List of unsuccessful major party candidates for Vice President of the United States

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The United States has had a two-party system for much of its history, and the two major parties have nominated vice presidential candidates in most presidential elections.[1] Since the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1789, there have been 58 unsuccessful major party candidates for Vice President of the United States. Eight other individuals have served as the main running mate to a third party or independent presidential candidate who won at least ten percent of the popular or electoral vote.

Prior to the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each member of the Electoral College cast two votes for president; whichever individual who won the most electoral votes would become president, while the individual with the second-most electoral votes would become vice president. In the elections of 1792, 1796, and 1800, at least one of the major parties ran a candidate whom they intended to elect vice president. The Twelfth Amendment changed the presidential election process, requiring members of the Electoral College to cast separate votes for president and vice president. Since then, the two major parties have almost always nominated a ticket consisting of a single presidential candidate and a single vice presidential candidate. Before the election of 1832, both major parties used a congressional nominating caucus, or nominations by state legislatures, to determine presidential and vice presidential candidates.[2] Since 1840, each major party has consistently nominated a single ticket at their respective presidential nominating conventions.

The two current major parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. At various points prior to the American Civil War, the Federalist Party, the Democratic-Republican Party, the National Republican Party, and the Whig Party were major parties.[1] In the 1872 presidential election, the Liberal Republican Party put forward an unsuccessful major party vice presidential nominee, Benjamin Gratz Brown. Brown and his running mate, Horace Greeley, were also nominated by the Democratic Party.[3]

List of unsuccessful major party candidates[edit]

These unsuccessful vice presidential candidates served as the main running mate of a major party presidential candidate who competed in multiple states, or they were a major party's main vice presidential candidate in multiple states.

  • * indicates that the candidate served as Vice President of the United States at some point in their career
  Federalist       Democratic-Republican       National Republican       Whig       Liberal Republican       Democratic       Republican
Election Candidate[4][5] Running mate
Candidate
(Birth–Death)
Party Office at time
of election[a]
Home
State[b]
EV%[c]
1792[d] George Clinton*
(1739–1812)[7]
George Clinton by Ezra Ames (cropped 4x3 closein).jpg Democratic-Republican   Governor NY 37% None
1796[e] Thomas Pinckney
(1750–1828)[9]
Thomas Pinckney (cropped 3x4).jpg Federalist   Fmr. Ambassador SC 43.7% John Adams
Aaron Burr*
(1756–1836)[10]
Burr (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic-Republican   Senator NY 22.2% Thomas Jefferson
1800[f] Charles C. Pinckney
(1746–1825)[12]
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Federalist   Fmr. Ambassador SC 36.4% John Adams
1804 Rufus King
(1755–1827)[13]
Unsuccessful 1816.jpg Federalist   Fmr. Ambassador NY 8% Charles C. Pinckney
1808 26.7%
1812 Jared Ingersoll
(1749–1822)[14]
Jared Ingersoll (cropped 3x4).jpg Federalist   State attorney general[g] PA 39.4% DeWitt Clinton
1816[h] John E. Howard
(1752–1827)[16]
Johneagerhoward (cropped).jpg Federalist   Fmr. Senator MD 10% Rufus King
1824 Nathan Sanford
(1777–1838)[17]
NathanSanford (cropped 3x4).JPG Democratic-Republican[i]   State judge[j] NY 11.5% Henry Clay
