List of unsuccessful major party candidates for President of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Stacked bar graph of the share of the popular vote won by political parties in U.S. presidential elections
Popular vote of political parties in United States presidential elections

The United States has had a two-party system for much of its history, and the two major parties have dominated presidential elections for most of U.S. history.[1] Since the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1788, there have been 51 unsuccessful major party candidates for President of the United States.[a] Eight other candidates have won at least ten percent of the popular or electoral vote but failed to win the presidency.

Since the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, the winner of any given presidential election is the candidate that receives the majority of the electoral vote. If no individual wins a majority of the electoral vote, then the United States House of Representatives holds a contingent election to determine the election winner; contingent elections have decided the winners of two presidential elections. Since 1824, the national popular vote has been recorded,[2] but the national popular vote does not determine the winner of the presidential election. There have been five presidential elections in which the winner did not win a majority or a plurality of the popular vote.

The two current major parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. At various points prior to the American Civil War, the Federalist Party, the Democratic-Republican Party, the National Republican Party, and the Whig Party were major parties.[1] These six parties have nominated candidates in the vast majority of presidential elections, but six presidential elections deviate from the normal pattern of two major party candidates. There were no major party candidates for president in the presidential election of 1789 and the presidential election of 1792,[b] both of which were won by George Washington.[4] In the 1812 presidential election, DeWitt Clinton served as the de facto Federalist nominee even though he was a member of the Democratic-Republican Party; Clinton was defeated by Democratic-Republican President James Madison.[5] In the presidential election of 1820, incumbent President James Monroe of the Democratic-Republican Party effectively ran unopposed.[c] In the 1824 presidential election, four Democratic-Republicans competed in multiple states in the general election as the party was unable to agree on a single nominee.[7] Similarly, in the presidential election of 1836, the Whig Party did not unify around a single candidate and two different Whig candidates competed in multiple states in the general election.[8]

No third party or independent candidate has ever won the presidency, but several have won a significant share of the popular or electoral vote. Seven different third parties have nominated candidates who won at least ten percent of the electoral vote or at least ten percent of the popular vote in a single election, and who were not nominated by a major party in that election. Two of those candidates, Theodore Roosevelt and John C. Breckinridge, finished with the second-highest share of the electoral vote. Since 1796, just one independent candidate, Ross Perot, has accrued more than ten percent of the popular or electoral vote.[9] One third party candidate, Horace Greeley of the Liberal Republican Party, was nominated by a major party only after being nominated by a third party.[10][d]

List of unsuccessful major party candidates[edit]

