List of urban areas by population

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This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ranked according to population. Figures have been taken from two sources: Demographia's "World Urban Areas" study,[1] and from citypopulation.de, created by Thomas Brinkhoff of the Institut für Angewandte Photogrammetrie und Geoinformatik.[2]

Definitions and issues[edit]

Demographia defines an urban area (urbanized area agglomeration or urban centre) as a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market (i.e. metropolitan area or metropolitan region), without regard for administrative boundaries (i.e. municipality, city or commune). Except in Australia, the authorities use a minimum urban density definition of 400 persons per square kilometer (or the nearly identical 1,000 per square mile in the United States). (As of 2019, the density of urban areas in the top 100 listed in the chart below ranges from 600 persons per square kilometer in Atlanta, USA, to 41,000 persons per square kilometer in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The fourteen least dense urban areas in the chart below are all in the United States or Australia, as of 2019.) Demographia uses maps and satellite photographs to estimate continuous urbanization. Demographia also uses small area population data, where available, to match population estimates to urbanized land area. National census authority data are presented in Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Census of India urban agglomerations are not used in some cases because the geographical size of constituent units (municipalities) often includes large rural (non-urban) areas.

Sources for population estimates and land area definitions are coded by letter in the Table below, respectively.

A: National census authority data agglomeration data (land area or population).
B: Demographia land area estimate based upon map or satellite photograph analysis.
C: Demographia population estimate from lower order jurisdictions, including reduction for rural areas.
D: Population estimate based upon the United Nations agglomeration estimate.
E: Demographia population estimate from national census authority data.
F: Other Demographia population estimate, such as from unofficial local reports.
L: Demographia population estimate from local authority data.
N: Combined urban area using national census authority data.
W: Population estimate based upon the World Bank Urban Area 2015 estimate.

The estimates are quite different from the list of World's largest urban agglomerations produced by the United Nations that reports inconsistently on urban geographic boundaries, despite its reference to agglomerations. This is evident, for example, in Manila, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Seoul and Moscow, where the UN data are for political jurisdictions, rather than urban areas. In other cases, the UN data is for metropolitan areas, which are larger than urban areas (such as in Brazil). Finally, the United Nations data is incomplete, excluding some significant urban areas (such as EssenDüsseldorf in Germany).[citation needed]

Urban areas are confined to a single nation, unless there is freedom of movement (including labor) between the adjacent nations. Currently, this condition is met only between some continental nations of the European Union and Switzerland (e.g. LilleKortrijk in both France and Belgium, AachenVaals in both Germany and Netherlands, SaarbrückenForbach in both Germany and France, GenevaAnnemasse in both Switzerland and France, and BaselLörrachSaint-Louis in Switzerland, Germany and France). Thus, Detroit–Windsor in both the United States and Canada, and San Diego–Tijuana in both the United States and Mexico are not treated as single urban areas. Moreover, ShenzhenHong Kong is treated as separate urban areas, principally because labor movement between the two is limited, with the former within China and the latter a special administrative region of China.[citation needed]

According to the Demographia report, there are 875 identified urban areas in the world with 500,000 or more population as of 2013. Demographia released along with the report a disclaimer that this list of data is compiled on best available information, the very nature of which is changing rapidly. The disclaimed notes that data remains highly variable between nations, and significant revisions are therefore possible. Appropriate caution is therefore advised. According to the 2019 Demographia report there are 1,050 identified built-up urban areas (urban agglomerations or urbanized areas) in the world with 500,000 or more population.[3]

224 urban areas with population of over two million

Urban areas (Top 100)[edit]

