List of communities in British Columbia

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Communities in the province of British Columbia, Canada can include incorporated municipalities, Indian reserves, unincorporated communities or localities. Unincorporated communities can be further classified as recreational or urban.[1]

Municipalities[edit]

The majority of British Columbia's municipalities are incorporated as cities, district municipalities, towns or villages. Other types of municipality in the province include an Indian government district, an island municipality, two mountain resort municipalities, a regional municipality and a resort municipality.

Cities[edit]

Under current legislation, a community may incorporate as a city if its population is greater than 5,000 and the outcome of a vote involving affected residents was that greater than 50% voted in favour of the proposed incorporation.[2] British Columbia has 50 cities.[1] Greenwood incorporated as a city in 1897[3] prior to the current legislation and retains this status despite its population of 708[4] being less than the current 5,000 threshold. Six other cities also have populations less than 5,000 yet retain their status.

District municipalities[edit]

A community may incorporate as a district municipality if it has area greater than 800 ha (2,000 acres) and has a population density of less than 5 people per hectare, and the outcome of a vote involving affected residents was that greater than 50% voted in favour of the proposed incorporation.[2] British Columbia has 50 district municipalities.[1]

Indian government districts[edit]

British Columbia has one Indian government district.[5] The Sechelt Indian Government District comprises 33 separate pieces of land,[6] all of them formerly Indian reserves.[citation needed]

Island municipalities[edit]

British Columbia has one island municipality, Bowen Island.[5]

Mountain resort municipalities[edit]

British Columbia has two mountain resort municipalities, Jumbo Glacier and Sun Peaks.[7][8]

Regional municipalities[edit]

British Columbia has one regional municipality, Northern Rockies.[7]

Resort municipalities[edit]

British Columbia has one resort municipality, Whistler.[1]

Towns[edit]

A community may incorporate as a town if its population is greater than 2,500 and the outcome of a vote involving affected residents was that greater than 50% voted in favour of the proposed incorporation.[2] British Columbia has 14 towns.[1] The former Town of Fort Nelson amalgamated with the Northern Rockies Regional District on February 6, 2009 to form the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality.[9][10]

Villages[edit]

A community with a population less than 2,500 may incorporate as a village if the outcome of a vote involving affected residents was that greater than 50% voted in favour of the proposed incorporation.[2] British Columbia has 42 villages.[1]

List of municipalities[edit]

Map of Canada with British Columbia highlighted in red
Location of British Columbia in Canada
 Skyline of Vancouver
Skyline of Vancouver, British Columbia's largest city
 Skyline of Surrey
Skyline of Surrey, British Columbia's second largest city and suburb of Vancouver
 Skyline of Burnaby
Skyline of Burnaby, British Columbia's third largest city and suburb of Vancouver
 Skyline of Richmond
Skyline of Richmond, British Columbia's fourth largest city and suburb of Vancouver
 Skyline of Abbotsford
Skyline of Abbotsford, the largest city outside of Greater Vancouver
 Coquitlam's Town Centre
Skyline of Coquitlam, British Columbia's sixth largest city and suburb of Vancouver
 Kelowna Skyline
Kelowna Skyline, the largest city in the interior of British Columbia
 Areal view of Saanich, British Columbia
Areal view of Saanich, the largest municipality on Vancouver Island and suburb of the capital Victoria

British Columbia is the third-most populous province in Canada with 4,648,055 residents as of 2016 and is the second-largest in land area[a] at 922,503 km2 (356,180 sq mi).[12] British Columbia's 162 municipalities cover only 11% of the province's land mass yet are home to 89% of its population. A municipality is a local government incorporated by the province allowing a community to govern itself and to provide and regulate local services. These services typically include, but are not limited to, the provision of drinking water, sewers, roads, fire protection, street lights, garbage/recycling collection, land use planning, building inspection, and parks.

Within their limited jurisdictions, municipalities are autonomous, responsible and accountable to their citizens, to the province and their future residents in the case for the unpopulated Jumbo Glacier Mountain Resort Municipality.[13] Their powers and responsibilities are regulated through the Local Government Act of British Columbia,[14] the Community Charter, and, in the case of Vancouver, the Vancouver Charter. They have the power of a natural person, the power to expropriate, and the power to establish and enforce bylaws. They are able to raise funds through property taxes and user fees, and borrow a limited amount through the Municipal Finance Authority of British Columbia to pay for capital costs.[15]

Municipalities are governed by a mayor and council who are democratically elected every 4 years on the third Saturday in October or appointed by the province such as the council for Jumbo Glacier.[13] The most recent election most recent election took place on November 15, 2014; the next election will take place on October 20, 2018.[16] Each municipality is a member of a regional district to which their councils elect representatives. The board of directors of the regional district is used as a forum to discuss regional issues.[15]

To become a municipality, a community, with the assistance of the provincial Ministry of Community, Sport and Cultural Development, defines its borders and holds a referendum on the issue. In the case of Jumbo Glacier, a request to incorporate the unpopulated municipality was submitted by the Regional District of East Kootenay.[13] If successful the Cabinet of British Columbia issues a letters patent incorporating the community. Part 2 of the Local Government Act sets out a classification scheme that gives each new municipality a designation. If the population is less than 2,500 people the new municipality is designated a village, if between 2,500 and 5,000 a town, and if greater than 5,000 a city. If the new municipality has an area greater than 800 hectares (2,000 acres) and an average population density of less than 5 persons per hectare then is it designated a district municipality. The municipality must request change in designation but is not compelled to do so, despite population growth or loss - Greenwood has retained its city status, for example, rather than relinquishing it as other boomtowns of its era have done. There is no longer any legal difference between the designations.[15]