  • * indicates that the candidate served as the President of the United States at some point in their career
  • † indicates that the candidate won a majority or plurality of the popular vote
  • ‡ indicates that the candidate won a plurality of the electoral vote
  • PV% indicates the share of the popular vote won by that candidate
  • EV% indicates the share of the electoral vote won by that candidate
  Democratic-Republican       Federalist       National Republican       Whig       Liberal Republican       Democratic       Republican
Election Candidate[2][9] Vote[2][9] Running mate
Candidate
(Birth–death)
Party Office at time
of election[e]
Home
State[f]
PV% EV%[g]
1796[h] Thomas Jefferson*
(1743–1826)[13]
Thomas Jefferson Democratic-Republican   Fmr. Secretary of State VA NR 49.3% Aaron Burr[h]
1800[i] John Adams*
(1735–1826)[14]
John Adams Federalist   President MA NR 47.1% Charles C. Pinckney[j]
1804 Charles C. Pinckney
(1746–1825)[16]
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Federalist   Fmr. Ambassador SC NR 8% Rufus King
1808 NR 26.7%
1812 DeWitt Clinton
(1769–1828)[17]
DeWitt Clinton Democratic-Republican
and Federalist[k]
  Lieutenant Governor
and Mayor[l]
NY NR 40.8% Jared Ingersoll
1816[m] Rufus King
(1755–1827)[20]
Rufus King Federalist   Senator NY NR 15.4% John E. Howard
1824 Andrew Jackson*
(1767–1845)[21]
Andrew Jackson Democratic-Republican[n]   Major General TN 41.4%† 37.9%‡ John C. Calhoun[o]
William H. Crawford
(1772–1834)[22]
William H. Crawford Secretary of the Treasury GA 11.2% 15.7% Nathaniel Macon[o]
Henry Clay
(1777–1852)[23]
Henry Clay Speaker of the House KY 13.0% 14.2% Nathan Sanford[o]
1828 John Quincy Adams*
(1767–1848)[24]
John Quincy Adams National Republican   President MA 43.7% 31.8% Richard Rush
1832 Henry Clay
(1777–1852)[23]
Henry Clay National Republican   Senator KY 36.7% 17.1% John Sergeant
1836 William Henry Harrison*
(1773–1841)[25]
William Henry Harrison Whig[p]   Fmr. Senator OH 36.6% 24.8% Francis Granger[q]
Hugh Lawson White
(1773–1840)[28]
Hugh Lawson White Senator TN 9.7% 8.8% John Tyler[q]
1840 Martin Van Buren*
(1782–1862)[29]
Martin Van Buren Democratic   President NY 46.8% 20.4% Richard M. Johnson[r]
1844 Henry Clay
(1777–1852)[23]
Henry Clay Whig   Fmr. Senator KY 48.1% 38.2% Theodore Frelinghuysen
1848 Lewis Cass
(1782–1866)[32]
Lewis Cass Democratic   Fmr. Senator MI 42.5% 43.8% William O. Butler
1852 Winfield Scott
(1786–1866)[33]
Winfield Scott Whig   Major General NJ 43.9% 14.2% William A. Graham
1856 John C. Frémont
(1813–1891)[34]
John C. Frémont Republican[s]   Colonel[41] CA 33.1% 38.5% William L. Dayton
1860 Stephen A. Douglas
(1813–1861)[42]
Stephen A. Douglas Democratic[t]   Senator IL 29.5% 4% Herschel V. Johnson
1864 George B. McClellan
(1826–1885)[48]
George B. McClellan Democratic   Major General NJ 45.0% 9% George H. Pendleton
1868 Horatio Seymour
(1810–1886)[49]
Horatio Seymour Democratic   Fmr. Governor NY 47.3% 27.2% Francis Preston Blair Jr.
1872 Horace Greeley
(1811–1872)[50]
Horace Greeley Liberal Republican
and Democratic[u]
  Fmr. Representative[v] NY 43.8% 18.8%[w] Benjamin Gratz Brown
1876 Samuel Tilden
(1814–1884)[54]
Samuel Tilden Democratic   Governor NY 50.9%† 49.9% Thomas A. Hendricks
1880 Winfield Scott Hancock
(1824–1886)[55]
Winfield Scott Hancock Democratic   Major General PA 48.2% 42% William H. English
1884 James G. Blaine
(1830–1893)[56]