Urban area Demographia[1] citypopulation.de[2]
2019
Rank
2013
Rank[4]
City Country Population Area
(km2)[1]
Density
(/km2)[1]
Sources of
Pop. / Area[1]
Rank Population Remarks
1 1 TokyoYokohama[5]  Japan 38,505,000 8,223 4,700 C / B 2 40,200,000 incl. Chiba, Kawasaki, Maebashi, Sagamihara, Saitama, Utsunomiya, Yokohama
2 2 Jakarta (Greater Jakarta)[6]  Indonesia 34,365,000 3,367 10,200 C / B 4 30,600,000 Locally known as Jabodetabek, incl. Bekasi, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, South Tangerang
3 4 Delhi (CNCR)[7]  India 28,125,000 2,240 12,600 A / B 5 29,400,000 incl. Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon
4 6 Manila (Greater Manila Area)[8]  Philippines 25,632,760 1,813 14,138 C / B 6 29,700,000 incl. the cities of: Manila, Caloocan, Quezon City, Makati, Taguig, Pasay, Pasig, Mandaluyong, Valenzuela, Marikina, Las Pinas, Paranaque, Muntinlupa and Pateros, as well as the provinces of Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Bulacan, Batangas, Pampanga, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija
5 3 Seoul-Incheon (Seoul National Capital Area)[9]  South Korea 24,315,000 2,745 8,900 C / B 7 24,700,000 incl. Bucheon, Goyang, Incheon, Seongnam, Suwon
6 13 Mumbai[10]  India 23,645,000 881 26,900 C / B 7 24,700,000 incl. Mumbai, Bhiwandi-Nizampur Municipal Corporation, Kalyan-Dombivali, Thane, Ulhasnagar, Vasai-Virar
7 5 Shanghai[11]  China 22,125,000 4,015 5,500 L / B 3 35,900,000 incl. Changzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi
8 8 New York City[12]  United States 21,045,000 11,875 1,700 N / A 10 22,400,000 incl. Bridgeport, Newark, New Haven
9 9 São Paulo[13]  Brazil 20,935,000 3,043 6,900 C / B 11 22,200,000 incl. Guarulhos
10 10 Mexico City (Valley of Mexico)[14]  Mexico 20,395,000 2,370 8,600 C / B 9 22,800,000 incl. Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, Ecatepec, Naucalpan
11 12 GuangzhouFoshan (Guangfo)[15]  China 20,130,000 3,885 5,200 L / B 1 45,600,000 Northern Pearl River Delta; incl. Dongguan, Foshan, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Zhongshan; excluding Hong Kong SAR
12 11 Beijing[16]  China 19,430,000 4,144 4,700 L / B 13 20,400,000
13 21 Dhaka[17]  Bangladesh 18,595,000 453 41,000 C / B 14 19,500,000
14 14 OsakaKobeKyoto (Keihanshin)[18]  Japan 17,150,000 3,004 5,700 C / B 18 17,700,000 incl. Himeji, Kōbe, Kyōto, Sakai
15 16 Cairo  Egypt 16,925,000 1,917 8,800 C / B 12 20,500,000 incl. Al-Jizah, Helwan, Shubra al-Khaymah
16 15 Moscow[19]  Russia 16,555,000 5,698 2,900 C / B 20 17,200,000
17 20 Bangkok  Thailand 16,045,000 3,043 5,300 C / B 16 18,300,000
18 17 Los Angeles[20]  United States 15,440,000 6,299 2,300 N / A 17 17,800,000 incl. Anaheim, Riverside
19 19 Kolkata  India 15,215,000 1,347 11,300 A / B 21 16,600,000 incl. Haora
20 22 Buenos Aires[21]  Argentina 15,130,000 3,212 4,700 C / B 22 16,300,000 incl. San Justo, La Plata
21 25 Lagos  Nigeria 14,630,000 1,943 7,500 W / B 15 18,800,000
22 22 Tehran[22]  Iran 14,410,000 1,684 8,600 C / B 24 15,000,000 incl. Karaj