Municipal status types[edit]

Cities[edit]

A city is a classification of municipalities used in British Columbia. British Columbia's Lieutenant Governor in Council may incorporate a community as a city by letters patent, under the recommendation of the Minister of Communities, Sport and Cultural Development, if its population is greater than 5,000 and the outcome of a vote involving affected residents was that greater than 50% voted in favour of the proposed incorporation.[2]

British Columbia has 51 cities,[7][17][18] had a cumulative population of 3,225,586 and an average population of 63,247 in the 2016 Census. British Columbia's largest and smallest cities are Vancouver and Greenwood with populations of 631,486 and 665 respectively.[19] The fastest-growing city in British Columbia is Langford, which grew 20.9% between 2011 and 2016, while the fastest-shrinking is Greenwood, which shrunk by 6.1%.[19] The largest city by land area is Abbotsford, which spans 375.55 km2 (145.00 sq mi), while the smallest is Duncan, at 2.07 km2 (0.80 sq mi).[19] The first community to incorporate as a city was New Westminster on July 16, 1860,[7] while the most recent community to incorporate as a city was West Kelowna on June 26, 2015.[18]

District municipalities[edit]

A district municipality is a classification of municipalities used in British Columbia. British Columbia's Lieutenant Governor in Council may incorporate a community as a district municipality by letters patent, under the recommendation of the Minister of Communities, Sport and Cultural Development, if the area is greater than 800 ha (2,000 acres) and has a population density of less than 5 people per hectare, and the outcome of a vote involving affected residents was that greater than 50% voted in favour of the proposed incorporation.[2]

British Columbia has 50 district municipalities[7][18][20] that had a cumulative population of 770,148 and an average population of 15,403 in the 2016 Census.[19] British Columbia's largest and smallest district municipalities are Langly and Wells with populations of 117,285 and 217 respectively.[19] The fastest-growing district municipality in British Columbia is Invermere, which grew 14.8% between 2011 and 2016, while the fastest-shrinking is Tumbler Ridge, which shrunk by 26.7%.

Of British Columbia's current 50 district municipalities, the first to incorporate as a district municipality was North Cowichan on June 18, 1873, while the most recent community to incorporate as a district municipality was the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality (NRRM) on February 6, 2009.[7][20] Although portrayed as a regional municipality in its official name, the NRRM is actually classified as a district municipality.[20]

Indian government districts[edit]

The lone Indian government district was granted by the federal Sechelt Indian Band Self-Government Act and provincial Sechelt Indian Government District Enabling Act to the Sechelt Indian Government District which governs the Sechelt Indian Band lands consisting of 33 former Indian reserves.[6][21][22]

Island municipalities[edit]

If the community wishing to incorporate is located within a trust area under the Island Trust Act, it must incorporate as an island municipality.[23] A single island municipality designation has been granted to Bowen Island.

Mountain resort municipalities[edit]

A mountain resort municipality designation is granted by the Minister of Community, Sport and Cultural Development through the Local Government Act if there exists alpine ski lift operations, year-round recreational facilities, and commercial overnight accommodations. There are two mountain resort municipalities in British Columbia: Sun Peaks and Jumbo Glacier.

Resort municipalities[edit]

A single resort municipality designation has been granted to Whistler by the Resort Municipality of Whistler Act.[24]

Towns[edit]

A town is a classification of municipalities used in British Columbia. British Columbia's Lieutenant Governor in Council may incorporate a community as a town by letters patent, under the recommendation of the Minister of Communities, Sport and Cultural Development, if its population is greater than 2,500 but not greater than 5,000 and the outcome of a vote involving affected residents was that greater than 50% voted in favour of the proposed incorporation.[2]

British Columbia has 14 towns[7] that had a cumulative population of 91,057 and an average population of 6,504 in the 2016 Census.[19] British Columbia's largest and smallest towns are Comox and Port McNeill with populations of 14,028 and 2,337 respectively. View Royal and Port McNeill are the fastest-growing and fastest-shrinking towns in the province, growing by 10.9% and shrinking by 6.7% respectively between 2011 and 2016.[19] Of British Columbia's current 14 towns, the first to incorporate as a town was Ladysmith on June 3, 1904, while the most recent community to incorporate as a town was View Royal on December 5, 1988.[7]

Villages[edit]

A village is a classification of municipalities used in British Columbia. British Columbia's Lieutenant Governor in Council may incorporate a community as a village by letters patent, under the recommendation of the Minister of Communities, Sport and Cultural Development, if its population is not greater than 2,500 and the outcome of a vote involving affected residents was that greater than 50% voted in favour of the proposed incorporation.[2]