Nathaniel Macon
(1757–1837)[18]
NC-Congress-NathanielMacon (cropped 3x4).jpg Senator GA 9.2% William H. Crawford
1828 Richard Rush
(1780–1859)[19]
Richard Rush engraving (cropped 3x4).png National Republican   Secretary of the Treasury PA 31.8% John Quincy Adams
1832 John Sergeant
1779–1852[20]
JohnSergeant (cropped 3x4).png National Republican   Fmr. Representative PA 17.1% Henry Clay
1836[k] Francis Granger
(1792–1868)[23]
Francis Granger (cropped 3x4).jpg Whig   Representative NY 26.2% William Henry Harrison
John Tyler*
(1790–1862)[24]
John Tyler (cropped 3x4).png Fmr. Senator VA 16% Hugh Lawson White
1840[l] Richard M. Johnson*
(1780–1850)[27]
Richard Mentor Johnson A29919 (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Vice President KY 16.3% Martin Van Buren
1844 Theodore Frelinghuysen
(1787–1862)[28]
Theodore Frelinghuysen - Brady-Handy (3x4 cropped).jpg Whig   Fmr. Senator NJ 38.2% Henry Clay
1848 William O. Butler
(1791–1880)[29]
WilliamOButler (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Fmr. Representative[m] KY 43.8% Lewis Cass
1852 William A. Graham
(1804–1875)[30]
William Alexander Graham - Brady-Handy (cropped 3x4).jpg Whig   Secretary of the Navy NC 14.2% Winfield Scott
1856[n] William L. Dayton
(1807–1864)[36]
WLDayton-1856 (cropped 3x4).png Republican   Fmr. Senator NJ 38.5% John C. Frémont
1860[o] Herschel V. Johnson
(1812–1880)[42]
HerschelVespasianJohnson.png Democratic   Fmr. Governor GA 4% Stephen A. Douglas
1864 George H. Pendleton
(1825–1889)[43]
GeorgeHPendleton (cropped 3x4).png Democratic   Representative OH 9% George B. McClellan
1868 Francis P. Blair Jr.
(1821–1875)[44]
Francis P. Blair cph.3a02329 (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Fmr. Representative MO 25.2% Horatio Seymour
1872 Benjamin G. Brown
(1826–1885)[45]
B. Gratz Brown - Brady-Handy (cropped 3x4).jpg Liberal Republican
and Democratic[p]
  Governor MO 13.4% Horace Greeley
1876 Thomas A. Hendricks*
(1819–1885)[47]
Thomas Andrews Hendricks (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Governor IN 49.9% Samuel Tilden
1880 William H. English
(1822–1896)[48]
WHEnglish photo (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Fmr. Representative IN 42% Winfield Scott Hancock
1884 John A. Logan
(1826–1886)[49]
John Alexander Logan crop.jpg Republican   Senator IL 45.4% James G. Blaine
1888 Allen G. Thurman
(1813–1895)[50]
Allen G. Thurman - Brady-Handy (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Fmr. Senator OH 41.9% Grover Cleveland
1892 Whitelaw Reid
(1837–1912)[51]
Whitelaw Reid by Rockwood (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Fmr. Ambassador NY 32.7% Benjamin Harrison
1896[q] Arthur Sewall
(1835–1900)
ArthurSewall (cropped 3x4).png Democratic   None ME 33.3% William Jennings Bryan
1900 Adlai Stevenson I*
(1835–1914)[53]
Adlai Stevenson I by Saroney c1892 (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Fmr. Vice President IL 34.7% William Jennings Bryan
1904 Henry G. Davis
(1823–1916)[54]
Henry Gassaway Davis Crop (cropped closein 3x4).jpg Democratic   Fmr. Senator WV 29.4% Alton B. Parker
1908 John W. Kern
(1849–1917)[55]
JohnWKern.jpg Democratic   Fmr. state senator[r] IN 33.5% William Jennings Bryan
1912[s] James S. Sherman*
(1855–1912)[57]
James Schoolcraft Sherman.jpg Republican   Vice President NY 1.5% William Howard Taft
1916 Charles W. Fairbanks*
(1852–1918)[58]
Charles W Fairbanks by Harris & Ewing (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Fmr. Vice President IN 47.8% Charles Evans Hughes
1920 Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1882–1945)
Roosevelt20 (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Fmr. Assistant
Secretary of the Navy
NY 23.9% James M. Cox
1924 Charles W. Bryan
(1867–1945)[59]
CharlesBryan.png Democratic   Governor NE 25.6% John W. Davis
1928 Joseph T. Robinson
(1872–1937)[60]