23 23 Istanbul  Turkey 13,860,000 1,360 10,200 C / B 23 15,800,000 incl. Gebze
24 7 Karachi[23]  Pakistan 13,470,000 1,036 13,000 C / B 19 17,300,000
25 24 Shenzhen[15]  China 13,195,000 1,748 7,500 L / B (included in Guangzhou above)
26 32 Tianjin[24]  China 13,035,000 2,771 4,700 L / B 27 13,200,000
27 31 Kinshasa[25]  Democratic Republic of the Congo 12,960,000 583 22,200 C / B 30 12,000,000
28 39 Chengdu  China 12,160,000 1,813 6,700 L / B 38 9,800,000 incl. Shuangliu
29 26 Rio de Janeiro  Brazil 12,070,000 1,917 6,300 C / B 28 13,100,000 incl. Nova Iguaçu, São Gonçalo
30 42 Lahore  Pakistan 11,070,000 896 12,400 C / B 29 12,600,000
31 30 Lima  Peru 11,460,000 894 12,800 C / B 35 9,900,000 incl. Callao
32 35 Bangalore  India 11,250,000 1,166 9,700 A / B 31 11,800,000
33 27 Paris  France 10,960,000 2,845 3,700 A / A 32 11,400,000
34 37 Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)  Vietnam 10,955,000 1,645 6,700 C / B 44 8,600,000 incl. Biên Hòa
35 29 London[26]  United Kingdom 10,840,000 1,738 6,200 A / A 25 14,700,000
36 36 Bogotá  Colombia 10,705,000 585 18,300 C / B 38 9,800,000
37 33 Chennai  India 10,560,000 1,049 10,100 A / B 33 11,000,000
38 28 Nagoya (Chūkyō)[27]  Japan 10,240,000 3,704 2,800 C / B 34 10,500,000
39 41 Hyderabad  India 9,580,000 1,230 7,800 A / B 37 9,850,000
40 43 JohannesburgEast Rand[28]  South Africa 9,335,000 2,590 3,600 C / B 26 13,700,000 incl. East Rand, Evaton, Pretoria, Soshanguve, Soweto, Vereeniging, West Rand
41 34 Chicago[29]  United States 9,275,000 6,856 1,300 N / A 40 9,750,000
42 40 Taipei-Taoyuan[30]  Taiwan 8,535,000 1,140 7,500 C / B 41 9,100,000 incl. Taoyuan, New Taipei City (Xinbei)
43 44 Wuhan  China 8,470,000 1,619 5,200 L / B 42 8,850,000
44 38 Dongguan[15]  China 8,410,000 1,748 4,800 L / B (included in Guangzhou above)
45 169 Hanoi  Vietnam 8,350,000 868 9,600 C / B 125 3,900,000
46 48 Chongqing[31]  China 8,300,000 1,489 5,600 L / B 48 8,050,000
47 503 Onitsha  Nigeria 8,075,000 1,965 4,100 W / B 480 1,170,000
48 49 Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley)[32]  Malaysia 7,860,000 2,163 3,600 C / B 43 8,700,000 incl. Klang
49 47 Ahmedabad  India 7,715,000 350 22,100 A / B 47 8,250,000
50 64 Luanda  Angola 7,645,000 984 7,800 C / B 49 7,900,000
51 72 Washington, D.C.-Baltimore[33]  United States 7,515,000 5,281 1,300 A / A 45 8,550,000
52 46 Hong Kong[15]  China 7,435,000 285 26,100 C / B 56 7,450,000 incl. Kowloon, Victoria; excluding New Kowloon
53 51 Baghdad  Iraq 7,315,000 673 10,900 D / B 61 6,850,000
54 65 Xi'anXianyang[34]  China 7,135,000 1,088 6,600 L / B 63 6,800,000 incl. Xianyang
55 83 Boston-Providence[35]  United States 7,130,000 9,189 800 N / A 55 7,650,000
56 89 ZhengzhouXingyang  China 7,090,000 1,554 4,600 L / B 83 5,350,000
57 60 Shenyang[36]  China 7,090,000 1,554 4,600 C / B 49 7,900,000 incl. Fushun
58 50 Hangzhou[11]  China 6,960,000 1,334 5,200 L / B 46 8,300,000 incl. Shaoxing
59 45 EssenDüsseldorf (Ruhr Area)[37]  Germany 6,660,000 2,655 2,500 C / B 76 5,700,000