British Columbia has 42 villages[7] that had a cumulative population of 44,454 and an average population of 1,058 in the 2016 Census.[19] British Columbia's largest and smallest villages are Cumberland and Zeballos with populations of 3,753 and 107 respectively.[19] Keremeos and Port Clements are the fastest-growing and fastest-shrinking villages in the province, growing by 12.9% and shrinking by 25.4% respectively between 2011 and 2016.[19] Of British Columbia's current 42 villages, the first to incorporate as a village was Kaslo on August 14, 1893, while the most recent community to incorporate as a village was Queen Charlotte on December 5, 2005.[7]

List of municipalities[edit]

Name Status[7] Regional district[7] Incorporation date[7] 2016 Census of Population[19]
Population (2016) Population (2011) Change Land area (km²) Population density
Abbotsford City Fraser Valley December 12, 1995 141,397 133,497 +5.9% 375.55 376.5/km2
Armstrong City North Okanagan March 31, 1913 5,114 4,830 +5.9% 5.22 979.7/km2
Burnaby City Greater Vancouver September 22, 1892 232,755 223,218 +4.3% 90.61 2,568.8/km2
Campbell River City Strathcona June 24, 1947 32,588 31,186 +4.5% 144.36 225.7/km2
Castlegar City Central Kootenay January 1, 1974 8,039 7,816 +2.9% 19.67 408.7/km2
Chilliwack City Fraser Valley April 26, 1873 83,788 77,936 +7.5% 261.65 320.2/km2
Colwood City Capital June 24, 1985 16,859 16,093 +4.8% 17.67 954.1/km2
Coquitlam City Greater Vancouver July 25, 1891 139,284 126,804 +9.8% 122.30 1,138.9/km2
Courtenay City Comox Valley January 1, 1915 25,599 24,216 +5.7% 32.41 789.8/km2
Cranbrook City East Kootenay November 1, 1905 20,047 19,319 +3.8% 32.00 626.5/km2
Dawson Creek City Peace River May 26, 1936 12,178 11,583 +5.1% 24.37 499.7/km2
Duncan City Cowichan Valley March 4, 1912 4,944 4,932 +0.2% 2.07 2,388.4/km2
Enderby City North Okanagan March 1, 1905 2,964 2,932 +1.1% 4.26 695.8/km2
Fernie City East Kootenay July 28, 1904 5,249 4,448 +18.0% 13.50 388.8/km2
Fort St. John City Peace River December 31, 1947 20,155 18,609 +8.3% 26.27 767.2/km2
Grand Forks City Kootenay Boundary April 15, 1897 4,049 3,985 +1.6% 10.43 388.2/km2
Greenwood City Kootenay Boundary July 12, 1897 665 708 −6.1% 2.42 274.8/km2
Kamloops City Thompson-Nicola October 17, 1967 90,280 85,678 +5.4% 299.25 301.7/km2
Kelowna City Central Okanagan May 4, 1905 127,380 117,312 +8.6% 211.85 601.3/km2
Kimberley City East Kootenay March 29, 1944 7,425 6,652 +11.6% 60.62 122.5/km2
Langford City Capital December 8, 1992 35,342 29,228 +20.9% 39.94 884.9/km2
Langley City Greater Vancouver March 15, 1955 25,888 25,081 +3.2% 10.22 2,533.1/km2
Maple Ridge City Greater Vancouver September 12, 2014[17] 82,256 76,052 +8.2% 266.78 308.3/km2
Merritt City Thompson-Nicola April 1, 1911 7,139 7,113 +0.4% 26.07 273.8/km2
Nanaimo City Nanaimo December 24, 1874 90,504 83,810 +8.0% 90.76 997.2/km2
Nelson City Central Kootenay March 18, 1897 10,572 10,230 +3.3% 11.95 884.7/km2
New Westminster City Greater Vancouver July 16, 1860 70,996 65,976 +7.6% 15.63 4,542.3/km2
North Vancouver City Greater Vancouver August 10, 1891 52,898 48,196 +9.8% 11.85 4,464.0/km2
Parksville City Nanaimo June 19, 1945 12,514 11,977 +4.5% 14.56 859.5/km2
Penticton City Okanagan-Similkameen January 1, 1909 33,761 32,877 +2.7% 42.10 801.9/km2
Pitt Meadows City Greater Vancouver April 25, 1914 18,573 17,736 +4.7% 86.51 214.7/km2
Port Alberni City Alberni-Clayoquot October 28, 1967 17,678 17,743 −0.4% 19.76 894.6/km2
Port Coquitlam City Greater Vancouver March 7, 1913 58,612 55,958 +4.7% 29.17 2,009.3/km2
Port Moody City Greater Vancouver March 11, 1913 33,551 33,011 +1.6% 25.89 1,295.9/km2
Powell River City Powell River October 15, 1955 13,157 13,165 −0.1% 28.91 455.1/km2
Prince George City Fraser-Fort George March 6, 1915 74,003 71,974 +2.8% 318.26 232.5/km2
Prince Rupert City Skeena-Queen Charlotte March 10, 1910 12,220 12,508 −2.3% 66.28 184.4/km2