James G. Blaine Republican   Fmr. Secretary of State ME 48.3% 45.4% John A. Logan
1888 Grover Cleveland*
(1837–1908)[57]
Grover Cleveland Democratic   President NY 48.7%† 41.9% Allen G. Thurman
1892 Benjamin Harrison*
(1833–1901)[58]
Benjamin Harrison Republican   President IN 43.0% 32.7% Whitelaw Reid
1896 William Jennings Bryan
(1860–1925)[59]
William Jennings Bryan Democratic[x]   Fmr. Representative NE 46.7% 39.4% Arthur Sewall[x]
1900 45.5% 34.7% Adlai Stevenson I
1904 Alton B. Parker
(1852–1926)[61]
Alton B. Parker Democratic   Fmr. state judge[y] NY 37.6% 29.4% Henry G. Davis
1908 William Jennings Bryan
(1860–1925)[59]
William Jennings Bryan Democratic   Fmr. Representative NE 43.0% 33.5% John W. Kern
1912[z] William Howard Taft*
(1857–1930)[66]
William Howard Taft Republican   President OH 23.2% 1.5% James S. Sherman[aa]
1916 Charles Evans Hughes
(1862–1948)[68]
Charles Evans Hughes Republican   Fmr. Associate Justice NY 46.1% 47.8% Charles W. Fairbanks
1920 James M. Cox
(1870–1957)[69]
James M. Cox Democratic   Governor OH 34.1% 23.9% Franklin D. Roosevelt
1924 John W. Davis
(1873–1955)[70]
John W. Davis Democratic   Fmr. Ambassador WV 28.8% 25.6% Charles W. Bryan
1928 Al Smith
(1873–1944)[71]
Al Smith Democratic   Governor NY 40.8% 16.4% Joseph T. Robinson
1932 Herbert Hoover*
(1874–1964)[72]
Herbert Hoover Republican   President CA 39.7% 11.1% Charles Curtis
1936 Alf Landon
(1887–1987)[73]
Alf Landon Republican   Governor KS 36.5% 1.5% Frank Knox
1940 Wendell Willkie
(1892–1944)[74]
Wendell Willkie Republican   None[ab] NY 44.8% 15.4% Charles L. McNary
1944 Thomas E. Dewey
(1902–1971)[75]
Thomas E. Dewey Republican   Governor NY 45.9% 18.6% John W. Bricker
1948 45.1% 35.6% Earl Warren
1952 Adlai Stevenson II
(1900–1965)[76]
Adlai Stevenson II Democratic   Governor IL 44.3% 16.8% John Sparkman
1956 Fmr. Governor 42.0% 13.7% Estes Kefauver
1960 Richard Nixon*
(1913–1994)[77]
Richard Nixon Republican   Vice President CA 49.6% 40.8% Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
1964 Barry Goldwater
(1909–1998)[78]
Barry Goldwater Republican   Senator AZ 38.5% 9.7% William E. Miller
1968 Hubert Humphrey
(1911–1978)[79]
Hubert Humphrey Democratic   Vice President MN 42.7% 35.5% Edmund Muskie
1972 George McGovern
(1922–2012)[80]
George McGovern Democratic   Senator SD 37.5% 3.2% Sargent Shriver[ac]
1976 Gerald Ford*
(1913–2006)[82]
Gerald Ford Republican   President MI 48.0% 44.6% Bob Dole
1980 Jimmy Carter*
(1924–present)[83]
Jimmy Carter Democratic   President GA 41.0% 9.1% Walter Mondale
1984 Walter Mondale
(1928–present)[84]
Walter Mondale Democratic   Fmr. Vice President MN 40.6% 2.4% Geraldine Ferraro
1988 Michael Dukakis
(1933–present)[85]
Michael Dukakis Democratic   Governor MA 45.7% 20.6% Lloyd Bentsen
1992 George H. W. Bush*
(1924–2018)[86]
George H. W. Bush Republican   President TX 37.5% 31.2% Dan Quayle
1996 Bob Dole
(1923–present)[87]
Bob Dole Republican   Fmr. Senator KS 40.7% 29.6% Jack Kemp
2000 Al Gore
(1948–present)[88]
Al Gore Democratic   Vice President TN 48.4%† 49.4% Joe Lieberman
2004 John Kerry
(1943–present)[89]
John Kerry Democratic   Senator MA 48.3% 46.7% John Edwards
2008 John McCain
(1936–2018)[90]
John McCain Republican   Senator AZ 45.6% 32.2% Sarah Palin
2012 Mitt Romney
(1947–present)[91]
Mitt Romney Republican   Fmr. Governor MA 47.2% 38.3% Paul Ryan
2016 Hillary Clinton
(1947–present)[92]
Hillary Clinton Democratic   Fmr. Secretary of State NY 48.0%† 42.2% Tim Kaine