60 52 TorontoHamilton  Canada 6,630,000 2,300 2,800 N / A 57 7,300,000
61 55 DallasFort Worth[38]  United States 6,550,000 5,175 1,100 N / A 60 7,100,000
62 57 Quanzhou[39]  China 6,495,000 2,072 3,100 L / B 35 9,900,000 incl. Jinjiang, Xiamen
63 53 Santiago[40]  Chile 6,410,000 1,140 5,600 C / B 59 7,200,000
64 73 Surat  India 6,385,000 233 27,400 A / B 68 6,350,000
65 54 Madrid  Spain 6,345,000 1,360 4,700 C / B 67 6,450,000
66 63 Houston[41]  United States 6,315,000 4,841 1,300 N / A 66 6,600,000
67 67 Pune  India 6,265,000 583 10,800 A / B 64 6,700,000 incl. Pimpri-Chinchwad
68 59 Nanjing[11]  China 6,125,000 1,489 4,100 L / B 64 6,700,000
69 56 San Francisco-San Jose  United States 6,100,000 2,865 2,100 N / A 51 7,850,000 incl. Concord, Oakland, Santa Rosa
70 69 Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 6,050,000 1,658 3,600 C / B 53 7,750,000
71 84 Nairobi  Kenya 5,970,000 829 7,200 C / B 73 5,950,000
72 58 Miami[42]  United States 5,955,000 3,209 1,700 A / A 68 6,350,000 incl. Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach
73 85 QingdaoJimo  China 5,915,000 1,632 3,600 L / B 73 5,950,000
74 74 Bandung  Indonesia 5,825,000 557 10,500 C / B 61 6,850,000
75 62 Philadelphia[12]  United States 5,780,000 5,335 1,000 A / A 57 7,350,000 incl. Allentown, Trenton
76 70 Khartoum  Sudan 5,685,000 1,010 5,600 C / B 70 6,150,000
77 66 Singapore[43]  Singapore 5,670,000 518 10,900 A / B 52
78 77 Yangon (Rangoon)  Myanmar 5,670,000 596 9,400 C / B 80 5,500,000
79 75 Atlanta[44]  United States 5,580,000 7,296 600 N / A 75 5,800,000
80 161 Amman  Jordan 5,455,000 855 6,400 C / B 81 5,450,000
81 71 Saint Petersburg[45]  Russia 5,415,000 1,347 4,000 C / B 79 5,600,000
82 68 Milan[46]  Italy 5,295,000 1,891 2,800 C / B 86 5,200,000
83 86 Suzhou[11]  China 5,250,000 1,373 3,800 C / B (included in Shanghai above)
84 79 Abidjan  Ivory Coast 5,145,000 376 13,700 W / B 81 5,450,000
85 126 Aleppo  Syria 5,125,000 259 19,800 D / B 298 1,870,000
86 104 Dar es Salaam  Tanzania 5,125,000 596 8,500 C / B 70 6,150,000
87 79 Alexandria  Egypt 5,075,000 293 17,300 C / B 76 5,700,000
88 81 Guadalajara  Mexico 4,870,000 803 6,100 C / B 84 5,250,000 incl. Zapopan
89 78 Barcelona  Spain 4,810,000 1,075 4,500 C / B 101 4,725,000
90 61 Belo Horizonte  Brazil 4,800,000 1,269 3,800 C / B 90 4,975,000
91 87 Ankara  Turkey 4,795,000 660 7,300 C / B 90 4,975,000
92 82 Harbin[47]  China 4,795,000 660 7,300 C / B 88 5,150,000
93 96 Kuwait City  Kuwait 4,600,000 712 6,500 C / B 103 4,675,000
94 93 Sydney  Australia 4,515,000 2,179 2,000 A / A 86 5,200,000 incl. Central Coast
95 136 Casablanca  Morocco 4,490,000 272 16,500 C / B 107 4,425,000
96 91 Phoenix[48]  United States 4,480,000 3,225 1,200 N / A 104 4,575,000
97 100 Melbourne  Australia 4,450,000 2,705 1,600 A / A 95 4,850,000
98 205 Colombo  Sri Lanka 4,370,000 777 5,600 C / B 101 4,725,000
99 76 Surabaya  Indonesia 4,360,000 907 4,800 C / B 72 6,000,000
100 88 Monterrey  Mexico 4,345,000 958 4,500 C / B 93 4,925,000