AR Joseph Robinson (3x4).jpg Democratic   Senator AR 16.4% Al Smith
1932 Charles Curtis*
(1860–1936)[61]
Charles Curtis-portrait (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Vice President KS 11.1% Herbert Hoover
1936 Frank Knox
(1874–1944)
FrankKnox c1943 g399009 (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   None[t] IL 1.5% Alf Landon
1940 Charles L. McNary
(1874–1944)[62]
Charles Linza McNary cph.3b18950 (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Senator OR 15.4% Wendell Willkie
1944 John W. Bricker
(1893–1986)[63]
John W. Bricker cph.3b31299 (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Governor OH 18.6% Thomas E. Dewey
1948 Earl Warren
(1891–1974)
Earl Warren Portrait, half figure, seated, facing front, as Governor (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Governor CA 35.6% Thomas E. Dewey
1952 John Sparkman
(1899–1985)[64]
Alabama Sen. John Sparkman (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Senator AL 16.8% Adlai Stevenson II
1956 Estes Kefauver
(1903–1963)[65]
SenatorKefauver(D-TN) (3x4).jpg Democratic   Senator KY 13.7% Adlai Stevenson II
1960 Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
(1902–1985)[66]
Cabot Lodge (1964) (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Fmr. Ambassador MA 40.8% Richard Nixon
1964 William E. Miller
(1914–1983)[67]
William-Edward-Miller-83rd (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Representative[u] NY 9.7% Barry Goldwater
1968 Edmund Muskie
(1914–1996)[68]
Edmund Muskie (1).jpg Democratic   Senator ME 35.5% Hubert Humphrey
1972[v] Sargent Shriver
(1915–2011)
Sargent Shriver 1961 (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Fmr. Ambassador MD 3.2% George McGovern
1976 Bob Dole
(1923–present)[70]
1981 Dole p49 (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Senator KS 44.8% Gerald Ford
1980 Walter Mondale*
(1928–present)[71]
Unsuccessful 1984.jpg Democratic   Vice President MN 9.1% Jimmy Carter
1984 Geraldine Ferraro
(1935–2011)[72]
GeraldineFerraro (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Representative NY 2.4% Walter Mondale
1988 Lloyd Bentsen
(1921–2006)[73]
LloydBentsen (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Senator TX 20.6% Michael Dukakis
1992 Dan Quayle*
(1947–present)[74]
Dan Quayle (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Vice President IN 31.2% George H. W. Bush
1996 Jack Kemp
(1935–2009)[75]
Jack Kemp official portrait (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Fmr. Secretary of HUD NY 29.6% Bob Dole
2000 Joe Lieberman
(1942–present)[76]
Joe Lieberman official portrait 2 (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Senator CT 49.4% Al Gore
2004 John Edwards
(1953–present)[77]
John Edwards, official Senate photo portrait (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Senator NC 46.8% John Kerry
2008 Sarah Palin
(1964–present)
Sarah Palin by Gage Skidmore 2 (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Governor AK 32.2% John McCain
2012 Paul Ryan
(1970–present)[78]
Paul Ryan official portrait (cropped 3x4).jpg Republican   Representative WI 38.3% Mitt Romney
2016 Tim Kaine
(1958–present)[79]
Tim Kaine, official 113th Congress photo portrait (cropped 3x4).jpg Democratic   Senator VA 42.2% Hillary Clinton

List of unsuccessful major third party and independent candidates[edit]

These third party and independent candidates won at least ten percent of the electoral vote for vice president, or served as the main running mate to a third party or independent presidential candidate who won at least ten percent of the popular vote for president.[80]

  Free Soil       American       Southern Democratic       Constitutional Union
       Progressive (1912)       Progressive (1924)       American Independent       Independent
Election Candidate[4][5] Running mate
Candidate
(Birth–Death)
Party Office at time
of election[a]
Home
State[b]
EV%[w]