List of unsuccessful major third party and independent candidates[edit]

These third party and independent candidates won at least ten percent of the electoral vote[9] or at least ten percent of the popular vote.[93]

  • * indicates that the candidate served as the President of the United States at some point in their career
  • † indicates that the candidate finished with the second highest share of the popular vote
  • ‡ indicates that the candidate finished with the second highest share of the electoral vote
  • PV% indicates the share of the popular vote won by that candidate
  • EV% indicates the share of the electoral vote won by that candidate
  Free Soil       American       Southern Democratic       Constitutional Union
       Progressive (1912)       Progressive (1924)       American Independent       Independent
Election Candidate[2][9] Vote[2][9] Running mate
Candidate
(Birth–death)
Party Office at time
of election[e]
Home
State[f]
PV% EV%
1848 Martin Van Buren*
(1782–1862)[29]
Martin Van Buren Free Soil   Fmr. President NY 10.1% 0% Charles F. Adams Sr.
1856 Millard Fillmore*
(1800–1874)[94]
Millard Fillmore American[s]   Fmr. President NY 21.5% 2.7% Andrew J. Donelson
1860 John C. Breckinridge
(1821–1875)[95]
John C. Breckinridge Southern Democratic[t]   Vice President KY 18.2% 23.8%‡ Joseph Lane
1860 John Bell
(1796–1869)[96]
John Bell Constitutional Union   Fmr. Senator TN 12.6% 12.9% Edward Everett
1912[z] Theodore Roosevelt*
(1858–1919)[97]
Theodore Roosevelt Progressive[ad]   Fmr. President NY 27.4%† 16.6%‡ Hiram Johnson
1924 Robert La Follette
(1855–1925)[99]
Robert La Follette Progressive[ad]   Senator WI 16.6% 2.4% Burton K. Wheeler
1968 George Wallace
(1919–1998)[100]
George Wallace American Independent   Fmr. Governor AL 13.5% 8.6% Curtis LeMay
1992 Ross Perot
(1930–present)[101]
Ross Perot Independent   None[ae] TX 18.9% 0% James Stockdale

