October 1963)

Hyōgo[edit]

Akashi
United States Vallejo, United States[116]
Akō
Australia Rockingham, Australia
Asago
United States Newberg, Oregon, United States
California Perth, Ontario, Canada
France Barbizon, France
Ashiya
United States Montebello, California, United States[117]
Goshiki, Sumoto
Russia Kronstadt, St. Petersburg, Russia[118]
Himeji
Australia Adelaide, Australia
South Korea Changwon, South Korea
France Château de Chantilly, Chantilly, France[o]
Belgium Charleroi, Belgium
Brazil Curitiba, Brazil
Japan Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
United States Phoenix, Arizona, United States
China Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
Japan Tottori, Tottori, Japan
Hyōgo Prefecture
Russia Khabarovsk Krai, Russia
Ichikawa
United States Port Townsend, Washington, United States
Itami
Belgium Hasselt, Belgium
Kakogawa
Brazil Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
New Zealand Waitakere City, Auckland, New Zealand
Kawanishi
United States Bowling Green, Kentucky, United States
Japan Sawara, Chiba, Japan
Kobe[119]
Spain Barcelona, Spain
Australia Brisbane, Australia
South Korea Daegu, South Korea[p]
Pakistan Faisalabad, Pakistan
Israel Haifa, Israel
Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
South Korea Incheon, South Korea
France Marseille, France
United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States[n]
Latvia Riga, Latvia[120]
Brazil Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Netherlands Rotterdam, Netherlands[g]
United States Seattle, Washington, United States[g]
Italy Terni, Italy[n]
China Tianjin, China[b]
Nishinomiya
Japan Amami, Kagoshima, Japan[b]
France Aquitaine, France[b]
United States Burlington, Vermont, United States[b]
France District of Lot-et-Garonne and Agen, France[b]
Brazil Londrina, Paraná, Brazil[b]
China Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China[b]
United States Spokane, Washington, United States
Japan Yusuhara, Kochi, Japan[b]
Sanda
Australia Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia
South Korea Jeju City, South Korea
United States Kittitas County, Washington, United States

Nara[edit]

Kawai
Marshall Islands Majuro, Marshall Islands
Nara (City)
Australia Canberra, Australia[121]
South Korea Gyeongju, South Korea
Spain Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain
France Versailles, France
Russia Vladimir, Russia[q]
China Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
China Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China
Tenri
Brazil Bauru, Brazil
Chile La Serena, Chile, Chile
South Korea Seosan, South Korea

Wakayama[edit]

Ito
United Kingdom Gillingham, Kent, United Kingdom
United Kingdom Medway, United Kingdom
Italy Rieti, Lazio, Italy
Japan Suwa, Nagano, Japan
Taiji
Australia Broome, Western Australia, Australia[123]
Japan Hakuba, Nagano, Japan
Wakayama (City)[124]
United States Bakersfield, California, United States
South Korea Jeju-do, South Korea
China Jinan, Shandong, China
Canada Richmond, British Columbia, Canada
Wakayama Prefecture[125]
United States Florida, United States
Spain Galicia, Spain
France Pyrénées-Orientales, France
Canada Richmond, British Columbia, Canada
China Shandong, China
Mexico Sinaloa, Mexico
Yuasa, Wakayama
New Zealand Kerikeri, New Zealand

Chūgoku[edit]

Tottori[edit]

Daisen
United States Temecula, California, United States

Shimane[edit]

Izumo
Republic of Ireland Dún Laoghaire, Ireland[126]
France Évian-les-Bains, France
China Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China
Finland Kalajoki, Finland
United States Santa Clara, California, United States[127]

Okayama[edit]

Kurashiki
New Zealand Christchurch, New Zealand
United States Kansas City, Missouri, United States
Austria Sankt Pölten, Austria
China Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China
Okayama
South Korea Bucheon, South Korea
Taiwan Hsinchu City, Taiwan
India Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
China Luoyang, Henan, China
Bulgaria Plovdiv, Bulgaria
United States San Jose, California, United States
Costa Rica San José, Costa Rica, Costa Rica

Hiroshima[edit]

Fukuyama
Higashihiroshima
China Deyang, Sichuan Province, China (14 October 1993)
United States Virginia Beach, Virginia, United States (26 August 1991)
Brazil Marilia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil (29 November 1980)
Hiroshima
China Chongqing, China
South Korea Daegu, South Korea
Germany Hanover, Germany[128]
United States Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
Canada Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Russia Volgograd, Russia[129]
Kure
United States Bremerton, Washington, United States (20 August 1970)
Spain Marbella, Province of Malaga, Spain (6 December 1990)
Onomichi
South Korea Jung-gu, Busan, South Korea (24 May 2015)
France Honfleur, Normandy Region, France (13 May 1998)

Yamaguchi[edit]

Iwakuni
United States Everett, Washington, United States
Brazil Jundiaí, Brazil
China Taicang, Jiangsu, China
Japan Tottori, Tottori, Japan
Australia Townsville, Queensland, Australia
Shimonoseki
South Korea Busan, South Korea
Turkey Istanbul, Turkey
Saudi Arabia Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Japan Kikugawa, Shizuoka, Japan
United States Pittsburg, California, United States
China Qingdao, Shandong, China
Brazil Santos (São Paulo), Brazil
Ube
Australia Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
China Weihai, Shandong, China
Yamaguchi
South Korea Gongju, South Korea
China Jinan, Shandong, China
Spain Pamplona, Spain
China Zouping County, China