Quesnel City Cariboo March 21, 1928 9,879 10,007 −1.3% 35.39 279.1/km2
Revelstoke City Columbia Shuswap March 1, 1899 7,547 7,139 +5.7% 41.13 183.5/km2
Richmond City Greater Vancouver November 10, 1879 198,309 190,473 +4.1% 129.27 1,534.1/km2
Rossland City Kootenay Boundary March 18, 1897 3,729 3,556 +4.9% 59.79 62.4/km2
Salmon Arm City Columbia Shuswap May 15, 1905 17,706 17,464 +1.4% 155.28 114.0/km2
Surrey City Greater Vancouver November 10, 1879 517,887 468,251 +10.6% 316.41 1,636.8/km2
Terrace City Kitimat-Stikine December 31, 1927 11,643 11,486 +1.4% 57.36 203.0/km2
Trail City Kootenay Boundary June 14, 1901 7,709 7,681 +0.4% 34.93 220.7/km2
Vancouver City Greater Vancouver April 6, 1886 631,486 603,502 +4.6% 114.97 5,492.6/km2
Vernon City North Okanagan December 30, 1892 40,116 38,180 +5.1% 96.05 417.7/km2
Victoria City Capital August 2, 1862 85,792 80,017 +7.2% 19.47 4,406.4/km2
West Kelowna City Central Okanagan June 26, 2015 32,655 30,902 +5.7% 123.53 264.3/km2
White Rock City Greater Vancouver April 15, 1957 19,952 19,339 +3.2% 5.12 3,896.9/km2
Williams Lake City Cariboo March 15, 1929 10,753 10,832 −0.7% 33.13 324.6/km2
100 Mile House District municipality Cariboo July 27, 1965 1,980 1,886 +5.0% 53.29 37.2/km2
Barriere District municipality Thompson-Nicola December 4, 2007 1,713 1,773 −3.4% 10.77 159.1/km2
Central Saanich District municipality Capital December 12, 1950 16,814 15,936 +5.5% 41.33 406.8/km2
Chetwynd District municipality Peace River September 25, 1962 2,503 2,635 −5.0% 63.62 39.3/km2
Clearwater District municipality Thompson-Nicola December 3, 2007 2,324 2,331 −0.3% 55.68 41.7/km2
Coldstream District municipality North Okanagan December 21, 1906 10,648 10,314 +3.2% 66.60 159.9/km2
Delta District municipality Greater Vancouver November 10, 1879 102,238 99,863 +2.4% 180.20 567.4/km2
Elkford District municipality East Kootenay July 16, 1971 2,499 2,523 −1.0% 108.42 23.0/km2
Esquimalt District municipality Capital September 1, 1912 17,655 16,209 +8.9% 7.08 2,493.6/km2
Fort St. James District municipality Bulkley-Nechako December 19, 1952 1,598 1,691 −5.5% 23.47 68.1/km2
Highlands District municipality Capital December 7, 1993 2,225 2,120 +5.0% 38.05 58.5/km2
Hope District municipality Fraser Valley April 6, 1929 6,181 5,969 +3.6% 40.95 150.9/km2
Houston District municipality Bulkley-Nechako March 4, 1957 2,993 3,147 −4.9% 72.94 41.0/km2
Hudson's Hope District municipality Peace River November 16, 1965 1,015 970 +4.6% 827.36 1.2/km2
Invermere District municipality East Kootenay May 22, 1951 3,391 2,955 +14.8% 10.73 316.0/km2
Kent District municipality Fraser Valley January 1, 1895 6,067 5,664 +7.1% 168.87 35.9/km2
Kitimat District municipality Kitimat-Stikine March 31, 1953 8,131 8,335 −2.4% 240.01 33.9/km2
Lake Country District municipality Central Okanagan May 2, 1995 12,922 11,708 +10.4% 122.19 105.8/km2
Langley District municipality Greater Vancouver April 26, 1873 117,285 104,177 +12.6% 308.03 380.8/km2
Lantzville District municipality Nanaimo June 25, 2003 3,605 3,601 +0.1% 27.68 130.2/km2
Lillooet District municipality Squamish-Lillooet December 31, 1946 2,275 2,321 −2.0% 27.51 82.7/km2
Logan Lake District municipality Thompson-Nicola November 10, 1970 1,993 2,073 −3.9% 325.33 6.1/km2
Mackenzie District municipality Fraser-Fort George May 19, 1966 3,714 3,507 +5.9% 155.41 23.9/km2
Metchosin District municipality Capital December 3, 1984 4,708 4,803 −2.0% 71.13 66.2/km2
Mission District municipality Fraser Valley June 2, 1892 38,833 36,426 +6.6% 227.65 170.6/km2
New Hazelton District municipality Kitimat-Stikine December 15, 1980 580 666 −12.9% 24.36 23.8/km2
North Cowichan District municipality Cowichan Valley June 18, 1873 29,676 28,807 +3.0% 195.56 151.7/km2
North Saanich District municipality Capital August 19, 1965 11,249 11,089 +1.4% 37.27 301.8/km2