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There have been 58 unsuccessful major party candidacies by 51 individuals in 55 of the 58 presidential elections. This figure does not include individuals who were affiliated with a major party but were not the primary nominee of that party and only competed in a small fraction of the states that participated in the election.
  2. ^ Though Washington did not receive serious opposition in the 1792 election, the nascent Democratic-Republican Party attempted to defeat Vice President John Adams's bid for re-election. The Democratic-Republican candidate, George Clinton, finished with 50 electoral votes, but Adams won re-election with 77 electoral votes.[3]
  3. ^ The Federalist Party did not nominate a presidential candidate and essentially conceded the 1820 presidential election before it was held. Monroe did not face any opposition in the election, although one presidential elector, William Plumer, cast his vote for John Quincy Adams.[6]
  4. ^ Other third parties, such as the Populist Party, have nominated individuals who had previously been nominated for president by a major party.
  5. ^ a b The most recent elective office, or senior appointive position, held by the candidate when the presidential election was held.
  6. ^ a b State of primary residence.
  7. ^ This column reflects the share of the total presidential electoral vote won by the losing candidate. Prior to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each member of the Electoral College cast two votes, with no distinction made between electoral votes for president and electoral votes for vice president.[11] For the elections of 1796 and 1800, the number in this column reflects the share of presidential electors who cast one of their two votes for Jefferson (in 1796) or Adams (in 1800).
  8. ^ a b Prior to the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each member of the Electoral College cast two votes, with no distinction made between votes for president and votes for vice president.[9] The Democratic-Republicans may or may not have officially nominated Jefferson for president through a congressional nominating caucus, but Jefferson was widely regarded as the party's main presidential candidate in the 1796 election. The Democratic-Republicans did not select an official vice presidential candidate. Aaron Burr finished with the second-most electoral votes among individuals affiliated with the party.[12] Because Jefferson won more electoral votes than the second Federalist candidate, Thomas Pinckney, he was elected as vice president.[9]
  9. ^ Prior to the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each member of the Electoral College cast two votes, with no distinction made between votes for president and votes for vice president.[9] Thomas Jefferson and the other main Democratic-Republican candidate, Aaron Burr, each won the votes of 73 presidential electors, more than either of the Federalist candidates. Because Jefferson and Burr tied in the electoral vote, the election was decided by a contingent election held in the House of Representatives; Jefferson was elected president and Burr became vice president.[9]
  10. ^ Prior to the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each member of the Electoral College cast two votes, with no distinction made between votes for president and votes for vice president.[9] The Federalist congressional nominating caucus nominated a ticket of Adams and Charles C. Pinckney. Though the party did not officially nominate either candidate for president or vice president, most Federalists favored Adams for president and Pinckney for vice president.[15] Adams won 65 electoral votes and Pinckney won 64 electoral votes.[9]
  11. ^ Clinton was a Northern Democratic-Republican who challenged the incumbent Democratic-Republican president, James Madison, in the general election.[5] Clinton was nominated for president by a legislative caucus of New York Democratic-Republicans, and much of his support came from Democratic-Republicans dissatisfied with Madison's leadership in the War of 1812. The Federalist Party did not officially nominate Clinton, but most Federalist leaders tacitly supported Clinton's candidacy in hopes of defeating Madison.[18]
  12. ^ In 1812, Clinton simultaneously held the positions of Mayor of New York City and Lieutenant Governor of New York. He had also previously served in the United States Senate.
  13. ^ The Federalists did not nominate a ticket in 1816, though some Federalists were elected to serve as presidential electors. A majority of the Federalist electors cast their presidential vote for King and their vice presidential vote for Howard.[19]
  14. ^ The Democratic-Republican Party was unable to unite behind a single candidate in 1824.[7] Four Democratic-Republicans received electoral votes in the general election, and, as no candidate won a majority of the electoral vote, the election was decided in a contingent election held in the House of Representatives. John Quincy Adams won that contingent election.[9]
  15. ^ a b c In the election 1824, no presidential candidate won a majority of the electoral vote for president, but John C. Calhoun won a majority of the electoral vote for vice president, and thus was elected vice president. Most presidential electors who voted for either Adams or Jackson for president voted for Calhoun for vice president. Similarly, most electors who cast their presidential vote for Clay cast their vice presidential vote for Nathaniel Macon, and most electors who cast their presidential vote for Crawford cast their vice presidential vote for Sanford.[9]
  16. ^ The Whigs did not unite around a single candidate in 1836, but the party ran only one presidential candidate per state.[8] 25 states held a popular vote in the 1836 election; Harrison was the Whig candidate in fifteen states, most of which were in the North, White was the Whig candidate in nine states, all of which were in the South, and Daniel Webster was the Whig candidate in Massachusetts. Harrison and White each received electoral votes from multiple states, while Webster and Willie Person Mangum each received electoral votes from a single state (Massachusetts and South Carolina, respectively). In total, the Whigs won 49.1 percent of the popular vote and 41.8 percent of the electoral vote.[9]
  17. ^ a b The Whigs did not select an official vice presidential nominee, and, as in the presidential race, two vice presidential contenders emerged. In most Northern states, the Whigs fielded a ticket of Harrison and Granger, and in most Southern states, the Whigs fielded a ticket of White and Tyler.[26] Granger, Tyler, and two Democrats, Richard Mentor Johnson and William Smith, each won a share of the electoral vote.[9] Because no one candidate won a majority of the electoral vote for vice president, the Senate held a contingent election to select the vice president. In the only contingent election that the Senate has ever held, Johnson defeated Granger.[27]