See also[edit]

Number of urban areas by country in 2016[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Demographia World Urban Areas, 14th Annual Edition" (PDF). April 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b Brinkhoff, Thomas (1 January 2017). "Major agglomerations of the World". City Population. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018.
  3. ^ "Demographia World Urban Areas: 15th Annual Edition: 201904 [April, 2019]" (PDF). Demographia. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
  4. ^ Demographia (March 2013). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (9th ed.). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2013.
  5. ^ Includes large areas of Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba and Saitama prefectures and small areas of Gunma, Tochigi and Ibaraki prefectures.
  6. ^ Various international sources limit their population estimates to DKI Jakarta itself (the national capital district). However, the urbanization of Jakarta extends into the regencies of Tangerang, Bekasi, Bogor and Karawang and the separate cities of Bekasi, Depok and Bogor. Excludes urban areas of Karawang (650,000; 207 km2) and Serang (525,000; 65 km2).
  7. ^ Includes Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurgaon and Bahadurgarh. Excludes urban area of Meerut (1,489,000; 104 km2).
  8. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations and the Philippine Statistics Authority). The continuous urbanization of Manila extends outward into other neighbouring provinces such as Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Pampanga and Batangas provinces. The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
  9. ^ Includes satellite cities in Gyeonggi Province such as Suwon, Goyang, Seongnam, Yongin, Bucheon and Ansand which are treated as separate urban agglomerations by the United Nations. Excludes urban area of Cheonan (500,000; 57 km2) in Chungcheongnam-do.
  10. ^ Includes Kalyan, and the Panvel urban area. As of 2016, also includes the Census of India urban areas of Bhiwandi, Kalyan, VasaiVirar beginning in 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Changzhou, Shaoxing, and urban area of Zhangjiaggang-Jiangyin within the prefecture-level cities of Suzhou and Wuxi are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Yangtze River Delta economic zone. Huai'an (1,856,000; 148 km2), Xuzhou (1,246,000; 233 km2), Nantong (1,036,000; 233 km2), Lianyungang (985,000; 155 km2), Zhenjiang (983,000; 168 km2), Yancheng (797,000; 207 km2), Huzhou (690,000; 111 km2), Taizhou (in Jiangsu Province; 300,000; 117 km2) and Suqian (220,000; 36 km2), as well as urban areas of Yangzhou (1,593,000; 233 km2) and Gaoyou (180,000; 39 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Yangzhou, urban areas of Kunshan (1,596,000; 492 km2), Changshu (1,139,000; 285 km2) and Taicang (523,000; 117 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Suzhou, urban areas of Cixi (1,200,000; 298 km2) and Yuyao (650,000; 122 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Ningbo, urban areas of Jiaxing (1,044,000; 259 km2) and Tongxiang (510,000; 52 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiaxing, urban areas of Wenling (510,000; 52 km2), Jiaojiang (375,000; 41 km2) and Huangyan (200,000; 34 km2) within the prefectrure-level city of Taizhou (in Zhejiang Province), urban areas of Zhuji (500,000; 117 km2) and Shangyu (400,000; 158 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Shaoxing, urban areas of Yiwu-Dongyang (925,000; 233 km2), Jinhua (520,000; 186 km2), Yongkang (500,000; 223 km2), Dongyang (260,000; 104 km2) and Lanxi (220,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jinhua, and urban area of Fuyang (450,000; 49 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Hangzhou are also excluded.
  12. ^ a b Demographia defines urban area of New York as a combination of New York–Newark, BridgeportStamford, New Haven, Trenton, Danbury and Twin Rivers urbanized areas. New York and Philadelphia (same with Philadelphia urbanized area) are treated as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Hartford (925,000; 1,336 km2), AllentownBethlehem (665,000; 896 km2), Springfield (621,000; 904 km2), Harrisburg (446,000; 673 km2), Poughkeepsie (427,000; 847 km2), Lancaster (405,000; 642 km2), Reading (284,000; 269 km2), Atlantic City (250,000; 324 km2), York (235,000; 342 km2), NorwichNew London (209,000; 394 km2), Waterbury (195,000; 233 km2) and Pottstown (108,000; 205 km2) are also excluded.