North Vancouver District municipality Greater Vancouver May 13, 1907 85,935 84,412 +1.8% 160.76 534.6/km2
Northern Rockies[20] District municipality Northern Rockies February 6, 2009 4,831 5,290 −8.7% 85,013.39 0.1/km2
Oak Bay District municipality Capital July 2, 1906 18,094 18,015 +0.4% 10.53 1,718.3/km2
Peachland District municipality Central Okanagan January 1, 1909 5,428 5,200 +4.4% 15.96 340.1/km2
Port Edward District municipality Skeena-Queen Charlotte June 29, 1966 467 544 −14.2% 168.01 2.8/km2
Port Hardy District municipality Mount Waddington May 5, 1966 4,132 4,008 +3.1% 38.73 106.7/km2
Saanich District municipality Capital March 1, 1906 114,148 109,752 +4.0% 103.78 1,099.9/km2
Sechelt District municipality Sunshine Coast February 15, 1956 10,216 9,291 +10.0% 39.02 261.8/km2
Sicamous District municipality Columbia Shuswap December 4, 1989 2,429 2,441 −0.5% 12.80 189.8/km2
Sooke District municipality Capital December 7, 1999 13,001 11,435 +13.7% 56.62 229.6/km2
Spallumcheen District municipality North Okanagan July 21, 1892 5,106 5,040 +1.3% 255.04 20.0/km2
Sparwood District municipality East Kootenay October 6, 1964 3,784 3,667 +3.2% 191.60 19.7/km2
Squamish District municipality Squamish-Lillooet May 18, 1948 19,512 17,158 +13.7% 104.87 186.1/km2
Stewart District municipality Kitimat-Stikine May 16, 1930 401 494 −18.8% 552.08 0.7/km2
Summerland District municipality Okanagan-Similkameen December 21, 1906 11,615 11,280 +3.0% 74.08 156.8/km2
Taylor District municipality Peace River August 23, 1958 1,469 1,373 +7.0% 17.09 86.0/km2
Tofino District municipality Alberni-Clayoquot February 5, 1932 1,932 1,876 +3.0% 10.55 183.1/km2
Tumbler Ridge District municipality Peace River April 9, 1981 1,987 2,710 −26.7% 1,558.97 1.3/km2
Ucluelet District municipality Alberni-Clayoquot February 26, 1952 1,717 1,627 +5.5% 6.49 264.6/km2
Vanderhoof District municipality Bulkley-Nechako January 22, 1926 4,439 4,480 −0.9% 54.83 81.0/km2
Wells District municipality Cariboo June 29, 1998 217 245 −11.4% 158.28 1.4/km2
West Vancouver District municipality Greater Vancouver March 15, 1912 42,473 42,694 −0.5% 87.26 486.7/km2
Sechelt Indian Government District Indian government district Powell River and Sunshine Coast March 17, 1988 692 819 −15.5% 11.05 62.6/km2
Bowen Island Island municipality Greater Vancouver December 4, 1999 3,680 3,402 +8.2% 50.14 73.4/km2
Jumbo Glacier Mountain resort municipality[25] East Kootenay February 19, 2013[13]
Sun Peaks Mountain resort municipality[26] Thompson-Nicola June 3, 2010 616 371 +66.0% 40.86 15.1/km2
Whistler Resort municipality Squamish-Lillooet September 6, 1975 11,854 9,824 +20.7% 240.41 49.3/km2
Comox Town Comox Valley January 14, 1946 14,028 13,627 +2.9% 16.74 838.0/km2
Creston Town Central Kootenay May 14, 1924 5,351 5,306 +0.8% 8.47 631.8/km2
Gibsons Town Sunshine Coast March 4, 1929 4,605 4,437 +3.8% 4.29 1,073.4/km2
Golden Town Columbia Shuswap June 26, 1957 3,708 3,701 +0.2% 11.41 325.0/km2
Ladysmith Town Cowichan Valley June 3, 1904 8,537 7,921 +7.8% 11.99 712.0/km2
Lake Cowichan Town Cowichan Valley August 19, 1944 3,226 2,974 +8.5% 8.29 389.1/km2
Oliver Town Okanagan-Similkameen December 31, 1945 4,928 4,824 +2.2% 5.50 896.0/km2
Osoyoos Town Okanagan-Similkameen January 14, 1946 5,085 4,845 +5.0% 8.50 598.2/km2
Port McNeill Town Mount Waddington February 18, 1966 2,337 2,505 −6.7% 13.77 169.7/km2
Princeton Town Okanagan-Similkameen September 11, 1951 2,828 2,724 +3.8% 59.60 47.4/km2
Qualicum Beach Town Nanaimo May 5, 1942 8,943 8,687 +2.9% 17.98 497.4/km2
Sidney Town Capital September 30, 1952 11,672 11,178 +4.4% 5.10 2,288.6/km2
Smithers Town Bulkley-Nechako October 6, 1921 5,401 5,404 −0.1% 15.27 353.7/km2
View Royal Town Capital December 5, 1988 10,408 9,381 +10.9% 14.36 724.8/km2
Alert Bay Village Mount Waddington January 14, 1946 489 435 +12.4% 1.69 289.3/km2
Anmore Village Greater Vancouver December 7, 1987 2,210 2,092 +5.6% 27.55 80.2/km2