Shikoku[edit]

Tokushima[edit]

Tokushima
China Dandong, Liaoning, China
Portugal Leiria, Portugal
United States Saginaw, Michigan, United States
Naruto[130]
Germany Luneburg, Lower Saxony, Germany (18 April 1974)

Kagawa[edit]

Takamatsu[131]
China Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China (28 September 1990)
France Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France (3 June 1988)
United States St. Petersburg, Florida, United States (5 October 1961)
Sakaide[132]
United States Sausalito, California, United States (2 February 1988)
United States Lansing, Michigan, United States (12 April 1996)

Ehime[edit]

Ainan
Spain Molinaseca, Spain[133]
Ikata
United States Red Wing, Minnesota, United States
Japan Tomari, Hokkaidō, Japan
Imabari
United States Lakeland, Florida, United States
Panama Panama City, Panama
Matsuyama
Germany Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
United States Sacramento, California, United States
South Korea Pyeongtaek, South Korea

Kōchi[edit]

Kōchi, Kōchi
United States Fresno, California, United States
Japan Kitami, Hokkaido, Japan
Indonesia Surabaya, Indonesia[134]
China Wuhu, Anhui, China

Kyushu[edit]

Fukuoka[edit]

Fukuoka[135]
United States Atlanta, Georgia, United States
New Zealand Auckland, New Zealand
France Bordeaux, France[136][137]
South Korea Busan, South Korea
China Guangzhou, Guangdong, China[138]
Malaysia Ipoh, Malaysia
United States Oakland, California, United States
Hakata-ku
New Zealand Auckland, New Zealand
Kitakyushu[139]
China Dalian, Liaoning, China
South Korea Incheon, South Korea
Japan Minamikyushu, Kagoshima, Japan
United States Norfolk, Virginia, United States
United States Tacoma, Washington, United States
Maebaru
United States Escondido, California, United States

Saga[edit]

Saga (City)
France Cussac-Fort-Médoc, France
United States Glens Falls, New York, United States
China Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China
Brazil Limeira, São Paulo, Brazil
United States Warren County, New York, United States
South Korea Yeonje-gu, Busan, South Korea
Takeo
United States Sebastopol, California, United States[r]

Nagasaki[edit]

Nagasaki[140]
China Fuzhou, Fujian, China
Japan Hiroshima, Japan
Netherlands Middelburg, Zeeland, Netherlands
Portugal Porto, Portugal
United States Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States[141]
Brazil Santos, São Paulo, Brazil
France Vaux-sur-Aure, France
Sasebo[142]
United States Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
Australia Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia
Japan Kokonoe, Ōita, Japan
South Korea Paju, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
United States San Diego, California, United States
China Shenyang, Liaoning, China
China Xiamen, Fujian, China

Kumamoto[edit]

Kumamoto
United States Billings, Montana, United States
United Kingdom Bristol, United Kingdom
China Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang, China
Germany Heidelberg, Germany
United States Missoula, Montana, United States
United States San Antonio, Texas, United States
South Korea Ulsan, South Korea
Tamana
United States Clarinda, Iowa, United States

Ōita[edit]

Beppu[143]
Japan Atami, Shizuoka, Japan
United Kingdom Bath, United Kingdom[144][145]
United States Beaumont, Texas, United States
South Korea Jeju, South Korea
South Korea Mokpo, South Korea
New Zealand Rotorua, New Zealand
China Yantai, Shandong, China
Ōita
United States Austin, Texas, United States
Portugal Aveiro, Portugal
China Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
Brazil Vitória, Brazil
China Wuhan, Hubei, China

Miyazaki[edit]

Ebino
United States Belton, Texas, United States
Miyazaki (City)
South Korea Boeun County, South Korea
United States Virginia Beach, Virginia, United States[146]
United States Waukegan, Illinois, United States
Nobeoka
United States Medford, Massachusetts, United States

Kagoshima[edit]

Ibusuki
Japan Chitose, Hokkaido, Japan
Australia Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia
Kagoshima[147]
China Changsha, Hunan, China
United States Miami, Florida, United States
Italy Naples, Italy
Australia Perth, Australia
Japan Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan
Naze
United States Nacogdoches, Texas, United States

Okinawa[edit]

Naha[148]
China Fuzhou, Fujian, China
United States Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
Japan Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan
Japan Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan
Brazil São Vicente, São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil[111][149]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Barrhead Town had a relationship with the former town of Tokoro. However Tokoro merged into Kitami city so the official status of the relationship is unknown.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Friendship city
  3. ^ Sister city of Niiharu which merged into Minakami in 2005
  4. ^ Originally with Box Hill, Victoria which was amalgamated into Whitehorse in 1994
  5. ^ Friendship port
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Partner city
  7. ^ a b c d e f Sister port
  8. ^ Unratified
  9. ^ With Azumi, Nagano, which merged with Matsumoto in 2005
  10. ^ With Shigaraki, merged into Kōka in 2004
  11. ^ With Tsuchiyama, merged into Kōka in 2004
  12. ^ With Makino, merged into Takashima in 2005
  13. ^ Friendship pledge city
  14. ^ a b c d e Friendship and cooperation city
  15. ^ Sister castle to Himeji Castle
  16. ^ Cooperation city
  17. ^ Vladimir, Russia recognizes Nara as one of its sister cities, while Nara does not.[122]
  18. ^ With Yamauchi, which merged into Takeo in 2006

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