  13. ^ Includes Francisco Morato. Excludes urban area of Santos (1,716,000; 207 km2).
  14. ^ Excludes urban areas of Toluca (1,747,000; 220 km2) and Cuernavaca (675,000; 171 km2).
  15. ^ a b c d Hong Kong in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen are treated as separate urban areas because of the lack of freedom of labor movement without trade, immigration or customs barriers. Guangzhou–Foshan, Shenzhen, Dongguan and Zhongshan are also treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Pearl River Delta economic zone. While Guangzhou and Foshan are combined into a single urban area because they have become more economically integrated than the other urban areas, other areas in the Pearl River Delta economic region remain classified as separate urban areas. Thus, urban areas of Huizhou (1,387,000; 168 km2), Zhuhai (1,274,000; 246 km2) and Zhaoqing (500,000; 65 km2) as well as urban areas of Jiangmen (920,000; 259 km2) and Taishan (204,000; 44 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen, urban area of Lishui (300,000; 44 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Foshan and urban are of Macau (560,000; 21 km2) in the Macau Special Administrative Region are excluded. Urban area of Guangzhou–Foshan includes Shunde within the prefecture-level city of Foshan, which has been excluded in the 2011 edition. Urban area of Shenzhen includes Huiyang within the prefecture-level city of Huizhou, which has been excluded in the 2010 edition. Urban area of Huizhou includes only Huicheng District. The Demographia estimate for Dongguan is lower than last year, because local estimates previously used were higher than reported in the 2010 census.
  16. ^ Excludes urban areas of Baoding (1,283,000; 220 km2), Zhangjiakou (1,322,000; 220 km2) and Chengde (108,000; 23 km2).
  17. ^ Includes urban area of Narayanganj which has been excluded in the 2011 edition.
  18. ^ Includes Nara and Himeji. United Nations estimates separate Osaka–Kobe and Kyoto and exclude both Nara and Himeji. Excludes urban area of Ōtsu (775,000; 303 km2) and Wakayama (430,000; 91 km2).
  19. ^ The population estimate is suspect, due to the lack of readily available data for local areas outside the city jurisdiction (Moscow Oblast). Demographia is indebted to Richard Forstall, who has provided local authority area population data for portions of Moscow Oblast within the Moscow urban areas. Other estimates (such as the United Nations estimate) include only the municipality of Moscow, which includes only part of the urban footprint. Includes ElektrostalNoginsk within Moscow Oblast, which has been excluded in the 2011 edition.
  20. ^ Combination of Los Angeles–Long BeachSanta Ana, RiversideSan Bernardino and Mission Viejo urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of TemeculaMurrieta (472,000; 420 km2), IndioPalm Springs (370,000; 373 km2), Oxnard (369,000; 218 km2), LancasterPalmdale (358,000; 300 km2), VictorvilleHesperiaApple Valley (350,000; 433 km2), Santa Clarita (272,000; 199 km2), Thousand Oaks (216,000; 223 km2), Santa Barbara (196,000; 145 km2), Hemet (163,000; 127 km2) and Simi Valley (126,000; 80 km2).
  21. ^ Excludes urban area of La Plata (675,000; 228 km2) which has been included in the 2007 edition.
  22. ^ Includes Eslamshahr and Karaj which has been excluded in the 2012 edition.
  23. ^ The population is lower than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which include metropolitan area population not within the continuously developed urban area.
  24. ^ Tianjin and Tangshan are treated as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Cangzhou (500,000; 130 km2) and Langfang (465,000; 130 km2) as well as urban area of Qian'an (400,000; 168 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Tangshan are also excluded. The population of the urban area of Tianjin is lower than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which include metropolitan area population not within the continuously developed urban area. The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of sub-municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
  25. ^ Excludes urban area of Brazzaville (1,685,000; 181 km2) in the Republic of the Congo.
  26. ^ Greater London urban area. Excludes urban areas of Reading (318,000; 84 km2), Southend-on-Sea (295,000; 72 km2), Aldershot (252,000; 79 km2), Luton (258,000; 51 km2), Medway (244,000; 52 km2), Crawley (181,000; 58 km2), Slough (164,000; 34 km2), Basildon (145,000; 37 km2), High Wycombe (133,000; 39 km2), Chelmsford (112,000; 26 km2) and Maidstone (108,000; 25 km2).