Ashcroft Village Thompson-Nicola June 27, 1952 1,558 1,628 −4.3% 50.90 30.6/km2
Belcarra Village Greater Vancouver August 22, 1979 643 644 −0.2% 5.50 116.9/km2
Burns Lake Village Bulkley-Nechako December 6, 1923 1,779 2,029 −12.3% 6.59 270.0/km2
Cache Creek Village Thompson-Nicola November 28, 1967 963 1,040 −7.4% 10.40 92.6/km2
Canal Flats Village East Kootenay June 29, 2004 668 715 −6.6% 10.96 60.9/km2
Chase Village Thompson-Nicola April 22, 1969 2,286 2,495 −8.4% 3.77 606.4/km2
Clinton Village Thompson-Nicola July 16, 1963 641 636 +0.8% 8.19 78.3/km2
Cumberland Village Comox Valley January 1, 1898 3,753 3,398 +10.4% 29.11 128.9/km2
Fraser Lake Village Bulkley-Nechako September 27, 1966 988 1,167 −15.3% 4.07 242.8/km2
Fruitvale Village Kootenay Boundary November 4, 1952 1,920 2,011 −4.5% 2.70 711.1/km2
Gold River Village Strathcona August 26, 1965 1,212 1,267 −4.3% 10.94 110.8/km2
Granisle Village Bulkley-Nechako June 29, 1971 303 303 0.0% 41.86 7.2/km2
Harrison Hot Springs Village Fraser Valley May 27, 1949 1,468 1,468 0.0% 5.57 263.6/km2
Hazelton Village Kitimat-Stikine February 15, 1956 313 300 +4.3% 2.89 108.3/km2
Kaslo Village Central Kootenay August 14, 1893 968 1,031 −6.1% 3.01 321.6/km2
Keremeos Village Okanagan-Similkameen October 30, 1956 1,502 1,330 +12.9% 2.09 718.7/km2
Lions Bay Village Greater Vancouver December 17, 1970 1,334 1,318 +1.2% 2.53 527.3/km2
Lumby Village North Okanagan December 20, 1955 1,833 1,731 +5.9% 5.93 309.1/km2
Lytton Village Thompson-Nicola May 3, 1945 249 228 +9.2% 6.73 37.0/km2
Masset Village Skeena-Queen Charlotte May 11, 1961 793 884 −10.3% 20.83 38.1/km2
McBride Village Fraser-Fort George April 7, 1932 616 586 +5.1% 4.64 132.8/km2
Midway Village Kootenay Boundary May 25, 1967 649 674 −3.7% 12.24 53.0/km2
Montrose Village Kootenay Boundary June 22, 1956 996 1,030 −3.3% 1.46 682.2/km2
Nakusp Village Central Kootenay November 24, 1964 1,605 1,569 +2.3% 8.05 199.4/km2
New Denver Village Central Kootenay January 12, 1929 473 504 −6.2% 0.87 543.7/km2
Pemberton Village Squamish-Lillooet July 20, 1956 2,574 2,434 +5.8% 61.42 41.9/km2
Port Alice Village Mount Waddington June 16, 1965 664 805 −17.5% 7.04 94.3/km2
Port Clements Village Skeena-Queen Charlotte December 31, 1975 282 378 −25.4% 13.07 21.6/km2
Pouce Coupe Village Peace River January 6, 1932 792 738 +7.3% 2.06 384.5/km2
Queen Charlotte Village Skeena-Queen Charlotte December 5, 2005 852 944 −9.7% 35.63 23.9/km2
Radium Hot Springs Village East Kootenay December 10, 1990 776 777 −0.1% 6.34 122.4/km2
Salmo Village Central Kootenay October 30, 1946 1,141 1,139 +0.2% 2.44 467.6/km2
Sayward Village Strathcona June 27, 1968 311 317 −1.9% 4.51 69.0/km2
Silverton Village Central Kootenay May 6, 1930 195 195 0.0% 0.35 557.1/km2
Slocan Village Central Kootenay June 1, 1901 272 296 −8.1% 0.78 348.7/km2
Tahsis Village Strathcona June 17, 1970 248 316 −21.5% 5.26 47.1/km2
Telkwa Village Bulkley-Nechako July 18, 1952 1,327 1,350 −1.7% 7.04 188.5/km2
Valemount Village Fraser-Fort George December 13, 1962 1,021 1,020 +0.1% 5.17 197.5/km2
Warfield Village Kootenay Boundary December 8, 1952 1,680 1,700 −1.2% 1.89 888.9/km2
Zeballos Village Strathcona June 27, 1952 107 125 −14.4% 1.56 68.6/km2
Total cities  —  —  — 3,225,586 3,033,218 +6.3% 4,082.95 790.0/km2
Total district municipalities  —  — 770,148 736,531 +4.6% 92,222.23 8.4/km2
Total Indian government districts 692 819 −15.5% 11.05 62.6/km2
Total island municipalities 3,680 3,402 +8.2% 50.14 73.4/km2
Total mountain resort municipalities  —  — 616 371 +66.0% 40.86 15.1/km2
Total resort municipalities 11,854 9,824 +20.7% 240.41 49.3/km2
Total towns 91,057 87,514 +4.0% 201.27 452.4/km2
Total villages 44,454 45,047 −1.3% 445.63 99.8/km2
Total all municipalities  — 4,148,087 3,916,726 +5.9% 97,294.54 42.6/km2
Province of British Columbia  — 4,648,055 4,400,057 +5.6% 922,503.01 5.0/km2