1848 Charles Francis Adams Sr.
(1807–1886)[81]
C. F. Adams - Warren. LCCN2013651550 (cropped closein 3x4).jpg Free Soil   Fmr. state senator MA 0% Martin Van Buren
1856 Andrew Jackson Donelson
(1800–1874)[82]
Andrew J. Donelson portrait (cropped 3x4).jpg American   Fmr. Ambassador TN 2.7% Millard Fillmore
1860 Joseph Lane
(1801–1881)[83]
Joseph Lane (cwpbh-02170) (cropped closein 3x4).jpg Southern Democratic   Senator OR 23.8% John C. Breckinridge
1860 Edward Everett
(1794–1865)[84]
Edward Everett, 1794-1865, three-quarter length portrait, standing, facing left (cropped closein 3x4).jpg Constitutional Union   Fmr. Secretary of State MA 12.9% John Bell
1912 Hiram Johnson
(1866–1945)[85]
Hiram Johnson 2 (cropped closein 3x4).jpg Progressive   Governor CA 16.6% Theodore Roosevelt
1924 Burton K. Wheeler
(1882–1975)[86]
BurtonKWheeler.jpg Progressive   Senator MT 2.4% Robert La Follette
1968 Curtis LeMay
(1906–1990)[87]
Curtis LeMay (USAF) (cropped closein 3x4).jpg American Independent   General CA 8.6% George Wallace
1992 James Stockdale
(1923-2005)[88][89]
James Stockdale Formal Portrait (cropped closein 3x4).jpg Independent   Vice Admiral CA 0% Ross Perot

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The most recent elective office, or senior appointive position, held by the candidate either on election day or in November of the election year.
  2. ^ a b State of primary residence.
  3. ^ For elections held prior to 1804, this column represents the share of electors who cast a vote for the candidate. For elections held since 1804, this column represents the share of the total electoral vote for vice president won by the candidate.
  4. ^ In the 1792 election, George Washington effectively ran unopposed for president, but the emerging Democratic-Republican Party attempted to defeat Vice President John Adams's bid for re-election.[6]
  5. ^ The Democratic-Republicans may or may not have officially nominated Thomas Jefferson for president through a congressional nominating caucus, but Jefferson was widely regarded as the party's main presidential candidate in the 1796 election. The Democratic-Republicans did not select an official vice presidential candidate. Aaron Burr finished with the second-most electoral votes among individuals affiliated with the party. Federalist leaders agreed to support a ticket of John Adams and Thomas Pinckney, though it is unclear whether they formally nominated the ticket at a congressional nominating caucus.[8] Ultimately, Adams won the most electoral votes and became president. Because Jefferson won more electoral votes than Pinckney or Burr, he was elected as vice president.[4]
  6. ^ Both parties held congressional nominating caucuses to nominate presidential candidates in 1800. The Democratic-Republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, while the Federalists nominated John Adams and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Some Federalist leaders, including Alexander Hamilton, favored Pinckney over Adams, but Adams won one more electoral vote than Pinckney.[11] Jefferson and Burr each won the votes of 73 presidential electors, more than either of the Federalist candidates. Because Jefferson and Burr tied in the electoral vote, the election was decided by a contingent election held in the House of Representatives; Jefferson was elected president and Burr became vice president.[4]
  7. ^ Ingersoll had also served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and to the Constitutional Convention.[14]
  8. ^ The Federalists did not nominate a ticket in 1816, though some Federalists were elected to serve as presidential electors. A majority of the Federalist electors cast their presidential vote for Rufus King and their vice presidential vote for Howard.[15]
  9. ^ In the election 1824, no presidential candidate won a majority of the electoral vote for president, but John C. Calhoun won a majority of the electoral vote for vice president. Most presidential electors who voted for either John Quincy Adams or Andrew Jackson for president voted for Calhoun for vice president. Similarly, most electors who cast their presidential vote for Henry Clay cast their vice presidential vote for Nathaniel Macon, and most electors who cast their presidential vote for William H. Crawford cast their vice presidential vote for Sanford.[4]
  10. ^ Sanford was the Chancellor of New York, the highest-ranking judge in the state. He had also served in the United States Senate.[17]
  11. ^ The Whigs did not select an official presidential or vice presidential nominee in 1836. In most Northern states, the Whigs fielded a ticket of William Henry Harrison and Francis Granger, and in most Southern states, the Whigs fielded a ticket of Hugh Lawson White and John Tyler.[21] Granger, Tyler, and two Democrats, Richard Mentor Johnson and William Smith, each won a share of the electoral vote.[4] Because no one candidate won a majority of the electoral vote for vice president, the Senate held a contingent election to select the vice president. In the only contingent election that the Senate has ever held, Johnson defeated Granger.[22]