  18. ^ The 1840 Democratic National Convention denied renomination to Vice President Richard Mentor Johnson, and the Democrats failed to officially nominate a vice presidential candidate in 1840.[30] Nonetheless, 48 of the 60 presidential electors who cast their presidential vote for Van Buren cast their vice presidential vote for Johnson. Most of the remaining Van Buren electors cast their vice presidential vote for Littleton Waller Tazewell.[31]
  19. ^ a b After the collapse of the Whig Party in the mid-1850s, the Republican Party and the American Party (the political organization of the Know Nothing movement) emerged as the major challengers to the Democratic Party. By 1856, neither the Republican nor the American Party had truly supplanted the Whig Party as the second major political party in the United States.[35] Nonetheless, the American Party is frequently described as a third party.[36][37][38] In 1856, the American Party, along with a rump convention of Whigs, nominated a presidential ticket led by former President Millard Fillmore.[39] After the 1856 election, the Republican Party firmly established itself as one of the two major parties alongside the Democratic Party, while the American Party collapsed.[40]
  20. ^ a b The Democratic Party fractured along sectional lines in 1860 and held multiple national conventions. The Northern Democrats nominated Douglas and the Southern Democrats nominated Vice President John C. Breckinridge.[43][44] Many sources include Breckinridge as a third party candidate,[45][9][46] but other sources do not.[47][2]
  21. ^ Greeley and Benjamin Gratz Brown were nominated by the Liberal Republican Party, a splinter group of Republicans. The ticket of Greeley and Brown was later nominated by the 1872 Democratic National Convention, as the Democrats hoped to defeat President Ulysses S. Grant's re-election bid by uniting with the Liberal Republicans.[10][51]
  22. ^ Greeley had served in the House of Representatives from December 1848 to March 1849. He was primarily known for his role as editor of the New-York Tribune.[52]
  23. ^ Greeley died after election day but before the Electoral College cast its votes, and thus did not receive any electoral votes.[2] Greeley would have won 66 electoral votes (18.8% of the 352 electoral votes available) had he been alive when the Electoral College cast its votes.[53]
  24. ^ a b In 1896, after Bryan won the Democratic presidential nomination, he was also nominated by the Populist Party, a major third party. The Populist vice presidential nominee was Thomas E. Watson.[60] Bryan's running mate on the Democratic ticket, Arthur Sewall, won 149 electoral votes for vice president, while Watson won 27 electoral votes for vice president.[9]
  25. ^ Parker was the Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals, the highest court in New York.
  26. ^ a b After Taft defeated Theodore Roosevelt for the presidential nomination at the 1912 Republican National Convention, supporters of Roosevelt established the Progressive Party, a third party dedicated to progressive ideals.[62][63][64] In the 1912 election, Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson won a plurality of the popular vote and a majority of the electoral vote. Roosevelt won the second highest share of electoral votes and popular votes, while Taft finished in third place in both categories.[9] Roosevelt is the only third-party candidate ever to win the second-most popular votes in a presidential election.[65]
  27. ^ Sherman died on October 30, 1912, and Taft did not name another running mate before the 1912 election was held. After the election, the Republican National Committee designated Nicholas Murray Butler as Taft's running mate for the purposes of the electoral vote, and Butler received eight electoral votes.[67]
  28. ^ Willkie was an attorney who had served as the president of the Commonwealth & Southern Corporation in the 1930s.
  29. ^ The 1972 Democratic National Convention selected Thomas Eagleton as the party's vice presidential nominee, but Eagleton dropped out of the race after it was publicly disclosed that he had undergone electroconvulsive therapy in order to treat depression. Shriver replaced Eagleton on the Democratic ticket.[81]
  30. ^ a b Though the Progressive Party of 1912 and the Progressive Party of 1924 shared names and an affiliation with the progressive movement, they were two distinct political parties.[98]
  31. ^ Perot was a businessman who was primarily known as the founder of Electronic Data Systems.[102]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Blake, Aaron (April 27, 2016). "Why are there only two parties in American politics?". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  3. ^ Thompson (1980), pp. 174–175
  4. ^ Knott, Stephen. "George Washington: Campaigns and Elections". Miller Center. University of Virginia. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  5. ^ a b Morgan (1969), pp. 191–193
  6. ^ Preston, Daniel. "James Monroe: Campaigns and Elections". Miller Center. University of Virginia. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  7. ^ a b Morgan (1969), p. 195
  8. ^ a b Deskins et al. (2010), pp. 106–107
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "United States Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  10. ^ a b Hale (1950), p. 338
  11. ^ Neale, Thomas H. (3 November 2016), Contingent Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Perspectives and Contemporary Analysis (PDF), Congressional Research Service
  12. ^ Morgan (1969), pp. 185–186
  13. ^ "Jefferson, Thomas, (1743–1826)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  14. ^ "Adams, John, (1735–1826)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  15. ^ Morgan (1969), p. 186
  16. ^ "Charles Cotesworth Pinckney". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  17. ^ "Clinton, De Witt, (1769–1828)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  18. ^ Siry (1985), pp. 457–460
  19. ^ Deskins et al. (2010), pp. 65
  20. ^ "King, Rufus, (1755–1827)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  21. ^ "Jackson, Andrew, (1767–1845)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  22. ^ "Crawford, William Harris, (1772–1834)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  23. ^ a b c "Clay, Henry, (1777–1852)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  24. ^ "Adams, John Quincy, (1767–1848)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  25. ^ "Harrison, William Henry, (1773–1841)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  26. ^ Peterson (1989), pp. 19–20
  27. ^ Deskins et al. (2010), pp. 108–109
  28. ^ "White, Hugh Lawson, (1773–1840)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  29. ^ a b "Van Buren, Martin, (1782–1862)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  30. ^ Sirgiovanni (1994), pp. 767–768