Former municipalities[edit]

Communities in British Columbia that once held their own municipal status include Aennofield, Alberni, Brocklehurst, Chapman Camp, Chilliwhack, Columbia, Cranberry Lake, Dewdney, Dufferin, Fort Nelson, Fraser Mills, Glenmore, Guisachan, Kinnaird, Marysville, Matsqui, Mission City, Natal, Nicomen Island, North Kamloops, Phoenix, Point Grey, Sandon, South Fort George, South Vancouver, Sumas, Tadanac, Valleyview and Westview.[27][28][29][30][31][32][33] The majority of these former municipalities ceased to exist as a result of amalgamation with or annexation by another municipality.[27][28][29] Others, such as Phoenix and Sandon,[32][33] were dissolved from their municipal status as a result of population decline, while Dewdney dissolved due to financial reasons.[30]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Although British Columbia is the second-largest province in land area, it is third-largest in total area after accounting for its freshwater area.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Gazetteer "BC Gazetteer (A spatial point file of all named places in BC)" Check |url= value (help) (Esri shapefile). Government of British Columbia (Data BC). Retrieved December 1, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Local Government Act: Part 2 — Incorporation of Municipalities". Government of British Columbia Queen's Printer. November 12, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "LGA" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  3. ^ "Greenwood". BC Geographical Names. 
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2011StatCanBC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statistics Canada. May 28, 2012. Retrieved December 2, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b "Statistics Relating to Regional and Municipal Governments in BC 2011" (PDF). Ministry of Community, Sport and Cultural Development. Retrieved April 20, 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "RegMunGovStats" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "British Columbia Regional Districts, Municipalities, Corporate Name, Date of Incorporation and Postal Address". British Columbia Ministry of Communities, Sport and Cultural Development. Retrieved December 6, 2012.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "BCmunis" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  8. ^ "Jumbo becomes mountain resort municipality". Government of British Columbia. November 20, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Statistics Relating to Regional and Municipal Governments in BC 2011" (PDF). British Columbia Ministry of Community, Sport and Cultural Development. p. 21 of 30. Retrieved December 6, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Fort Nelson". Northern Rockies Regional Municipality. Retrieved December 6, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Land and freshwater area, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. February 1, 2005. Retrieved December 18, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Jumbo becomes mountain resort municipality". Government of British Columbia. November 20, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2013. 
  14. ^ British Columbia Queens Printer (1996). "Local Government Act". Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  15. ^ a b c Union of British Columbia Municipalities. "Local Government in British Columbia: A Community Effort" (PDF). 2006 Edition. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 
  16. ^ "Municipal Election Schedule in Canada". Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research. December 15, 2014. Retrieved July 11, 2015. 
  17. ^ a b "Order of the Lieutenant Governor in Council: Order in Council No. 513" (PDF). Province of British Columbia. September 9, 2014. Retrieved September 14, 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c "Order in Council No. 357". Province of British Columbia. June 26, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2015. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (British Columbia)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017. 
  20. ^ a b c d "Order of the Lieutenant Governor in Council (Order in Council No. 033)" (PDF). Province of British Columbia. January 29, 2009. p. 3. Retrieved September 20, 2014. The class of the municipality is a district municipality. 
  21. ^ "Sechelt Indian Band Self-Government Act" (PDF). Minister of Justice. Retrieved September 20, 2014. 
  22. ^ "Sechelt Indian Government District Enabling Act". Ministry of Community, Sport and Cultural Development. Retrieved September 20, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Island Trust Act". Ministry of Community, Sport and Cultural Development. Retrieved September 27, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Resort Municipality of Whistler Act". Ministry of Community, Sport and Cultural Development. Retrieved September 20, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Resume of Orders in Council: Volume 39, Number 21 (Order in Council 760)". British Columbia Queen's Printer. Retrieved January 30, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Resume of Orders in Council: Volume 37, Number 8 (Order in Council 158)". British Columbia Queen's Printer. Retrieved January 30, 2013. 
  27. ^ a b "Municipal Census Populations (1921-2011)". BC Stats. Retrieved June 26, 2013. 
  28. ^ a b "Name Details: Brocklehurst (Community)". GeoBC. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  29. ^ a b "Name Details: Grand Forks (City)". GeoBC. Retrieved May 4, 2014. 
  30. ^ a b "Profiles of Historic Sites: Dewdney Community". Mission District Historical Society, Heritage Places Branch. March 14, 2014. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Profiles of Historic Sites: Nicomen Island Community". Mission District Historical Society, Heritage Places Branch. December 6, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  32. ^ a b "Name Details: Phoenix (Abandoned Locality)". GeoBC. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  33. ^ a b "From Boom to Bust in 20 Years: Sandon's History as an Incorporated City". Sandon Museum. Retrieved June 26, 2013. 