  12. ^ The 1840 Democratic National Convention denied renomination to Vice President Richard Mentor Johnson, and the Democrats failed to officially nominate a vice presidential candidate in 1840.[25] Nonetheless, 48 of the 60 presidential electors who cast their presidential vote for Van Buren cast their vice presidential vote for Johnson. Most of the remaining Van Buren electors cast their vice presidential vote for Littleton Waller Tazewell.[26]
  13. ^ Butler had also served as a major general of volunteers in the Mexican–American War.[29]
  14. ^ After the collapse of the Whig Party in the mid-1850s, the Republican Party and the American Party (the political organization of the Know Nothing movement) emerged as the major challengers to the Democratic Party. By 1856, neither the Republican nor the American Party had truly supplanted the Whig Party as the second major political party in the United States.[31] Nonetheless, the American Party is frequently described as a third party.[32][33][34] After the 1856 election, the Republican Party firmly established itself as one of the two major parties alongside the Democratic Party, while the American Party collapsed.[35]
  15. ^ The Democratic Party fractured along sectional lines in 1860 and held multiple national conventions. The Northern Democrats nominated Douglas and the Southern Democrats nominated Vice President John C. Breckinridge.[37][38] Many sources include Breckinridge as a third party candidate,[39][4][40] but other sources do not.[41][5]
  16. ^ Horace Greeley and Benjamin Gratz Brown were nominated by the Liberal Republican Party, a splinter group of Republicans. The ticket of Greeley and Brown was later nominated by the 1872 Democratic National Convention, as the Democrats hoped to defeat President Ulysses S. Grant's re-election bid by uniting with the Liberal Republicans.[3][46]
  17. ^ In 1896, after William Jennings Bryan won the Democratic presidential nomination, he was also nominated by the Populist Party, a major third party. The Populist vice presidential nominee was Thomas E. Watson.[52] Bryan's running mate on the Democratic ticket, Arthur Sewall, won 149 electoral votes for vice president, while Watson won 27 electoral votes for vice president.[4]
  18. ^ Kern was the Democratic nominee for Governor of Indiana in the 1900 and 1904 elections.[55]
  19. ^ Sherman died on October 30, 1912, and Taft did not name another running mate before the 1912 election was held. After the election, the Republican National Committee designated Nicholas Murray Butler as Taft's running mate for the purposes of the electoral vote, and Butler received eight electoral votes.[56]
  20. ^ Knox was primarily known as the editor of the Chicago Daily News.
  21. ^ Miller also served as Chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1961 to 1964.[67]
  22. ^ The 1972 Democratic National Convention selected Thomas Eagleton as the party's vice presidential nominee, but Eagleton dropped out of the race after it was publicly disclosed that he had undergone electroconvulsive therapy in order to treat depression. Shriver replaced Eagleton on the Democratic ticket.[69]
  23. ^ For elections held prior to 1804, this column represents the share of electors who cast a vote for the candidate. For elections held since 1804, this column represents the share of the total electoral vote for vice president won by the candidate.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Blake, Aaron (April 27, 2016). "Why are there only two parties in American politics?". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  2. ^ Morgan (1969), p. 195
  3. ^ a b Hale (1950), p. 338
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "United States Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  5. ^ a b c "Electoral College Box Scores 1789-1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  6. ^ Thompson (1980), pp. 174–175
  7. ^ "CLINTON, George, (1739 - 1812)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  8. ^ Morgan (1969), pp. 185–186
  9. ^ "PINCKNEY, Thomas, (1750 - 1828)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  10. ^ "BURR, Aaron, (1756 - 1836)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  11. ^ Morgan (1969), pp. 186–187
  12. ^ "Charles Cotesworth Pinckney". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  13. ^ "KING, Rufus, (1755 - 1827)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  14. ^ a b "INGERSOLL, Jared, (1749 - 1822)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  15. ^ Deskins et al. (2010), pp. 65
  16. ^ "HOWARD, John Eager, (1752 - 1827)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  17. ^ a b "SANFORD, Nathan, (1777 - 1838)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  18. ^ "MACON, Nathaniel, (1757 - 1837)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  19. ^ "Richard Rush (1825–1829)". Miller Center. University of Virginia. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  20. ^ "SERGEANT, John, (1779 - 1852)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  21. ^ Peterson (1989), pp. 19–20