  31. ^ "Richard Mentor Johnson, 9th Vice President (1837–1841)". United States Senate. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  32. ^ "Cass, Lewis, (1782–1866)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  33. ^ "Winfield Scott". History.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  34. ^ "Frémont, John Charles, (1813–1890)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  35. ^ McPherson (1988), pp. 140–144, 153–154
  36. ^ Cooper, William. "James Buchanan: Campaigns and Elections". Miller Center. University of Virginia. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  37. ^ Boissoneault, Lorraine (January 26, 2017). "How the 19th-Century Know Nothing Party Reshaped American Politics". Smithsonian. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  38. ^ Hicks (1933), p. 10
  39. ^ Holt (2010), pp. 91–94
  40. ^ Gienapp (1985), p. 547
  41. ^ Gienapp (1987), p. 323
  42. ^ "Douglas, Stephen Arnold, (1813–1861)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  43. ^ Smith (1975), pp. 106–113
  44. ^ VandeCreek, Drew E. "Campaign of 1860". Northern Illinois University Libraries. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  45. ^ Patch, B. W. (1936). "Third Party Movements in American Politics". CQPress. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  46. ^ Rosenstone et al. (2018), pp. 59–63
  47. ^ Hicks (1933), pp. 3–28
  48. ^ "George McClellan". History.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  49. ^ "Horatio Seymour". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  50. ^ "Greeley, Horace, (1811–1872)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  51. ^ Frail, T. A. (July 26, 2018). "The Only Time a Major Party Embraced a Third-Party Candidate for President". Smithsonian. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  52. ^ "1872: Grant v. Greeley". HarpWeek, LLC. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  53. ^ Seitz (1926), p. 391
  54. ^ "Samuel Tilden Biography". National Park Service. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  55. ^ "Winfield Scott Hancock". History.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  56. ^ "Blaine, James Gillespie, (1830–1893)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  57. ^ "Grover Cleveland". WhiteHouse.gov. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  58. ^ "Harrison, Benjamin, (1833–1901)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  59. ^ a b "Bryan, William Jennings, (1860–1925)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  60. ^ Kazin (2006), pp. 63–65
  61. ^ Mandelbaum, Robert M. "Alton Brooks Parker". NYCourts.gov. Historical Society of the New York Courts. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  62. ^ Jacobson, Aileen (October 5, 2012). "A Landmark Race With the Bull Moose". New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  63. ^ Milkis, Sidney. "Theodore Roosevelt: Campaigns and Elections". Miller Center. University of Virginia. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  64. ^ Glass, Andrew (August 6, 2017). "Bull Moose convention nominates Theodore Roosevelt, Aug. 7, 1912". Politico. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  65. ^ Demaria, Ed (October 13, 2016). "Third Party Candidates Poised for Marginal Success for First Time in Years". NBC News. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  66. ^ "William Howard Taft". WhiteHouse.gov. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  67. ^ "James S. Sherman, 27th Vice President (1909–1912)". United States Senate. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  68. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Charles Evans Hughes (1862–1948)". Office of the Historian. United States State Department. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  69. ^ "Cox, James Middleton, (1870–1957)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  70. ^ "Davis, John William, (1873–1955)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  71. ^ "Al Smith". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  72. ^ "Herbert Hoover". WhiteHouse.gov. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  73. ^ "Alf Landon, G.O.P. Stand-Bearer, Dies at 100". October 13, 1987. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  74. ^ "Wendell Willkie". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  75. ^ "Thomas E. Dewey Is Dead at 68". New York Times. March 17, 1971. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  76. ^ "Adlai E. Stevenson". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  77. ^ "Nixon, Richard Milhous, (1913–1994)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  78. ^ "Goldwater, Barry Morris, (1909–1998)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  79. ^ "Humphrey, Hubert Horatio, Jr., (1911–1978)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  80. ^ "McGovern, George Stanley, (1922–2012)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  81. ^ Clymer, Adam (March 5, 2007). "Thomas F. Eagleton, 77, a Running Mate for 18 Days, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  82. ^ "Ford, Gerald Rudolph, Jr., (1913–2006)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  83. ^ "James Carter". WhiteHouse.gov. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  84. ^ "Mondale, Walter Frederick, (1928– )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  85. ^ "Michael Dukakis Fast Facts". CNN. October 21, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  86. ^ "Bush, George Herbert Walker, (1924– )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  87. ^ "Dole, Robert Joseph, (1923– )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  88. ^ "Gore, Albert Arnold, Jr., (1948– )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  89. ^ "Kerry, John Forbes, (1943– )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  90. ^ "McCain, John Sidney, III, (1936–2018)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  91. ^ "Mitt Romney". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  92. ^ "Clinton, Hillary Rodham, (1947– )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  93. ^ Rosenstone et al. (2018), Appendix A
  94. ^ "Fillmore, Millard, (1800–1874)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  95. ^ "Breckinridge, John Cabell, (1821–1875)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  96. ^ "Bell, John, (1796–1869)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  97. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt". WhiteHouse.gov. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  98. ^ Rosenstone et al. (2018), p. 93
  99. ^ "La Follette, Robert Marion, (1855–1925)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  100. ^ "George C. Wallace". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  101. ^ "Ross Perot". Biography.com. Biography.com. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  102. ^ Bernstein, David S. (March 29, 2016). "Why Hillary Clinton Should Be Worried About Ross Perot". Politico. Retrieved September 21, 2018.