External links[edit]

Indian reserves[edit]

Indian Reserves are administered under a separate legal designation from other communities. Under the division of powers in Canadian law - First Nations (formally and still legally defined as Indians) fall under federal jurisdiction, while non-Aboriginal communities are part of a separate system that is largely the responsibility of the Provinces.

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Communities[edit]

A community in British Columbia is an "unincorporated populated place".[4] British Columbia has 889 communities,[5] some of which are located within municipalities or Indian reserves.

Recreational communities[edit]

A recreational community in British Columbia is an "unincorporated place with seasonal or year-round services, accommodation and amenities associated primarily with recreational or leisure activities".[4] British Columbia has 11 communities that are classified as recreational communities.[5]

Urban communities[edit]

An urban community in British Columbia is a "separately named area within the limits of an incorporated municipality".[4] British Columbia has 10 communities that are classified as urban communities.[5]

Localities[edit]

A locality in British Columbia is a "named place or area, with or without a scattered population".[4] British Columbia has 556 localities, not including those that have been abandoned or are classified as former localities.[5]

Abandoned localities[edit]

An abandoned locality in British Columbia is a "previously populated place with no current population; often a modern landmark in a remote location".[4] British Columbia has 18 localities that are considered abandoned.[5]

Former localities[edit]

A former locality in British Columbia is a "once-populated place with no current population or that is usually uninhabited".[4] British Columbia recognizes eight places as former localities.[5]

Landings[edit]

"Landings", formerly classed as "steamer landings" are found along coastal BC an on certain inland waterways and lakes. They were often associated with mining and logging camps or fish canneries, or local agricultural settlements.

Company towns[edit]

Company towns were once common in British Columbia. Many were large, but never had municipal government and were largely located on company-owned land. A few such as Granisle, Tumbler Ridge and Wells became municipalities, while others have become ghost towns. Among the largest were Anyox, Bralorne, Ocean Falls, Cassiar, Gold Harbour (Tasu) and Kitsault.

See also[edit]

BC
Canadian Provinces and Territories
Communities in Canada's provinces and territories

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aboriginal Canada Information Network: BC Tribal Council Listings
  2. ^ "Tsawwassen Indian Reserve". BC Geographical Names. 
  3. ^ "T'sou-ke Indian Reserve 1". BC Geographical Names. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Feature Types & Definitions" (PDF). BC Geographical Names Information System. April 20, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Cite error: The named reference BCGazetteer was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5909052 - Abbotsford)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5933042 - Kamloops)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5909032 - Kent)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5923008 - Port Alberni)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5917042 - Metchosin)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915075 - Maple Ridge)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Communities and Neighbourhoods". Township of Langley. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c d e "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5931020 - Whistler)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915004 - Surrey)". Statistics Canada. April 14, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915022 - Vancouver)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5909020 - Chilliwack)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915034 - Coquitlam)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915043 - Port Moody)". Statistics Canada. May 2, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915011 - Delta)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  20. ^ a b "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5937014 - Vernon)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5917005 - North Saanich)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  22. ^ a b "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5917041 - Colwood)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  23. ^ a b c d e "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5935010 - Kelowna)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915039 - Port Coquitlam)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915046 - North Vancouver)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5953023 - Prince George)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5931006 - Squamish)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915025 - Burnaby)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915015 - Richmond)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915055 - West Vancouver)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  31. ^ a b c d "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5939032 - Salmon Arm)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  32. ^ a b c d "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915029 - New Westminster)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5935016 - Lake Country)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  34. ^ "Name Details: Cassin". GeoBC. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  35. ^ a b c d "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5933042 - Kamloops)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5919008 - North Cowichan)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  37. ^ "Name Details: Clayburn". GeoBC. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  38. ^ BC Names entry "Delbrook (community)"
  39. ^ "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5907005 - Osoyoos)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Name Details: Fernwood". GeoBC. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  41. ^ a b c "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5909009 - Hope)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  42. ^ a b "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915001 - Langley)". Statistics Canada. April 23, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  43. ^ a b c d "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5959007 - Northern Rockies)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  44. ^ a b "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5907035 - Summerland)". Statistics Canada. April 23, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  45. ^ a b c d "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5935029 - West Kelowna)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  46. ^ "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5915001 - Langley)". Statistics Canada. April 14, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  47. ^ a b c d e "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5905014 - Trail)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  48. ^ a b c "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5917044 - Langford)". Statistics Canada. April 23, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  49. ^ a b c d e "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5909056 - Mission)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  50. ^ a b "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5917015 - Central Saanich)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Name Details: Mission". GeoBC. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  52. ^ "Name Details: Port Hammond". GeoBC. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  53. ^ "Name Details: Queensborough". GeoBC. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 
  54. ^ "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5901022 - Cranbrook)". Statistics Canada. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  55. ^ "Name Details: Salmon Arm". GeoBC. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  56. ^ "Name Details: Blackcomb". GeoBC. Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  57. ^ "Name Details: Whistler". GeoBC. Retrieved April 29, 2013. 
  58. ^ "Name Details: Cloverdale". GeoBC. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  59. ^ "Name Details: Fleetwood". GeoBC. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  60. ^ "Name Details: Guildford". GeoBC. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  61. ^ "Name Details: Kinnaird". GeoBC. Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  62. ^ "Name Details: Matsqui". GeoBC. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  63. ^ "Name Details: Nechako". GeoBC. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  64. ^ "Name Details: Newton". GeoBC. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  65. ^ "Name Details: South Surrey". GeoBC. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  66. ^ "Name Details: Whalley". GeoBC. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  67. ^ "Statistical Area Classification by Province and Territory - Variant of SGC 2011 (5949815 - Gitanyow 1)". Statistics Canada. May 2, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  68. ^ "Haida Gwaii – Kaisun". Canadian Museum of Civilization. April 1, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2013.