  22. ^ Deskins et al. (2010), pp. 108–109
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  24. ^ "TYLER, John, (1790 - 1862)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  25. ^ Sirgiovanni (1994), pp. 767–768
  26. ^ "Richard Mentor Johnson, 9th Vice President (1837-1841)". United States Senate. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  27. ^ "JOHNSON, Richard Mentor, (1780 - 1850)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  28. ^ "FRELINGHUYSEN, Theodore, (1787 - 1862)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  29. ^ a b "BUTLER, William Orlando, (1791 - 1880)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  30. ^ "GRAHAM, William Alexander, (1804 - 1875)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  31. ^ McPherson (1988), pp. 140–144, 153–154
  32. ^ Cooper, William. "James Buchanan: Campaigns and Elections". Miller Center. University of Virginia. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  33. ^ Boissoneault, Lorraine (January 26, 2017). "How the 19th-Century Know Nothing Party Reshaped American Politics". Smithsonian. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  34. ^ Hicks (1933), p. 10
  35. ^ Gienapp (1985), p. 547
  36. ^ "DAYTON, William Lewis, (1807 - 1864)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  37. ^ Smith (1975), pp. 106–113
  38. ^ VandeCreek, Drew E. "Campaign of 1860". Northern Illinois University Libraries. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  39. ^ Patch, B. W. (1936). "Third Party Movements in American Politics". CQPress. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
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  41. ^ Hicks (1933), pp. 3–28
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  43. ^ "PENDLETON, George Hunt, (1825 - 1889)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  44. ^ "BLAIR, Francis Preston, Jr., (1821 - 1875)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  45. ^ "BROWN, Benjamin Gratz, (1826 - 1885)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
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  47. ^ "HENDRICKS, Thomas Andrews, (1819 - 1885)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  48. ^ "ENGLISH, William Hayden, (1822 - 1896)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  49. ^ "LOGAN, John Alexander, (1826 - 1886)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  50. ^ "THURMAN, Allen Granberry, (1813 - 1895)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
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  54. ^ "DAVIS, Henry Gassaway, (1823 - 1916)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  55. ^ a b "KERN, John Worth, (1849 - 1917)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  56. ^ "James S. Sherman, 27th Vice President (1909-1912)". United States Senate. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  57. ^ "SHERMAN, James Schoolcraft, (1855 - 1912)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  58. ^ "FAIRBANKS, Charles Warren, (1852 - 1918)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  59. ^ "Governor Charles Wayland Bryan". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  60. ^ "ROBINSON, Joseph Taylor, (1872 - 1937)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  61. ^ "CURTIS, Charles, (1860 - 1936)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  62. ^ "McNARY, Charles Linza, (1874 - 1944)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  63. ^ "BRICKER, John William, (1893 - 1986)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  64. ^ "SPARKMAN, John Jackson, (1899 - 1985)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  65. ^ "KEFAUVER, Carey Estes, (1903 - 1963)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  66. ^ "LODGE, Henry Cabot, Jr., (1902 - 1985)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  67. ^ a b "MILLER, William Edward, (1914 - 1983)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  68. ^ "MUSKIE, Edmund Sixtus, (1914 - 1996)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  69. ^ Clymer, Adam (March 5, 2007). "Thomas F. Eagleton, 77, a Running Mate for 18 Days, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  70. ^ "DOLE, Robert Joseph, (1923 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  71. ^ "MONDALE, Walter Frederick, (1928 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  72. ^ "FERRARO, Geraldine Anne, (1935 - 2011)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  73. ^ "BENTSEN, Lloyd Millard, Jr., (1921 - 2006)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
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  75. ^ "KEMP, Jack French, (1935 - 2009)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
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