Works cited[edit]

  • Deskins, Donald Richard; Walton, Hanes; Puckett, Sherman (2010). Presidential Elections, 1789–2008: County, State, and National Mapping of Election Data. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0472116973.
  • Gienapp, William E. (1985). "Nativism and the Creation of a Republican Majority in the North before the Civil War". The Journal of American History. 72 (3): 529–555. JSTOR 1904303.
  • Gienapp, William E. (1987). The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852–1856. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198021148.
  • Hale, William Harlan (1950). Horace Greeley: Voice of the People. Harper & Brothers. OCLC 336934.
  • Hicks, John D. (1933). "The Third Party Tradition in American Politics". The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 20 (1): 3–28. JSTOR 1902325.
  • Holt, Michael F. (2010). Franklin Pierce. Times Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-8719-2.
  • Kazin, Michael (2006). A Godly Hero: The Life of William Jennings Bryan. Knopf. ISBN 978-0375411359.
  • McPherson, James M. (1988). Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199743902.
  • Morgan, William G. (1969). "The Origin and Development of the Congressional Nominating Caucus". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 113 (2): 184–196. JSTOR 985965.
  • Peterson, Norma Lois (1989). The Presidencies of William Henry Harrison and John Tyler. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-0400-5.
  • Rosenstone, Steven J.; Behr, Roy L.; Lazarus, Edward H. (2018). Third Parties in America: Citizen Response to Major Party Failure (2nd ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691190525.
  • Seitz, Don Carlos (1926). Horace Greeley: Founder of The New York Tribune. Bobbs-Merrill.
  • Sirgiovanni, George S. (1994). "Dumping the Vice President: An Historical Overview and Analysis". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 24 (4): 765–782. JSTOR 27551324.
  • Siry, Steven Edwin (1985). "The Sectional Politics of "Practical Republicanism": De Witt Clinton's Presidential Bid, 1810–1812". Journal of the Early Republic. 5 (4): 441–462. JSTOR 3123061.
  • Smith, Elbert B. (1975). The Presidency of James Buchanan. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-0132-5.
  • Thompson, Harry C. (1980). "The Second Place in Rome: John Adams as Vice President". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 10 (2): 171–178. JSTOR 27547562.

Further reading[edit]

  • Farris, Scott (2011). Almost President: The Men Who Lost The Race But Changed The Nation. Lyons Press. ISBN 978-0762763788.
  • Morris, Seymour (2017). Fit for the Presidency?: Winners, Losers, What-ifs, and Also-rans. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9781612348872.
  • Southwick, Leslie H. (2008). Presidential Also-Rans and Running Mates, 1788 Through 1996 (2nd ed.). McFarland. ISBN 978-0786438914.
  • Stone, Irving (1966) [1943]. They Also Ran (Revised ed.). Doubleday. ISBN 978-0385074094.

External links[edit]