  27. ^ Includes Toyohashi.
  28. ^ Johannesburg–East Rand and Pretoria are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Vaal Triangle. Urban area of Vereeninging (Emfuleni) (650,000; 337 km2) is also excluded.
  29. ^ Combination of Chicago, Kenosha and Round Lake BeachMcHenryGrayslake urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of Milwaukee (1,388,000; 1,414 km2), Rockford (301,000; 396 km2), South Bend (278,000; 417 km2), Elkhart (144,000; 238 km2) and Racine (134,000; 127 km).
  30. ^ The population is higher than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which do not include all population within the continuously developed urban area (especially in New Taipei City). Includes Taoyuan and Jhongli (Chungli) which have been excluded in the 2010 edition. Excludes urban area of Hsinchu (650,000; 117 km2).
  31. ^ Excludes urban area of Wanzhou (Wanxian) (500,000; 41 km2) within the municipality of Chongqing. The direct-controlled municipality of Chongqing, which is sometimes translated as the direct-controlled city of Chongqing, has the largest population of any organism called a city in the stretches far beyond any reasonable definition of a metropolitan area.
  32. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), which does not include all of the continuously developed urban area in the state of Selangor. Continuous urbanization extends well beyond the municipality of Kuala Lumpur, for example to Port Klang and the area represents a single labor market (metropolitan area). The Demographia population estimate is a "build-up" of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration). Excludes urban area of Seremban (500,000; 155 km2).
  33. ^ The US Census Bureau combines Washington and Baltimore into a single metropolitan area (consolidated area) but Demographia considers the two (same with Washington, DC and Baltimore urbanized areas) as separate urban areas. Urban areas of AberdeenHavre de Grace (214,000; 339 km2), Hagerstown (183,000; 344 km2), Frederick (142,000; 189 km2), Fredericksburg (141,000; 202 km2) and Waldorf (110,000; 176 km2) are also excluded.
  34. ^ Includes Xianyang which has been excluded in the 2010 edition.
  35. ^ Combination of Boston, Nashua, Providence (1,187,000; 1,412 km2), Worcester (489,000; 787 km2), Barnstable (247,000; 717 km2), Manchester (159,000; 223 km2), New Bedford (149,000; 142 km2) and LeominsterFitchburg (117,000; 168 km2).
  36. ^ Excludes urban areas of Fushun (1,412,000; 130 km2) and Tieling (325,000; 65 km2).
  37. ^ Essen–Düsseldorf and Cologne–Bonn are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area. Excludes urban area of AachenVaals (585,000; 401 km2) in both Germany and the Netherlands.
  38. ^ Combination of Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, DentonLewisville and McKinney urbanized areas.
  39. ^ Includes Shishi and Jinjiang within the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou.
  40. ^ Excludes urban area of ValparaísoViña del Mar (875,000; 161 km2).
  41. ^ Combination of Houston and Conroe urbanized areas. Excludes urban area of Texas City (106,000; 197 km2).
  42. ^ Miami urbanized area. Includes former urban areas of Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach, which were combined by the US Census Bureau into Miami in 2000.
  43. ^ Excludes urban area of Johor Bahru (1,640,000; 712 km2) in Malaysia and urban area of Batam (900,000; 218 km2) in Indonesia.
  44. ^ Atlanta urbanized area. Excludes urban areas of Gainesville (131,000; 326 km2) and Athens (129,000; 254 km2).
  45. ^ Includes communities under the authority of the Town Council.
  46. ^ The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), which does not include all of the continuously developed urban area, which stretches into Como, Lecco and Varese provinces. Excludes Bergamo which has been included in the 2007 edition (4,950,000; 3,043 km2 in total).
  47. ^ Excludes urban areas of Acheng (300,000; 39 km2) and Shangzhi (250,000; 18 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Harbin.
  48. ^ Combination of Phoenix–Mesa, Avondale and Sierra Vista urbanized area.
As of this edit, this article uses content from "City Population Statistics", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed.

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